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Population Matters

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Population Matters
Population Matters logo.jpg
Founded 1991; 26 years ago (1991)
Founder David Willey
Type Environmental charity
Sustainability organisation
Think tank
Advocacy group
Focus Promotion of smaller families,[1] and sustainable consumption.[2]
Method Research, education, campaigning and lobbying
Key people
Chair, Andrew Macnaughton
Slogan for a sustainable future
Formerly called
Optimum Population Trust

Population Matters, formerly known as the Optimum Population Trust, is a UK-based charity that addresses population size and its effects on environmental sustainability. It considers population growth as a major contributor to environmental degradation, resource depletion, conflict and involuntary migration and societal problems such as housing scarcity and transport congestion.

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That has never happened to me before, where I step somewhere, and suddenly the room gets quiet. Thank you. Good evening and welcome. I'm both thrilled and humbled by the opportunity to introduce our guest speaker this evening, Kengo Kuma. My name is Mark Mulligan. I'm an associate professor in practice here at the GSD. I also want to confess I'm a little bit nervous by this assignment. I don't think I've ever spoken to such a large crowd here. Usually I'm on the steps somewhere. So I'm a little nervous because, although I've known Kuma-san for many years, and I consider him a friend and a kind of mentor to me, it's also possible that many of you here also have known him for a long time. Over his nearly 30 years in practice, Kengo Kuma has attracted a substantial international following among architects and students. His global reputation owes not only to his prolific, geographically diverse, spectacularly photogenic, and experientially rich body of built works, but also to the unique voice embodied in many of his writings on architecture. With the possible exception of Arata Isozaki, probably no architect in Japan today has shown greater dedication to the development of critical theory and discourse than Kengo Kuma. Beginning with early essays that expressed his desire to, quote, "make architecture disappear," and more recently solidifying his theoretical positions with a 2013 book, Anti-Object, which has been translated, by the way, into English, Chinese, and many other languages, Kuma has provided insightful commentary to help us interpret continuities in his work despite wide disparities in context, scale, and tectonic expression. Even more to the point, his underlying conception of architecture, not as sculptural object, but as a fluid spatial medium that connects us to our environment speaks, I believe, to the aspirations of many young designers today, including, I expect, some here in the audience. His Tokyo-based firm Kengo Kuma and associates currently employs more than 200 architects and designers and has around 100 projects in some stage of development in Japan, the US, Europe, South America, China, and elsewhere in Asia. Despite this scale of operation, Kuma-san maintains personal involvement in each project from beginning to end. This level of attention is best understood, I think, when you visit his buildings. I actually counted, and, so far, I've been to at least 18% of his projects in Japan-- 12 in metropolitan Tokyo and six in more remote provincial settings. These include simple structures of wood, stone, and earth, luxury hotels, high-end retail, exclusive retreats, also modest budget spaces for students. The qualities that describe representative spaces in each of these works-- modesty, calm, generosity, are precisely those personal qualities that I ascribe to the architect. His works have received countless awards from professional and cultural institutions in Japan and around the world. In addition, Kengo Kuma has been named an honorary fellow of the AIA, the American Institute of Architects, an international fellow of the RIBA, the Royal Institute of British Architects, and an officer of the Order of Arts and Letters in France. Since 2009, Kengo Kuma has been a professor of architecture at the University of Tokyo. Now, so what else can I tell you that's sort of the resume, what insights can I introduce at this point that will justify delaying, by a few minutes more, the person you actually really came to hear? So I'd just like to mention two thoughts I came up with to use today. The first thought is a response to tonight's lecture title, "From Concrete to Wood-- Why Wood Matters." We already know that wood is dear to Kuma-san from seeing how frequently, and how many guises, he uses it in his work. But he's also a kind of an evangelist for the virtues of wood construction more broadly. Three years ago, he was the head juror for international student design competition called Retreat in Nature, whose challenge was to design a 21st century sustainable house for a rural site in Hokkaido, the northernmost island in Japan. Kiel Moe and I teamed up to advise a group of GSD students who went on to win this competition with a design based on sustainability principles inherent in wood, using it as biofuel, thinking about carbon sequestration, low embodied energy in practices such as local sourcing or recycling of wood, and so on. The design's most radical idea, however, involved replacing typical concrete foundation walls with a solid wood raft foundation made of recycled railroad ties. The GSD team was invited to spend the summer in Tokyo working on construction documents for the so-called Horizon House with members and consultants of Kengo Kuma's office, And the house was completed in November 2013. In the end, the impulse to do away with concrete foundations could not be perfectly realized in the compressed construction schedule, I'm sorry to say. But I'd like to believe that the idea's audacity might have endeared us, in some small way, to the head juror. The second thought I had is a reflection on the experience that my students and I had just this last week with one of Kuma-san's frequent collaborators, structural engineer Jun Sato. Professor Sato led a workshop in which he challenged us to design a pavilion structure that could produce something called [japanese], in Japanese, which loosely translates to forest light. It's the kind of dappled, flickering light that filters through tree canopies in a light breeze, producing a kind of magical, lively environment below, ephemeral and ever changing. The film director Akira Kurosawa was very fond of this kind of light. It played an important narrative role in many of his films. I realized that Kuma-san must have had this kind of vibrating light in mind, somehow, when he designed so many of the interiors I visited, ambiguously enclosed in layers of glass, metal louvers, wooden or bamboo screens. In these spaces, there is a spiritual quality of liveliness, something in Japanese that's called [japanese], that reminds us of the passage of time, and we must enjoy the present moment. Inhale deeply. So let's enjoy this moment now by welcoming Kengo Kuma to the podium. [applause] Thank you Mark, for a very deep, deep introduction. Today, I have many slides, as I hope that I can share everything. There are more than 200 slides. And so then I have many things to talk. But I was just talk about my generation. I was born in 1954. In Japan, my generation was called the fourth generation. The first generation, Kenzo Tange, you have a big archive of Kenzo Tange, was born 1913. So he is first generation. And the second generation is Professor Maki, [inaudible]. Maki was 1928 [inaudible] '31, [inaudible] '33, so that kind of generation. The third generation is [inaudible]. And my generation, [inaudible] me, and [inaudible] is almost 1954, 1956, something like that. And the [inaudible], the [inaudible]. My, as