To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The French literary style called préciosité (French pronunciation: ​[pʁesjɔzite], preciousness) arose in the 17th century from the lively conversations and playful word games of les précieuses (French pronunciation: ​[le pʁesjøz]), the witty and educated intellectual women who frequented the salon of Catherine de Vivonne, marquise de Rambouillet; her Chambre bleue (the "blue room" of her hôtel particulier) offered a Parisian refuge from the dangerous political factionalism and coarse manners of the royal court during the minority of Louis XIV.

One of the central figures of the salon that gathered at the Hôtel de Rambouillet, Madeleine de Scudéry, wrote voluminous romance novels that embodied the refinements of preciosité; they were suffused with feminine elegance, exquisitely correct scruples of behaviour, and courtly Platonic love that were hugely popular with female audiences, but scorned by most men. The "questions of love" that were debated in the précieuses' salons reflected the "courts of love" (fictional courts which judged lovers' behavior) that were a feature of medieval courtly love. Molière satirized the Précieuses in his comedy Les Précieuses ridicules (1659).

None of the ladies ever applied the term précieuse to herself or defined it.[1] Myriam Maître has found in préciosité not so much a listable series of characteristics "as an interplay of forces, a place of encounter and mutual ordering of certain of the tensions that extend through the century, the court and the field of literature".[2] In assessing the career of Philippe Quinault, which began at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, 1653, Patricia Howard noted, "For if in French theatre in the second half of the century, women's roles are preeminent, it was the précieux movement which made them so."[3]

In the Fronde, the bluestockings tended to be aligned with the superintendent of finances, Nicolas Fouquet, drawing the satire and ire of the aubignaciens, of the Cardinal de Retz's party.[4]

One préciosité parlor game, the retelling of fairy tales as if spontaneously (though the tales were in fact carefully prepared), was to have great effects.[5] Many of these fairy tales, in the préciosité style, were written, mostly notably by Madame d'Aulnoy. This fashion for fairy tales, and the writers themselves, were a notable influence later upon Charles Perrault,[6] and many other writers such as Gabrielle-Suzanne Barbot de Villeneuve, the author of the first known variant of Beauty and the Beast.[7] Authors altered the stories notably from the folk tradition; for example, they made every character at minimum a member of the gentry by birth.[8] The heroes and heroines of fairy tales written by the précieuses often appeared as shepherds and shepherdesses, in pastoral settings, but these figures were secretly royal or noble, and the simple setting did not cloud their innate nobility.[9]

The précieuses are also remembered through the filter of Molière's one-act satire, Les Précieuses ridicules (1659). This bitter comedy of manners brought Molière and his company to the attention of Parisians, after years of having to tour the provinces, and attracted the patronage of Louis XIV; it still plays well today. Les Précieuses ridicules permanently fixed the pejorative connotation of précieuse as "affected". In the play the two provincial young ladies reject the suitors proposed by their father as insufficiently refined, only to fall in love with the suitors' valets, who are in disguise as wits. In the provinces, the young ladies' Parisian pretensions were worth mockery, and in Paris, their puffed-up provincial naïveté and vanity were laughable. Thus Molière pleased all possible audiences.

The phenomenon of the précieuses in establishing French literary classicism was first revived by Louis Roederer in 1838. His Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la société polie en France, evoked an atmosphere of nostalgia for the douceur de vivre of the Ancien Régime and the aristocratic leisure of its authors, at least for the upper classes. Later, Roxane, a critical character in Edmond Rostand's 1897 play Cyrano de Bergerac, is described as a précieuse.

