To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Primitive element (finite field)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In field theory, a primitive element of a finite field GF(q) is a generator of the multiplicative group of the field. In other words, α ∈ GF(q) is called a primitive element if it is a primitive (q − 1)th root of unity in GF(q); this means that each non-zero element of GF(q) can be written as αi for some integer i.

If q is a prime number, the elements of GF(q) can be identified with the integers modulo q. In this case, a primitive element is also called a primitive root modulo q

For example, 2 is a primitive element of the field GF(3) and GF(5), but not of GF(7) since it generates the cyclic subgroup {2, 4, 1} of order 3; however, 3 is a primitive element of GF(7). The minimal polynomial of a primitive element is a primitive polynomial.


Number of primitive elements

The number of primitive elements in a finite field GF(q) is φ(q − 1), where φ is Euler's totient function, which counts the number of elements less than or equal to m which are relatively prime to m. This can be proved by using the theorem that the multiplicative group of a finite field GF(q) is cyclic of order q − 1, and the fact that a finite cyclic group of order m contains φ(m) generators.

See also


  • Lidl, Rudolf; Harald Niederreiter (1997). Finite Fields (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39231-4.

External links

This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 08:20
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.