Kengo Kuma, philosophy came from two disasters. And it's really interesting article. The Kenzo Tange, he wrote, Kenzo Tange and the Second World War was deeply related. And as a the Allies project, was Hiroshima Peace Center, 1950. It's a beautiful building. And it shows the Japanese recovered from Second World War. And actually, Barack Obama has visited that building last July. It was a moving event for Japanese. And his speech was really great, for those of you who know that speech. And I wrote the book, title, Defeated Architecture, just after Hanshin earthquake has in 1995. Mark has introduced my book Anti-Object. Translated, you said, 2013, it was translated to English. But Anti-Object is almost written the same period after earthquake. And Defeated Architecture, not translated yet, but as we are preparing the translations, it's as almost the same period. As a earthquake, and my ideas Anti-Object or Defeated Architecture, very much related. And then I want to start form this building, as the [inaudible] museum. This was completed in 1999 in Ishinomaki City. Ishinomaki, that City is just up North City, the north of Sendai. It was most destroyed, by Tohoku earthquake. Almost 60% of the town was destroyed, and 50,000 people died only in that city-- 15,000 people died only in that city. So I want to show, as a project, this is [inaudible] museum. But it is difficult to find. That is my, as a first idea is illuminate the building, the landscape like that. So one third of the building that's on the ground, and two thirds is underground. Plan-wise, there's rivers, canals, a cycling load. This is a part of the cycling load. Actually, the cycling load is here, as sloping down to the bottom, as it's sloping up again, so sections like that. This is the entrance. Actually it is very difficult to find the entrance. It became a problem, after completion. The clients, the people complained, ah, where is the entrance? I said, don't worry about that. And with the story of the tsunami, the tsunami came from that side, the ocean is that side, and destroyed those houses. It's very, very sad. But the tsunami stopped at my building. Is it because my building has this shape? And luckily, my building was not destroyed. But it was a very shocking event for me. And just two weeks after the tsunami, I went there. And I saw how nature is strong. This is the view from river. And this building is the Hiroshige Museum. It is also in the up north area. And also, this building was not destroyed. In that project, I want to show a relationship with nature as what we want to re-create in that the building. So the roof and the facade are all by wood, local wood. But as a more important thing about this building is that hole, the hole, which connects town and nature. And in the Japanese village, most of the village, the location is the edge of the mountain, not far from the mountain, always, and not in the mountain. Edge of the mountain. That is very necessary for them because materials came from the mountain, and energy came from the mountain because they didn't have gas company, electric company, of course, as use the timber from mountain, for burning and cooking everything. And also, the agriculture, as a mountain, is very important. There's fertilizer from the mountains. It was very necessary for producing rice. And then, they called that kind of mountain satoyama. Sato means village. Yama means mountain. And they respected that mountain very much because, for their life, that was very, very necessary. And then they lived close to the mountain. And they built a shrine. That is a strong message. The shrine means don't destroy the mountain. Leave the mountain, is the message from the shrine. But sadly, in 20th century, they forgot the mountain-- the Tokyo. And as everything came from Tokyo in 20th century-- materials, energy, as fertilizer. And actually, [inaudible] in the shrine. And this shrine already [inaudible]. And as a discussion between the client-- client built the parking here. The mayor built the parking here. And he said, the mayor said, as a big entrance facing parking. But I said no. That's because, if there is a big entrance here, this side will become backside-- just the space for garbage, the space for service parking, something like that. And that will kill Satoyama. And after a discussion, finally, as we can have the entrance facing Satoyama side. As I cut the building like that, we call it torii the effect. You know torii, torii is an arch in front of the shrine. And that arch is sometimes more important than the building of the shrine. The building is working like torii in some meaning, as I cut building, and the framing the mountains, and the look of the shrine from this entrance. And finally, this becomes the main gate of the building. And I want to show again-- this is the cut, shrine, and the entrance. And material-wise, we did use material from the village. And this site is facing the mountain. And the main entrance is here. And this is a cut, as I created, from the town to the mountain. And the rice paper is [inaudible] the village, and the local stones, and the local cedar. And design-wise, we designed many screens and filter to create the a super-juxtaposition layers. And that method was inspired by artists. This museum is Hiroshige Museum. And Hiroshige is a 19th century these [inaudible] artist. And he is known as a method of just super-juxtaposition layering. And Frank Lloyd Wright, who of course you know, he learned many things from Hiroshige. And he wrote the book, the Book of Tea. It was published in states in 1906. Still, you can find that book. And he, since 1906 written by [inaudible] Okakura. And Frank Lloyd Wright was very much influenced by that book. And as a light, as he, in his autograph he wrote, without two Japanese, I could not create my art. One is a [inaudible] Okakura, the author of Book of Tea. The second is the Hiroshige. And he learned the method of juxtaposition, layering by Hiroshige. And then, for my Hiroshige museum, it's the same. The method of super-juxtaposition of those screens, there's three layers of screens existing in the building. And those were for the roof, double layers. And double layers is creating the komorebi effect, which, as mark has mentioned before, komorebi is the first light. It's the filter of the light by leaves. And the next project material is bamboo. The bamboo is my favorite material. But it's not an easy material because bamboo is easy to crack. It's a weak material, in one sense. But I worked with a structural engineer to create this composite structure. It's an injected bamboo trunk. Injected means we insert steel as a angle into that, as a plank, and pour the concrete that is to make this is a special post. And for the facade, we are checking those options, and that this is our first bamboo house. Don't forget neighbors. Neighbors is a typical Japanese houses. And the floors also. I call it the [inaudible] floors, because to walk on the floor is very comfortable. And the next bamboo project is in China. Besides Great Wall, we try to learn from Great Wall. Great Wall is not cutting the landscape, following the landscape, and then whole wings are landscaped like that. Don't cut, and to keep green. The Great Wall is also here. This space is a kind of in-between space. In between the exterior and interior. And that type of space is always my favorite. This is a semi-covered space. And sometimes it's called [japanese] in Japanese house. [japanese] is between the main building and the gardens. And this such [japanese] space, in between space. And the wood is, of course, is a most favorite material of mine. But we tried to do some new things, always, with wood. The chidori is a small pavilion in Italy, in Milan. The construction of this pavilion was hinted by this toy, chidori toy. It's a very old children's toy. It has this joint system. Please look at