René Bary (died in 1680) a French historiographer and rhetorician wrote La Rhétorique française où pour principale augmentation l'on trouve les secrets de nostre langue published in Paris in 1653 for the female audience of the précieuses.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    4 385 350
    1 562 907
    2 074 755
  • ✪ Game Theory: Zelda Rupees are REAL?!? (ft. PBG)
  • ✪ Clash of Clans: Introducing Clan Games
  • ✪ Lets Play MY SINGING MONSTERS Part 3! Mike Lost His Stuff! (FGTEEV Face Cam Commentary)

Transcription

MatPat: Today we're going to touch on a subject that's long overdue. So overdue, in fact, that I've "Been Drowning" In requests. Eh, Eh? See what I did there? Been Drowning in requests? Ben Drowned? Ugh, I'm talking about the Ben Drowned Creepypasta, OK? *All Echo-y*, The story goes that on September 7th, 2010, a 4-Chan user by the name of Jadusable, Posted about a strange "Majora's Mask" Cartridge an old man had given him *Starting to get distorted* : Over the coming days, he began documenting it Like all the strange things the cartridge was doing, Including: Graphical Glitches Altered- *Illegible words* *Creepy Laugh* ???: You've met with a Terrible fate, Haven't you? MatPat: What's that? What's going on? ???: You shouldn't have made a Ben Drowned Theory... MatPat: Wait, A second, I know that voice... You're The "GrapeJellyPlayer!" PBG: Um.. PeanutButterGamer... Actually. MatPat: Yeah, That's Pretty much what I said. What are you doing here? Again. PBG: Well, I've been messing around with Skyward Sword Hacks, PBG: And I found a code that lets me hack into ANY video PBG: That mentions "Zelda" MatPat: Really? Is that like a part of YouTube Red? PBG: Uh... No? What are you even talking about? We're doing a Collab Video, Remember? MatPat: *chuckles* Oh yeah, that's right! Sorry, I ran out of Diet Coke and my brain's been a bit Fuzzy Lately. PBG: Oh... That explains it! MatPat: Explains What? PBG: "Ben Drowned"? I mean, you're really scrapin' the bottom of the barrel here, man. PBG: Clearly, You're not on form. I mean, I talked about "Ben Drowned", like, 3 years ago, and even then, it was PBG: It was kinda old news. MatPat: Well, do you have any better ideas, Mr."Butter Gamer"? PBG" Actually, I do! [Theme] MatPat: Hello, Internet! Welcome to GameTheory! Proudly Riding the Search Trends Of PeanutButterGamer's "Zelda Month" Since 2013 And this year over on his channel, For the Top 8 Useless Zelda Items I make no small issue about the absurdity of wallets in Zelda games. I mean, Link can shove a slingshot, a hoverboard, multiple bombs, 2 grappling hooks and a giant ball-and-chain into his pants! But he has a limit on the number of rupees he can cram in there too? Huh. I don't think so. PBG: But on the subject of rupees, one question the world wants to know is... How much are they worth in real life? I mean who wouldn't want their very own rupee? They're so... So SHINY! The value of a Zelda rupee is something I've wanted to tackle for a really long time. So long, In fact, that other YouTubers seem to have beaten me to the punch. But My Conclusions are going to be very different so let's hop right in our first challenge here is figuring out what exactly a rupee is made out of the first hint as to what their real-world equivalent is comes from the first game "The Legend Of Zelda". Here, the games intro screen refers to them as rupees miss spelled with an i however the manual calls them rubies as in the red gemstone. PBG: but clearly that's a localization error right? rubies are exclusively red and in Zelda rupees come in all sorts of different colors green purple blue black so even though the names are similar they can't really be the same thing. MatPat: Woah-ho take off your bunny hood and slow down there Nutella- Sportsman then the word ruby is actually just a fancy name for an impure form of the mineral "corundum", the second hardest mineral on earth after diamond. Pure corundum is colorless but if an element like chromium is present when it's forming this otherwise colorless mineral adopt a nice red color this is what we know as a ruby but if red jewelry is out of season no worries corundum is also available in orange blue yellow purple green black pretty much any color of the rainbow or Zelda rupee but Rubies are red I hear you saying and you're absolutely right they are these non-red corundum gems are actually called sapphires wait what it's crazy isn't it we normally think of sapphires as being blue gemstones right but they can also be yellow purple orange green pretty much any color depending on the other elements that are present when the stone is forming and get this a sapphire and Ruby are no more different from each other than a blue diamond is from a red diamond at the end of the day the red and blue diamonds are still diamonds made of the same material:Carbon! just like how red rubies and blue sapphires are still made of corundum we just call them fancy names based on their color ok mr. game hypothesizer see, I can play the call the special guest a weird name game too - what makes you so sure that they're not made of any other mineral well the shape, minerals can fall into one of seven crystal families depending on the way their atoms tend to arrange themselves (their shape) things like pyrite and diamonds tend to form cubes so they fall into the cubic family the other families are triclinic monoclinic orthorhombic tetragonal and hexagonal depending on the game Zelda the rupee's are either shaped like a hexagonal bipyramids or hexagonal bifrustum either way you slice it Zelda rupees clearly fall into the hexagonal family and guess which family corundum just so happens to belong to that's right Hexagonal! that's another score for corundum. PBG:OK so we're limited to only members of the hexagonal family that narrows it down but what about emeralds aquamarines and morganite they're all fancier names for the mineral barrel and they come in almost the same colors as corundum oh I had no idea you cared so much about minerals that rocks pun definitely intended oh I don't i was just reading of a Wikipedia article i pulled up and I got bored listening to you oh well sure barrel is a fine candidate but we haven't brought up the last piece of evidence Pleochroism