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Princess Januária of Brazil

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Princess Januária
Princess Imperial of Brazil
Countess of Aquila
Januaria of Brazil 1865.jpg
Princess Januária photographed in 1865
Born(1822-03-11)11 March 1822
Saint Christopher's Palace, Rio de Janeiro, Kingdom of Brazil
Died13 March 1901(1901-03-13) (aged 79)
Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur France
Spouse
(m. 1844; died 1897)
IssuePrince Luigi, Count of Roccaguglielma
Princess Maria Isabella
Prince Filippo
Prince Maria Emanuele
Names
Portuguese: Januária Maria Joana Carlota Leopoldina Cândida Francisca Xavier de Paula Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga
HouseBraganza
FatherPedro I of Brazil
MotherMaria Leopoldina of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Princess Januária of Brazil (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒɐnuˈaɾiɐ mɐˈɾiɐ]; Januária Maria Joana Carlota Leopoldina Cândida Francisca Xavier de Paula Micaela Gabriela Rafaela Gonzaga;[1] 11 March 1822 – 13 March 1901) was a Brazilian princess and Portuguese infanta (princess). She was the second daughter of Pedro I of Brazil and IV of Portugal and his first wife, Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria.[1]

Early life

Dona Januária was born at the Imperial Palace of São Cristóvão in Rio de Janeiro as an Infanta of Portugal during the reign of her grandfather John VI of Portugal. She was the second surviving daughter of Pedro, the Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves and Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria after the birth of her older sister, Queen Maria II of Portugal, in 1819.

Princess Januária grew up alongside her siblings Emperor Pedro II,  Princess Paula and Princess Francisca. Her name was chosen by his father as a way of honoring the province of Rio de Janeiro. Januária, was born only one month after the death of her brother João Carlos, Prince of Beira. She lost her mother at the age of four and saw her father leave for Kingdom of Portugal with his stepmother and his older sister at nine to fought the Liberal Wars. She grew up under extremely strict education.

In 1833, Princess Paula Mariana died before she was 10 years old. Princess Januaria, through a letter, reported the event to her father:

Beloved, Daddy. Despite our constant supplications to heaven, our dear sister Paula Mariana left. We found no consolation. Our beloved sister is no longer with us. In addition, little Pedro became seriously ill. We came to think that he had caught the same fever as Paula Mariana, but thank heavens he has improved and is already sitting in his study room. To express our gratitude, we, sister Chica and I, your daughter Januária, will not eat sugar until Pedro's birthday, December 2. Dear Dad, we are desperate and in great dismay. You miss us a lot and we also miss our sister Maria da Glória and all those who are with you in Lisbon. With the promise of always being obedient and loving children, Januaria, Francisca and Pedro.

Heiress

From 1835 until 1845, she held the title Princess Imperial of Brazil, as the heir presumptive of her brother Emperor Pedro II.[1] When her sister Maria was excluded from the Brazilian line of succession by law no. 91 of 30 October 1835, Januária became heir presumptive to the throne of the Empire of Brazil. Her younger brother Pedro II was then a minor, and consideration was given to declaring her regent, though this never materialized.

On August 4, 1836, Januária (then 14 years old) entered the hall of the palace of the Senate, wearing a rich gold dress on which was distinguished the insignia of the Grand Cross of the Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and, In the presence of the deputies, with his hand on the missal, solemnly declared in a moving voice:

I swear to keep the Catholic, Apostolic, Roman religion; Observe the Political Constitution of the Brazilian Nation and be obedient to the laws and the Emperor.

In this way, she became the Princess Imperial of Brazil (heir to the throne) until the birth of Prince Afonso, son of Pedro II.

Marriage

Januária with her sons Luigi and Filippo, c. 1857.
Januária with her sons Luigi and Filippo, c. 1857.
The Count and Countess of Aquila (seated, left) with her younger brother Emperor Pedro II (right) and his wife Empress Teresa Cristina, c. 1871.
The Count and Countess of Aquila (seated, left) with her younger brother Emperor Pedro II (right) and his wife Empress Teresa Cristina, c. 1871.