this joinery. The three joints, three types of joints. And if we turn this stick, so we can fix that structure. It's very simple. And we go to those sticks to be Milan. And my student has constructed by themselves. And after the Milan experience, so we came back to Japan, and we decided to build a bigger structure with Jun Sato. The Professor Jun Sato, he came here last week. And he did a test of this structural System And his conclusion is, we need a six centimenters by six centimenters. And in Milan, three centimenters by three centimeters. It is very, very thin. But this is just a temporary structure. For permanent sturectures, six centimeters needed. And I agree. OK, six centimenters is still very tiny. And and this is the completion of the building. The result and a column. The six centimenter by six centimenter sticks are supporting the building like that. And good thing for the structure is so we could use this grid for the box of exhibit. So we can show those things in the box. And so, again, we didn't use any nails, or boards and glues, just the fixing system. Because the Japanese carpenters, historically, they didn't trust metal because the life of metal is short, they thought. Not because of the money, they didn't trust metal. I think that this point is very important. So they trust nature as a philosophy of Japanese carpenters. And I like to use those sticks, those tiny elements. And when I showed those ideas to Charles Jenks-- you know Charles Jenks? He said, new stick style. It is very interesting. And the "Stick Style" Today was a famous book by-- is it Vincent Scully book? As Jenks named my building, the news stick style. And that this is a village. And the unit for this village is bigger than a stick, unfortunately. But still I've want to use the small unit. The assembly of the small unit is very important. If we use the bigger size glulam column, it is easy to make this with embellish, but I don't like that kind of big size as a beam. I prefer to use a smaller unit as possible. And that is because a small factory of this village could produce those units. Now the bigger glulam is only a bigger factory can produce. And we call it a domestic production system-- the small factories, the artisan, as it can produce those things. And on the same village is a another village, and so we designed a small hotel inspired by this teahouse. The thatched roof is a typical design they did for tea house. This was a kind of cafe. And it's tiny, but it's is a cafe for the village people. And we did use thatch for the facade. And so, to find the craftsmen was very, very difficult. Even in that village, those craftsmen had disappeared. Those traditional disappeared. So we should find from other places. This is the interior. And next is a unique client for us, Starbucks. The location is Tenmangu, Dazaifu Tenmangu, was built in 919. Old temple. As I mentioned, torii gate, the torii gate exists here, as does the satoyama mountain is here. It's always the Japanese temple, shrine like that kind of location-- edge of the mountain. And this is main approach. The Starbucks is here. And it's not interior design, as they asked me to send the full building. What I did for that project is to find the new [inaudible] construction system. And again, with the professor Sato. This, as a structural system, is more complicated than the grid system I showed you before. Because we have 30 degree angles. It's a diagonal system. So the diagonal system for that building is to create the flow of space into the bottom of the building because the building itself is a very long shop. It's a narrow and long building. And we want to create some kind of flow to the end of the shop. Structurally, this is very tough. Please look at this joint. This is, with Japanese carpenters, it was a special idea of Professor Sato that we could achieve this very unique joint. And Professor Sato came into the construction site often because sometimes the carpenters forgot that this is a structure. And whenever he came to the site, he was so upset. He claimed, this is a structure and don't forget it. The result that carpenters make it just as decoration. Because it is very complicated joint. But it's a structural joint supporting this building. And the next complicated structures with Professor Sato is a Sunny Hills in Tokyo. This is that building. Compared with this, Starbucks is easy because Starbucks is a one-story building, supporting one floor, one is aloof. But this is a three story building. And those are supported by sticks. And as you see, the floor is supported by this structural system. And for that building, Jun Sato found a new joined system. That new joint system is called jigoku gumi. Jigoku means hell. Gumi means joint. Hell joint. What's the name? And he explains the reason of name. Hell is, once it dropped to hell, we can never return. And once it's fixed, never revert. That's the reason of the name. And that jigoku gumi was used for furniture, only furniture because it is too complicated for a building. And the special furniture makers, artisans were using that jigoku gumi for furniture. It was a joint of furniture. But his idea that is, adapt that system to the bigger building. And this is the first jigoku gumi building, probably the first jigoku gumi building in Japan. And this explains the jigoku gumi. The jigoku gumi is basically three layers as a joint system. If we only have two layers, it is slidable. But if we add one extra layers, it will not be slidable. And then it's tightly fixed. This shows the three layers. And so we adapted the three layers to the building. We brought that joint to France. Yure means swinging. It's a very interesting contrast between the classic masonry building and the very light jigoku gumi building. Working with French carpenters was very, very tough. [laughter] Hmm. [laughter] This is very Japanese project. It's the Birch Moss Chapel. The location is Karuizawa. Karuizawa is a beautiful resort town two hours from Tokyo. It's known for the birch forest, beautiful birch. Those birch. And so our idea is to integrate birch forest with chapel. And that building is supported by those posts. And the posts is a mix of steel plate and birch, birch trunk. And this is the plan. This part is a chapel. It's surrounded by the forest. And a partition is slideable as a big glass. And then if the weather is good, it is totally opened up. From top, the weekend, find the location of the building. But here, the border disappeared. And actually, here is layer four glass partition. But it is difficult to find. The continuity is basically created by the continuity of the floor. Moss is the material for floor. And the benches are transparent. And in the city, going back to the city, as we also try to use natural materials and also create smallness in the city. The location is Asakusa. This is a very interesting place in Tokyo. The temples, and the pagodas, and the very interesting galleria. And our site is here, just in front of gate. And it's a model for the competition. And the program is a 40 meters high building. It's multi-functional. Our solution is several of the houses stacking. Between the floor and the roof, we can have a machine space. And also we can use the inclination [inaudible] halves of small theaters here. And the rendering, and the reality. Material-wise, it's wood again and sticks again. And the interior is like that. The stepping the floor is, as I mentioned, is here. [inaudible] And the next project is Nagaoka City Hall. I want to explain the typical situation of the Japanese middle-sized city. Nagaoka is two hours from Tokyo by bullet train. The station is here. This used to be a very active area. But now people are not walking on the main street because motorization. Same as America, as big shopping centers outside, the concert hall is outside. Of course, city hall was outside. And there is a vacant city