PBG:Liopleurodon? unicorn A:it's a leopleurodon, charlie unicorn B:magical leopleurodo Pleochroism it's an optical illusion that only certain gems are able to create, where changing the angle you're viewing the gemstone from will subtly shift the color of the stone crystallographers not only used to determine the price of a gemstone but also use it to determine what sort of gemstone they're looking at simply turning a gem in your hand can be a really easy way to find out whether you're looking at say a green emerald or a green sapphire now if you look at any hi-res rupee found in ocarina of time you can see that as they rotate their colors darken and lighten that's textbook pleochroism minerals like diamond and garnet don't do this but gem quality corundum does in fact corundum is one of the only minerals that not only comes in multiple colors but also exhibits moderate to strong pleochroism no matter what color it is barrel also exhibits pleochroism but not at the level corundum is able to achieve and certainly not to the level that we see it exist in the game in short from the name to the color variety to the crystal structure to the refraction all sources . towards the fact that rupees are indeed rubies and sapphires corundum-based gemstones alright alright rupees are rubies discovery of the century oh how we marvel at how smart and insightful you are but cut the chase how much are these guys worth well to calculate that we're gonna have to find their height volume and density in the majora's moon episode i calculated young link's height of just over four foot two inches PBG:wait wasn't he 10 feet tall? no no that was wario oh my bad no not yours mine definitely mine so we can use the links light to calculate the length of all the edges of the in-game rupees and then use those numbers to calculate the area of hexagonal base and use that number to calculate the volume of the entire rupee easy peasy PBGbies PGB:sounds super exciting I'm just gonna be over here playing tri Force heroes to help me concentrate so link measures in at four feet two inches and the in-game rupees are almost half that size at just over two feet or 60 1.51 centimeters tall and measuring apex apex five inches or 12 point 7 centimeters wide since the base of the rupee is a hexagon with three sets of parallel edges that makes calculating its area much easier it can be divided into two perfectly congruent isosceles trapezoid so we only need to find the area of one trapezoid and then multiply it by 2 reflexive property for the win so the area of the trapezoid is base one plus base 2 / 2 x heights base one is 15.5 inches base 2 is 24 . 22 inches and the height is 2.5 inches plug in the numbers and we get 49.6 five inches squared and since as we said we have to trapezoids the total area of the base of the rupee is 99.3 square inches or six hundred forty point six four square centimeters ho boy time for the volume how can i read this part of the script please I haven't had enough speaking line yet knock yourself out the volume of a by pyramid is to third space area times height we already know our base area is 99.3 square inches and our height from base to apex is 2.5 inches so plugging the numbers in we get 165 . 5 cubic inches or 2712 point o five cubic centimeters that was fun I do this more often anytime my friend since rubies are colored that means that they're impure forms of corundum the density of impure corundum varies because well it's impure but the density of sapphire tends to be around 65 . 22 grams per cubic inch or three point nine eight grams per cubic centimeter that means get this we have ten thousand seven hundred ninety three point nine grams or 24 pounds of green sapphire on her hands for a single rupee jeez forget about Iron Boots just wrap your giants quality your back and you'll sink faster than a sack of gorons the price for green sapphire is anywhere between 250 and seven hundred sixty dollars per carat now using what we learned about crystallography from the Minecraft a diamond armor episode we can assume that these opaque green rupees are going to skew towards the lower end of that price range meaning that drum roll please we're finally able to get the value of a single green Ocarina of Time rupee which is get this an astonishing 13 million four hundred ninety 2448 dollars and seventy-five cents no wonder link goes around smashing everyone's pots to find these things and really puts into perspective how much you're paying for that refill of bombs that you might competitor you truly are a beautiful gem of a human being thanks for having me on cartridge guesser and thank you for having me on your channel to complain about wallets and other stupid items like magic armor which now knowing the value of a rupee makes even less sense Oh give me upset just thinking about it you should mention that they can go watch our other video by clicking the spinning rupee right there I think you just did my friend I think you just did but hey that's just a theory a GAME theory thanks for watching but seriously click that rupee you'll be glad you did we're pretty hilarious and while you're at it subscribe to both our channel since we're cool guys to do cool videos about cool games or at least that's what MatPat say anyway personally I'm not so sure about the cool part well cool guys is a relative term we did just spend a couple paragraphs analyzing the dimensions volume and density of fictional video game currency and then nerding out over geometric formulas so cool by internet standards I guess maybe and speaking of excessive amounts of money last time on the super amazing and card tournament when asked whether you wanted to find your true soul mates or 10 million dollars in cash sixty-two percent of you chose true love a soul mates where is everyone else voted for cash 10 million dollars though it's still not going to get you a single green rupee from legend of zelda crazy this time no vote just check out the video over on PPG's channel or if you want more zelda math click over here to see me analyze one of my favorite Zelda items of all time the hook shot and find out why it's perhaps the most deadly item in links arsenal but not to the enemy, to link himself thanks for having me on, cartridge guesser