As only a Brazilian member of the Imperial House could inherit the throne, it became critically important for marriages to be arranged for Januária Maria, Pedro II, and their sister Francisca.[2]

Spouses for both Januária and Pedro II were found in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Her marriage to Prince Louis of the Two Sicilies, Count of Aquila (brother of Pedro II's new wife, Empress Teresa Cristina) was celebrated on 28 April 1844 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[1] Her husband was a son of Francis I of the Two Sicilies and his second wife, Maria Isabella of Spain.[1] Friction developed between the Count of Aquila and the Emperor, and Januária Maria and Aquila were eventually permitted to leave Brazil in October 1844. In 1845, Januária Maria's position as heir presumptive, and the restrictions it entailed, was lost with the birth of Pedro II's first child, Afonso, Prince Imperial of Brazil.[3]

At the time of their marriage, according to article 2, it was guaranteed that even with the birth of the children of Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil the couple would enjoy the honor of being treated by His Imperial Highness.

Art. II. As soon as the marriage takes place, His Royal Highness Prince Luiz Carlos Maria, Count of Aquila, husband of Her Imperial Highness the Princess Imperial of Brazil D. Januária Maria, will be considered Prince of the House and the Imperial Family of Brazil , And shall enjoy all the rights and prerogatives that the Constitution of the Empire competes with such Princes. He will take the title of Imperial Prince, who now belongs to his future Augusta Wife; When, however, His Majesty the Emperor has descendants, the two august spouses will take the title of Prince and Princess of Brazil, preserving with all the treatment of Imperial Highness.[4]

Issue

Januária and Louis had six children:

  • Prince Luigi, Count of Roccaguglielma (18 July 1845 – 27 November 1909). Luigi married morganatically Maria Amelia Bellow-Hamel and had two children.
  • Princess Maria Isabella of the Two Sicilies (22 July 1846 – 14 February 1859)
  • Prince Filippo of the Two Sicilies (12 August 1847 – 9 July 1922). Filippo also married morganatically Flora Boonen and had no children.
  • Stillborn twins (1848). Buried in Santa Chiara, Naples.
  • Prince Maria Emanuele of the Two Sicilies (24 January 1851 – 26 January 1851).

Death

She died in Nice in 1901 being the last daughter of Emperor Pedro I and Empress Leopoldina to die. The city of Januária in Minas Gerais was named in her honor.

Titles and styles

  • 11 March 1822 – 12 October 1822: Her Highness Infanta Januária of Portugal
  • 12 October 1822 – 30 October 1835: Her Highness Princess Januária of Brazil, Infanta of Portugal
  • 30 October 1835 – 28 April 1844: Her Imperial Highness The Princess Imperial of Brazil[1]
  • 28 April 1844 – 23 February 1845: Her Imperial and Royal Highness The Princess Imperial of Brazil, Countess of Aquila
  • 23 February 1845 – 5 March 1897: Her Royal Highness The Countess of Aquila
  • 5 March 1897 – 13 March 1901: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Countess of Aquila

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1977). Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume 1: Europe & Latin America. London: Burke's Peerage. p. 49. ISBN 0-85011-023-8.
  2. ^ Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 62, 75, 103. ISBN 0-8047-3510-7.
  3. ^ Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 49, 106. ISBN 0-8047-3510-7.
  4. ^ Botafogo, A. J. S. (1890). O Balanço da Dinastia. Imprenssa Nacional. p. 131.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Barman, Roderick J. (1999). Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8047-3510-0.
  6. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Leopoldine" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 446 – via Wikisource.
  7. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1860). "Habsburg, Franz I." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 6. p. 208 – via Wikisource.
  8. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Theresia von Neapel" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 81 – via Wikisource.

External links

Media related to Januária, Princess Imperial of Brazil at Wikimedia Commons

Princess Januária of Brazil
Cadet branch of the House of Aviz
Born: 11 March 1822 Died: 13 March 1901
Brazilian royalty
Preceded by
Maria II of Portugal
Princess Imperial of Brazil
30 October 1835 – 23 February 1845
Succeeded by
Prince Afonso
This page was last edited on 15 May 2021, at 10:29
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