center. This happens everywhere in the world after motorization. And the solution is an idea of the mayor. It's find a site close to the station and move the city hall from the suburbs to the center. And he did a competition. And Professor [? mackey ?] was the head juror of the competition. And he selected my idea. So we proposed city hall with doma. It's a Japanese word. Doma, like that. The doma is that kind of space. In the farmhouse we had doma. It's a very interesting in between space. It's covered by earth, which is important because it's a working space. It's a working space and also a gathering space for the people. Tatami-- you know tatami. Tatami is a typical Japanese floor. But tatami is a kind of-- used for a ritual space. The tatami was used for here. But this space they didn't use so often. For some kind of ceremony they did use tatami floor. But daily life happened in doma space. And they love that kind of spaces because it has a kitchen, very beautiful kitchen. And they drink at night, gather at night. But in 20th century, so Western lifestyle came to Japan, so we lost this kind of beautiful tradition. And my idea is brought back doma as a public building. This is new doma space. It's a [inaudible] floor. It's earth. It's luminous, and the humidity of earth is very important for doma. If it is covered, it is not doma. Because do means earth. Ma means space. Earth space is the definition of doma. And it's a kind of covered space, semi-outdoor space many as [inaudible] furnitures. And surprisingly, kids gather here to do homework. And also elderly is coming to here to meet with friends. And so every day something like that happens in that city hall. It is very unusual for a public building. The public building, normally, it is a solid box. It is not inviting. But this building is inviting people. And the one year, there was 1.2 million visitors gathering for the city hall. The population of the city is only 250,000, but in one year, more than a million people are gathering here. It's very, very unusual for a public building. There's some sustainabilities. There's a movable-- something like that. But it's moving. I like that idea. Doma space is here. The arena is here. It's connected by big doors. And the kids are gathering here to do homework and also to do ping pong here. And also those ladies are gathering here to do dancing. This is space for NPO, operated by NPO group. The city only provides the space. And also the assembly hall is totally exposed. Transparency is the theme of this space. And after, it's a musician and the citizen, community people. It is also used for the concert hall and sometimes used for the wedding. And this is also unusual. Usually, that kind of politician's space is very enclosed. But the basic idea for this space is that the politicians should abandon their own space. That is the basis. But at the beginning of the project, the politician criticizes my idea of very much. It's a very, very tough process fighting with them. And local materials. Rice papers in the snow is becoming white. This is called snow rice paper. This a beautiful rice papers. And this rice paper was also used for furniture. So we designed furnitures with rice paper. And also it's a special silk made by farmers. And the silk fabric was used as a counter. And in China, I also tried to respect the tradition of the place and the topology of the space, in that case. In Hangzhou, the Academy of China, I was asked to design the museum. The site was a hill. Our idea is follow the topology of the site as possible. And again, we didn't want to cut the topology. And this is basically a one-story building with a sloping floor. And material-wise, we want to use the roof tile. So the roof tile in China is beautiful. In Japan, I don't like the Japanese roof tile because the big factory is producing the Japanese roof tiles. There's a very standard sizes, standard colors. And it's not beautiful. But in China, the colors is such a variety, and sizes also has variety. It's not bad. . And so we did use tiles for the screening of the building, like Chinese painting. But it's a combination of contemporary technology. It extends wires with the old material. The sloping floors. For this space, we use the wood. But that's again sloping floors flowing the topology of this land. As an ongoing project, it's the first time to show that project in the lecture. It is because it's an ongoing project. This is Beijing. It's the Forbidden Palace. It's a very central place in Beijing. And Tiananmen Square is here. As a location, our project is here. [inaudible] My pronunciation is very bad. But [inaudible]. This kind of area. And it's a very narrow street called Fulton. As the houses with courtyard [inaudible] is a kind of mixture. It's a very interesting area. But recently, as most those traditional districts was gone by the big development, by towers. And also, for this area, some developers did a master plan-- big towers, towers, atria, something like that. But some journalists, some magazines criticized those ideas. And some people were against that destruction. And finally, developers and the government abandoned those tower ideas. And their new idea is to preserve the place with some architects. Five of our architects were invited to the project, so we were around them. And the street was like that. This is our new office in Beijing. They asked us, as a project to us. And also, they asked to move the office to this district. And as a new ideas, is that area should be kind of a designer's village-- have interesting designers, and artists gather here. I liked that idea and decided to move. And the courtyard, there's a courtyard and Fulton Street. Something like that. The restoration is not easy because that kind was a damaged area. And this and the restoration, and this is a rendering. This is a rendering. This is a rendering. This is our new office. And the construction-- next time, I want to show the images of the completion. It's very well done. And the [inaudible] basically, the idea is, it combines as a new transparency with the old district. As it used to be a very enclosed wall, heavy wall. But we opened up the walls to create transparency. And is this project in Shanghai. It also is our new project. This is the first time to show. This is the location. And the old ship building-- ship building factory. The two wholes as kinds of complex, as a new program. This is a new facade. The idea is also to give a new transparency to the traditional building. It's not a simple preservation. Preserve the older building, but to add a new transparency. Preserve all the structural systems. This is a mockup. I am here, probably. This is a detail of the oblique transparent wall. And in Europe, we are trying some ideas. The natures and town connected by the hole, that is our idea. The hole is here. The hole is here. The preserved old building-- add new structure. And we also designed the landscape as between nature and building, city and building. [inaudible] is here. It's a new [inaudible] building. We add for that as a classic building. The Ngawa space is here. As a creek, the top is here. And again, light is very important. As Mark mentioned, let me repeat again the komorebi, the forest light effect was is a main theme of this design. So komorebi is through this roof. The facade is also to create komorebi effect. And in the central palace, the Entrepot MacDonald's, but it's not hamburger. This MacDonald's is not a hamburger shop. This MacDonald is the name of the general, name of the street in palace. And after Starbucks, people misunderstand. After Starbucks brought McDonald's. And this is Entrepot MacDonald, built in 1970. An old, 600-meter building. And this is a new building. The OMA, Rem Koolhaas did the master plan of this renovation project. Rem's idea is preserve the 600 meters building to add boxes on top of it. And six architects were