Notes

  1. ^ The first use of précieuse to denote a literary patron of formidable powers of taste and judgment dates to 1654, according to W. Zimmer, Di literarische Kritik am Preciösentum 1978:51, noted in Patricia Howard, "The Influence of the Précieuses on Content and Structure in Quinault's and Lully's Tragédies Lyriques" Acta Musicologica 63.1 (January 1991, pp. 57-72) p 58, note.
  2. ^ "...Qu'un jeu de forces, un lieu d'affrontement et réglage mutuel de certaines des tensions qui traversent le siècle, la cour et le champ littéraire". Myriam Maître, Les Précieuses: naissance des femmes de lettres en France au XVIIe siècle (Paris:Champion) 1999:19.
  3. ^ Howard 1991:58.
  4. ^ Maître 1999: part I.
  5. ^ Terri Windling, Les Contes des Fées: The Literary Fairy Tales of France Archived 2014-03-28 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Jack Zipes, When Dreams Came True: Classical Fairy Tales and Their Tradition, pp. 38-42 ISBN 0-415-92151-1
  7. ^ Terri Windling, Beauty and the Beast Archived 2013-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Paul Delarue, The Borzoi Book of French Folk-Tales, p xi, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York 1956
  9. ^ Lewis Seifert, "The Marvelous in Context: The Place of the Contes de Fées in Late Seventeenth Century France", Jack Zipes, ed., The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm, pp. 920-1, ISBN 0-393-97636-X

References

  • Howard, Patricia, "Quinault, Lully, and the Precieuses: Images of Women in Seventeenth-Century France." in Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music ed. Susan C. Cook and Judy S. Tsou, editors, pp 70–89. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
  • Maître, Myriam. Les Précieuses: naissance des femmes de lettres en France au XVIIe siècle, H. Champion, collection "Lumière classique", Paris, 1999
This page was last edited on 30 September 2018, at 17:33
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.