appointed the new designers for the upper boxes. And we were in charge of the West edge of the complex. And the French architects, they designed the boxes. The boxes are not bad, but I don't want to add boxes on boxes. This is the existing building. I want to add a very light floating roof on top of the box. This is a new community center for this district. So my idea is that the roof can create a sense of a community. So this idea is coming from the Japanese tradition, but also, in Europe, the loop is covering the community space. And those, again, the wood is the material for the roof. The material is also important. So material-wise, this [inaudible], these screens, is made by as zinc. Zinc is a typical material for the roof of French buildings in Paris. Paris building is covered by zinc. And then so we did use zinc. And also we added wood. This screen is made by zinc. So we like courtyards. But as we prefer the semi-open courtyards, as one side is always open at the connection to involvement, connection to neighbors is very importan. The new project in France is the station. It's the Saint Denis. The is our scheme for the station. And in that case, again, I opened the roof to the public. And eventually, the station becomes a part of the plaza. And this area, probably as some of you know, this area, Saint Denis is a big stadiums. But it's a not safe area. There's many immigrants from Syria and some of those places that are living here. And you remember the terror attack in Paris happened last year. Most of the terrorists were living in that area. And there is a city of palaces, the idea of city of palaces, to create the good community space for this kind of area. And I like that idea, as normally, as a public building, infrastructure building is a box. It's not inviting. But in this case, I want to create the space for community, for that kind of area. And so again, so we use wood for the station. And comparing with those big projects, I want to show the small project. It's also a very new project. The jyubako. The jyubako is a Bento box. You know the Japanese Bento box. It's a small wooden box. So I translated that idea to trailer house. It's a trailer house. There's actually tires here. This is a trailer house we designed. It's a wooden box trailer house. It is a device to connect to the cars. And the door is usually like that. And opened up to become a table and counter-- and the interior. It's big enough to live in that house, I believe. It looks big. The first trailer house is now used for a small restaurant in the center of Tokyo. We designed the counters for the restaurants. And in that trailer house, actually, 12 people can sit in the trailer. And this is an example of a small project. But I want to show other, smaller projects. The stone castle, stone is a structure, very tiny thin stone. One centimeter thickness is used for the structure of this pavilion. And we translated the material from stone to aluminum. This is a small project. For a smaller project, we always continue the project, develop the projects one by one. So from stone to aluminum. And after this small furniture system, we designed a house by aluminum. This is a house. Structurally, this aluminum is very strong, enough to support as a house. And the house has three rooms. And it is between house and furniture. I like that idea. So a normal house is just a box. But in this house, the wall is working as furniture. And also students have constructed by themselves. Kitchens, and after that is the joint system, joint system of that aluminum, aluminum card is adapted to that interior design. There are only three sushi joints, but we could aid this organic shape. So it exists in Osaka. And the next is a change in material. Ceramic tile is the material for this pavilion. So ceramic style is normally used for cutting surface, but in this case, the ceramic tile was used for structure. The structural engineer analyzes this system. And this is a vertical element. It's a standard pipe. And the pipe is fixed with ceramic tiles. And as an angle is is to create the shadows for the pavilion. And a very tiny edge. And so next material is probably don't know that material. It's a shape memory alloy. It's a shape memory alloy. It's a special alloy. But they remember the shape. And if, in certain temperature, it's are going back to the original shape, it's a very smart material. And they remember the shape at 30 centigrade. 30 centigrade, they remember this shape. But other conditions, other temperature, they forget the shape. They are not smart, in that sense. So this is a joint system. So we made these structures in the factory because this kind of support is needed because this is very, very soft. The diameter of the metal is just four millimeters. And we need this support plastic. And after the total structure is fixed, we move the support out, then we can make it. In the daytime, they remember the shape of a circle. And then it's very hard, in the daytime. And in the nighttime, it's dropping slowly from the top. And the next material is umbrella. This is an umbrella. Milan invited us to the project and the theme is [non-english], house for everybody. And they asked us to design a house for refugees. And my idea is inspired by Buckminster Fuller. So Buckminster Fuller, his Fullerdome is a dome. It's a simple dome system. But I wanted to use a daily commodity, the umbrella. If we can carry the umbrella, this umbrella, so 15 people can make this house. Very simple idea. But it's a little bit strange umbrella. Very fashionable, I think. It is easy to find the friends. Friends decide to make the house together. And the friends is 15 umbrellas began like that. And the interior is big enough for 15 people to stay. This triangular part, as it's added to the umbrella, is used for the windows. This opens up the windows. This is the entrance. And this also is by a student. And so after they started to drink and sleep. And next material is the New York MOMA asked us to design a small house for home delivery exhibitions in 2008. And the hint came from the tank. It's used for the construction site. To fill the water, this is getting heavier. And this is very smart device, I think. The home delivery. This is a pulley tank we designed for the exhibition. We designed for the house and with two bulbs. To have two bulbs is important. The two bulbs are connected to create water-flow. This is the MOMA exhibition. But the budget is not enough for making a house-- just a mockup for MOMA. And after MOMA, the Japanese gallery, Gallery Ma, has asked us to design a real-sized house. This is a house, plan of the house. It is the [inaudible], the bed, and the kitchen. And making hot water here. [inaudible] what I can circulate in the water. That is very new idea. And usually, the structures, and piping, and the interior are all divided. But for this house, it's totally integrated. The water is running in the walls. It's running in the floors. It's very efficient as an air-conditioning system. And students, again, constructed in the university campus as a connected those units. And he's already very tired. [laughter] And this is completion of the house. As a waterproof, it's a big hurdle. And we designed a court for the house. This is the interior. It is bed. It is too small, even for Japanese. [laughter] This is generators. And this idea was translated to is a real project as a Beijing teahouse. The is a permanent structure. This is a section of the building. This, as a pulley tank, is supporting the whole structure. And this is interior. This is not Photoshop. This is as real as the Forbidden Palace. This is just beside the Forbidden Palace. It's a very unique location. And so for this project, [inaudible] waterproof and the insulation. And then this is a new type of block and here is a double layered system to solve the insulation. And this is a street. The west gate of the Forbidden Palace is just here, and this is a building. And this is a kind of a historical area, and we need to have the roof on, top but I like that combinations of the very new material and classic roof on top. Like that. This is the rooftop. There's the Forbidden Palace, and there's our rooftop. And the next series is a fabric house. It's a tea house in Germany. This is in the garden of Richard Meiers Design Museum. You know the Richard Meiers Design Museum in Frankfurt-- asked us to design a teahouse. The idea is inflatable structures-- instant teahouse. We call it the Cup o' Noodle teahouse. Instant teahouse. Only 15 minutes, it was built. But it is not a joke. It is a well-thought project. It's a double-layered structure system. And the section is like that. And the interior is like that. After a skin and in the skin, they are tied with those nodes. And these are used for tea ceremony and the tea ceremony school. After that, there's a National Building Museum in Washington. We built a floating teahouse. Again, as the budget is very limited, and we don't have the travelling costs, I carried this teahouse in my trunk. It is possible because this is also is a balloon and just a fabric. So Super Organza is the name of the fabric. It is probably the lightest-weight light weight fabric in the world. This is this Super Organza. And after that-- it's a series. Starts from Frankfurt, Washington, and Hokkaido. It's the north end islands. And as Mark explained about the Horizon House by a Harvard student before that we did the Memu Meadows project, inspired by this house. I like this house very much. It's not new design. This is Ainu people. So a few were living in Hokkaido. It's an ethnic minority of Hokkaido. And they were living in that house. It's a very soft house. They're using leaves of bamboo. We want to make a similar idea, the soft house. But not the bamboo leaves. For this project, we've [inaudible] fabric. And it's a double skin house, again. And with sustainable as a warming system. Like, an ethnic house in the Ainu, people are heating the soil. So even in summer, they are heating, heating. And in the wintertime, the earth is warm enough. And they can get radiation from there. So we have the same system for this house. And double as a layer's house, as we try to avoid insulation. And so, if we can avoid insulation, then we can get such kind of effect. And even in the minus 30 degrees, we can survive in that house. And after that, we did a series of international student competitions for that space. And we designed many houses. [inaudible] University won that house. And [inaudible] University won that house. And finally, Harvard won that house, 2014, so Mark Mulligan's team won that house. It's a Horizon House and also business with sustainability devices. But he can explain better than me. And so 2015, so Berkeley, Nest We Grow. The Berkeley people love those vegetables. And in Kyoto's, we designed this movable pavilion. The idea is a magnet joint. As I explained some with a traditional joint, but, for this house, it's a magnet that can fix sticks. It's a very strong magnet recently invented by 3M. And three layers with those sticks, as they were tied together by the magnet has become solid wood. At this stage, it is just a scroll, and we can carry easily. And then, at this stage, three laws, three membranes, And on the side, it's become the solid wall by the power of magnet. And that's also the walls. You can see three layers of membrane. It's the ETFE in that case. And they are easy to move and transport. And it's another material is of paper. This is a paper pavilion. It's balkanized paper, special paper. So we have many types of pavilion. So we should skip. And in London, it's small, very, very tiny. Bamboo sticks are used. Probably you know this kind of incense. We did use this material. This is connected like that. It is a joint. It's plastic. And it is heated, and it becomes tight. And this is a section of the space of the Royal Academy. And the detail is of [inaudible] we can get smell from incense. It's a joint. It is a pavilion. It doesn't look like a pavilion, but we call it pavilion. It's a kind of phenomenon. Is a phenomenon with some very tiny materials. And at last, I want to show the Olympic stadium design. Probably, you are interested in that project. It's our scheme. As you know, Zaha Hadid's design, the first competition winning, is cancelled because of over budget. And the second competition, we submitted that idea. The first concept for this stadium is as low as possible. Zaha's scheme has a 75 meters high building. And existing stadium has 60 meters. And our goal is under 50 meters. And that is because it's a beautiful park. It's a site. And then we want to push the building as low as possible. Under 49 meters was the final solution for the building. And we worked with structural engineers to decrease the size of a beam and then, finally, 49 meters, and wood is a material. The wood is very necessary for that project, I think, because it's in the park. And integration with the park is important. We have the [inaudible] of plants, it's watered the plants from [inaudible] areas. And wood is creating shadows. And that gets a hint from the traditional buildings. The eaves a series of eaves, is good for the life of the building. And that this Horyu-ji Temple is the oldest [inaudible] building, built 7th century. And in the interview for the Olympic stadium, as I had many questions-- so how [inaudible]. Always we have this kind of questions. And my answer is, look at this building. I used this slide, actually. Look at this building. Do you know the life of Horyu-ji building? 1,400 years. It's true. And good thing for the wood is it's replaceable. Concrete is not replaceable. Concrete-- there are many opinions about the life of concrete. But somebody said 100 years is the maximum. Somebody said 200 years is maximum. But to have 200 years of life is very difficult for concrete. But wood is 1,400 years. And because of the unique section, the wooden part is covered by roofs. And also, all element is visible, and it means replaceable, recyclable. And also there's many secrets in the detail. In the bottom, of those as a joist, they have the extra length. And after 100 years, the edge of the wood will it be deteriorated. And so they hit the bottom of the joist to cut the edge and use a new part of food by pushing out those elements. It's a very smart idea. And another idea is this roof. It is the roof and steel is combined together to drop the weight of the roof structure. So we decreased 1,000 tons by using wood. And decrease 1,000 tons means as the foundation can be decreased. And every structure can be decreased. And by that reason, today's architectural theme is from concrete to wood. And also with other idea, as a result of air conditioning, so we also did use natural ventilation. And we did a simulation. And so we changed the pitch of element. The [inaudible] element is, as wooden plank, had spaces between the unit. And that pitch varies according to the direction. The south side is very narrow to bring the south wind to the bottom of the building. And the north side is a big pitch, as the north wind is going to the top of the building. And then, as a result animation, we can control the volume of wind. That's a kind of a simulation we did. And also material-wise, we decided to use wood from disaster area. It's the up north area, the tsunami hit that area. And the Kumamoto earthquake happened last April, and also big damage. Those wood will be used for that building. This is an image I took by myself in Ishinomaki because as we design Ishinomaki's first building, and I went there two weeks after disaster, this is a picture I took myself. And I was so shocked to see that, as because before 20th century, people didn't built the building along the waterfront. Because they know as a tsunami was hitting every 60, 70 years. But in 20th century, so we forgot everything. We forgot the risk of nature, strongness of nature. And they rebuilt those buildings on the waterfront. And the from those disasters, is go back to the first theme. After [inaudible] 1995 earthquake, [inaudible] earthquake, so I began to think-- how to respect nature as should be the theme of our design. How to defeat nature was the theme of the 20th century. In 20th century, we believed architecture is strong. Architecture can be much stronger than nature. But always, nature is stronger than architecture. And we should respect nature again. That is the theme of the lecture today. Thank you very much. [applause] So here's the point where we open up. We maybe turn on some lights, and we open up the floor for questions, if there are any. I see a few very close to the front. Are there microphones? Are there any microphones here? OK, thanks. Can you bring them up? Thank you so much for the lecture tonight. I'm wondering, for somebody that embodies so many principles of historical Japanese moves in architecture, such as the joinery, and the shading, and the positioning of the building on the site, I'm curious how you feel that-- now that your firm has grown so much in the past few years, and you've done so much more international work, if you feel that doing projects outside of Japan has either influenced or changed the way that you've approached certain projects, or if you feel that you now have a responsibility to demonstrate these Japanese principles on a global stage. Yes, I always try to do the research on one the site. And each project or has a background. Has many, many historical conditions, conditions of the climate, of the topographies. Every projects are different. And as we try to find the unique project for each, as we don't want to push a previous design. It's a big difference from other architects. For example, the [inaudible] is a great architect, but his idea is very strong core. So he tries to push that idea to the place, each places. But my approach is always try to do the conversation with a project. And in that conversation, sometimes I use a hint from Japanese tradition. But it's not necessarily, I think. We have many ideas behind us. So not only for Japanese ideas, some classic buildings, there's masonry buildings. For example, the water tank, the [inaudible] tank project, the hint is coming from masonry structures. Masonry is not Japanese tradition. Masonry is a western tradition, but we got a hint. We combine the plastic and masonry together. We are living in that kind of world. I study the states. I study Japan. Everybody's a mix of everything. Thank you for the lecture. My question relates to, when beginning, you described contemporary architecture, Japanese architecture begin with generations from Kenzo Tange, [inaudible] to the second generation, Ito, and your generation. I'm curious what is the continually throughout a generation, and what's the role of the next generation layers in terms of develop contemporary architecture. As for generation, before my generation, [? kanga's ?] generation, Maki's generation, Ando's generation, they are not so much interested in wooden structures because, in Japan, we had a big divide. As modernism architects, those people are designing concrete and steel buildings. And traditional group, as it existed, is totally separated from them. The traditional group were designing the traditional teahouse and traditional ski house. There's a very classic convention. The two groups are totally separated and actually hate each other. I think it's not happy for the country because we have a big tradition. But the two groups are divided. My generation, I think, I want to destroy the border between two generations. And sometimes we use some detail from classic buildings. And I like to design wooden structures. And I try to create some new kind of [inaudible] as the two types of architectural design. And I think that situation is actually happening. And it is a healthy way for our tradition, I think. OK. Thank you so much for sharing with us so many experiments with so many kinds of material. So my question is the same as the topic. Why woods matter? Do you think so much wood in architecture is kind of respect to nature, or a kind of destroy to the nature? Yes, so somebody thought to use wood, it means destroy nature. But it's not true. To use wood carefully is very necessarily for nature. I mentioned about satoyama, as a Japanese mountain. And in 20th century, we didn't use satoyama, abandoned satoyama. And it was very bad for the environment of the forest. So forest was as a very carefully maintained, and as they try to create the natural circulation. And the cut some trees, and plant some trees. This can create the best conditions for the forest. And if it's abandoned, the environment is totally getting into the bad situation. For example, it's caused flood. All the trees were not good for keeping water, what sustains the water. And then the flood happens in 20th century. Many floods happened in 20th century. And also for global warming, old wood forest is not as absorbing as carbon dioxide, CO2. Only the well-maintained forest is good for solve global warming. Abandoned forest is not working like that. And that's the reason why I use wood. To use wood carefully is good for the forests and good for global warming situation. And also, it's good for our psychological situation. That's the reason. OK? Please. Hi, I have a question. I'm aware that high cost is sometimes inevitable to produce beautiful architecture, like, for example, the last idea for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Stadium. It was criticized for its high budget. But what's your opinion on the balance between high cost and the outcome? Yes, this. As always, cost is a big problem for us. For every project. And it is not a new situation. But recently, architects became the target of the criticism of the journalism. The architects as egoism, architects designs, as the biggest reason for the high costs. But we should show, as a good example, reasonable cost and good design. And if we show that kind of good example, we can find a kind of collaboration with the society. Recently, society and the architects are very much divided. It's a very bad for architectural design. So if we can recover the trust from the society, we can design easily. And for Tokyo Olympic Stadium, I wanted to show that kind of example to the society, to the journalism. Because journalism attacked Zaha's design very much. Architect's egoistic, strange design destroys the [inaudible]. So it's a very, very tough situation for us, [inaudible] our community, architects' community. So we should change that situation by the reasonable, good design. And I believe we can do that. Thank you, thank you, Mr. Kuma, for your ideas. Harry Allen, Hutcheons Fellow. I was wondering if you could speak to the idea of tall wood buildings. I've read that, in Europe, wood buildings are topping 10 stories, that SOM, in Chicago, has proposed a 42-story wood building. And POP, in Cambridge has proposed a 1,000 foot wood skyscraper. Are these viable ideas in your opinion? Would you speak to not just the viability of these ideas, but the idea of wood skyscrapers? Yeah, so basically, it's not a bad idea. And also, technically, it is very possible. But I am also doubtful for why we should make it high building. Because, high building, so we need elevators, many machines. So looks outstanding building. But as for environment, it's not a good solution to make a high building. And to use wood is basically for environment. And if so, we tried to find solution with a lower-lies building. It's closer to the ground. It's closer to nature. That should be the aim of using wood. You're saying it's diminishing returns after a certain point. Yeah. OK. Thank you very much. [applause]


History and background

Population Matters was launched as the Optimum Population Trust following a meeting on 24 July 1991 by the late David Willey and others concerned about population numbers and sustainability. They were impelled to act by the failure of United Kingdom governments to respond to a series of recommendations regarding population growth and sustainability.[3]

The Optimum Population Trust prepared analyses and lobbied on issues affected by population growth. It also lobbied developmental and environmental campaigners on the need to incorporate population issues in their thinking. It was granted charitable status on 9 May 2006.[4] Population Matters was adopted as its campaign name in 2011.[5]

Views and aims

Population Matters aims to achieve a future with decent living standards for all, a healthy and biodiverse environment and a sustainable population size.[6] The charity holds the following policy positions:


Population growth increases damage to the environment and depletes natural resources. Therefore, human numbers should be reduced voluntarily to a sustainable level that enables an acceptable quality of life for all.

  • Given that human activity already exceeds Earth’s capacity to support it, Population Matters argues that population stabilisation should be strived for without delay.[7]
  • The United Nations projects that global population size could grow by 2.5 billion between 2015 and 2050, which illustrates the urgency of the matter further according to the organisation.[8]

Development and climate change

Population growth increases the number of wealthy carbon emitters and poorer climate change victims and hampers mitigation and adaptation efforts. In 2016, humanity used the sustainable resource output of 1.6 Earths.[9]

  • Evidence has been presented that less equal affluent countries consume more resources and generate more waste than other affluent countries.[10]Consequently, Population Matters supports greater income equality.
  • Developed countries are responsible for the majority of resource consumption as well as the associated global environmental degradation. Therefore, the developed world has a responsibility to support developing nations according to the organisation.[11]
  • Population Matters supports the concept of Contraction and Convergence as conceived by the Global Commons Institute.[12]

Women’s rights and reproductive health

Women’s empowerment and gender equality are essential for reproductive health, economic development and population stabilisation. Population Matters therefore support programmes to improve the status of women.

  • Population Matters embraces the Sustainable Development Goals that see women’s empowerment as a necessary condition for sustainable development.[13]
  • Comparisons made between developing nations that experienced rapid fertility decline and those that did not found that high fertility increases absolute levels of poverty by slowing economic growth and worsening the distribution of additionally acquired resources.[14] Consequently, the organisation promotes policies improving access to contraceptive.


Migration often results from conflict, poverty, inequality or population and consumption pressures. Population Matters calls for fair trade terms and increased foreign aid and knowledge transfer to promote sustainable development, global justice and resilience.

  • Population Matters believes that the only just and long-term solution to migration pressure is to address its underlying causes in the countries of origin, such as poverty, lack or over exploitation of resources, climate change and conflict.[15]
  • The organisation believes that developed countries have a moral responsibility to help with this because they contribute to migratory pressures by being both major consumers of resources from developing countries and are the principal source of the causes of climate change.[16]

Ageing and parenthood

Population Matters rejects the case that more young people are required to care for an increasing number of elderly. It believes that governments should promote responsible parenthood and limit subsidies to the first two children unless a family is living in poverty.

  • Population Matters promotes the idea that society should deal with ageing by enabling employment for untrained, underemployed and older people and by optimising the use of technology.[17][18]


Population Matters campaigns to stabilise population at a sustainable level through encouraging a culture shift towards smaller family sizes worldwide and improving resources for women's empowerment and family planning in lower income countries.[19][20] Over the years, the organization has supported various campaigns, including Caroline Lucas’ Bill to make Personal, Social, Health and Economic education (PSHE) a statutory requirement in state-funded schools.[21] It also produces material to help its supporters raise awareness of population growth.[22]

The charity also runs PopOffsets, a project that offers members of the public the opportunity to offset their carbon emissions by donating towards family planning projects around the world.[23]

Other activities include the Population Matters Overshoot Index, which presents assessments of the extent to which countries and regions of the world are considered to be able to support themselves on the basis of their own renewable resources. It also produces short films, such as “Zombie Overpopulation”.[24][25]

Organisational structure

Population Matters consists of patrons, an advisory council, a board and, a team of staff and volunteers and members. It relies on members and donors for its funding.[26]


Population Matters' patrons include prominent and successful public figures such as the broadcaster Sir David Attenborough, the economist Sir Partha Dasgupta, the biologist Professor Paul Ehrlich, the primatologist Dr Jane Goodall, Professor John Guillebaud and the politician Baroness Shreela Flather.[27]

Local groups

Population Matters encourages its members to create and run local groups in their communities. There are currently nine of these groups that are recognised by the organisation in the UK. Most of them meet regularly at local venues to discuss population and sustainability issues with like-minded people.[28]


In 2013, Population Matters was criticised for calling for “zero-net migration” to the UK and for supporting a UK government policy of stopping child benefit and tax credits for third and subsequent children.[29]

See also


  1. ^ "Smaller families". 
  2. ^ "Consume mindfully". 
  3. ^ "People & story - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  4. ^ "Charity overview". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  5. ^ "UK Web Archive". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  6. ^ "Vision & values - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  7. ^ "Living Planet Report 2014". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  8. ^ "World Population Prospects The 2015 Revision" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 1 June 2016. 
  9. ^ "World Footprint". Global Footprint Network. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  10. ^ "Inequality and Environmental Sustainability" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  11. ^ "The State of Consumption Today | Worldwatch Institute". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  12. ^ "Contraction and Convergence Homepage". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  13. ^ "Women's Empowerment". UNDP. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  14. ^ "Population and Poverty: New Views on an Old Controversy". Guttmacher Institute. 2005-02-02. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  15. ^ "Conflict & migration - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  16. ^ Clark, Duncan (2011-04-21). "Which nations are most responsible for climate change?". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  17. ^ Valenzuela, Dr Rebecca (2015-03-23). "The economics of an ageing population". The Age. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  18. ^ "Managing an ageing society" (PDF). Population Matters. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  19. ^ "Central London Humanists". Meetup. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  20. ^ Martin, Roger (2011-10-23). "Why current population growth is costing us the Earth | Roger Martin". the Guardian. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  21. ^ "PSHE briefing for MPs | Caroline Lucas". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  22. ^ "London's population to grow by a quarter - Population Matters". Population Matters. 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  23. ^ "PopOffsets > Contact". Retrieved 2016-06-09. 
  24. ^ "Population Matters — Media Trust". Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  25. ^ "Overshoot Index" (PDF). Population Matters. 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 
  26. ^ "People & story - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-02. 
  27. ^ "Patrons - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-09. 
  28. ^ "Local groups - Population Matters". Population Matters. Retrieved 2016-06-09. 
  29. ^ "The charity which campaigned to ban Syrian refugees from Britain". openDemocracy. 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2016-06-09. 

External links

Official website

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