To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pomerania

Pomorze, Pommern, Pòmòrskô
Historical region
Wappen Pommern.svg
Coat of arms
Contemporary administrative units with Pomerania in the name, not representing the exact historical region, as they also include parts of other regions
Contemporary administrative units with Pomerania in the name, not representing the exact historical region, as they also include parts of other regions
Coordinates: 54°17′N 18°09′E / 54.29°N 18.15°E / 54.29; 18.15
CountriesPoland
Germany
Largest citiesin Poland: Gdańsk, Szczecin
in Germany: Stralsund, Greifswald
Demonym(s)Pomeranian
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Polish-defined Western Pomerania/German-defined Pomerania
Polish-defined Western Pomerania/German-defined Pomerania

Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze; German: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany. The western part of Pomerania belongs to the German states of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg, while the eastern part belongs to the West Pomeranian and Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland. Its historical border in the west is the Mecklenburg-Western Pomeranian border valley,[a] which now constitutes the border between the Mecklenburgian and Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, while it is bounded by the Vistula River in the east. The easternmost sub-regions of Pomerania are alternatively known as Pomerelia and Kashubia, which are inhabited by ethnic Kashubians.

Pomerania has a relatively low population density, with its largest cities being Gdańsk and Szczecin. Outside its urban areas, it is characterized by farmland, dotted with numerous lakes, forests, and small towns. In the west of Pomerania lie several islands, the largest of which are Rugia, the largest island in Germany, Usedom/Uznam, and Wolin, the largest island in Poland. The region has a rich and complicated political and demographic history at the intersection of several cultures.

There are several universities in the region, the oldest of which, the University of Greifswald, that was founded when Greifswald belonged to Duchy of Pomerania, is one of the oldest universities in the world, the second-oldest in the Baltic region after the University of Rostock, and was once the oldest university of Sweden and Prussia.

Geography

17th-century map of the Duchy of Pomerania
17th-century map of the Duchy of Pomerania

Borders

Pomerania is the area along the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea between the rivers Recknitz and Trebel in the west and Vistula in the east.[1][2] It formerly reached perhaps as far south as the Noteć river, but since the 13th century its southern boundary has been placed further north.

Landscape

Most of the region is coastal lowland, being part of the Central European Plain, but its southern, hilly parts belong to the Baltic Ridge, a belt of terminal moraines formed during the Pleistocene. Within this ridge, a chain of moraine-dammed lakes constitutes the Pomeranian Lake District. The soil is generally rather poor, sometimes sandy or marshy.[1]

The western coastline is jagged, with many peninsulas (such as DarßZingst) and islands (including Rügen, Usedom, and Wolin) enclosing numerous bays (Bodden) and lagoons (the biggest being the Lagoon of Szczecin).

The eastern coastline is smooth. Łebsko and several other lakes were formerly bays, but have been cut off from the sea. The easternmost coastline along the Gdańsk Bay (with the Bay of Puck) and Vistula Lagoon, has the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jutting out into the Baltic.

Subregions

The Pomeranian region has the following administrative divisions:

The bulk of Farther Pomerania is included within the modern West Pomeranian Voivodeship, but its easternmost parts (the Słupsk area) now constitute the northwest of Pomeranian Voivodeship. Farther Pomerania in turn comprises several other historical subregions, most notably the Principality of Cammin, the County of Naugard, the Lands of Schlawe and Stolp, and also the Lauenburg and Bütow Land (the last, however, is sometimes regarded as a part of Pomerelia or Kashubia).

Parts of Pomerania and surrounding regions have constituted a euroregion since 1995. The Pomerania euroregion comprises Hither Pomerania and Uckermark in Germany, West Pomerania in Poland, and Scania in Sweden.

Etymology

In Lechitic languages the prefix "po-" means along; unlike the word "po", which means after. Pomorze, therefore, means Along the Sea. This construction is similar to toponyms Pogórze (Along the Mountains), Polesie (Along the Forest), Porzecze (Along the River), etc.

Pomerania was first mentioned in an imperial document of 1046, referring to a Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Zemuzil, Duke of the Pomeranians).[3] Pomerania is mentioned repeatedly in the chronicles of Adam of Bremen (c. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113).

Terminology

The term "West Pomerania" is ambiguous, since it may refer to either Hither Pomerania (in German usage and historical usage based on German terminology[4]) or to combined Hither and Farther Pomerania or the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (in Polish usage).

The term "East Pomerania" may similarly carry different meanings, referring either to Farther Pomerania (in German usage and historical usage based on German terminology[4]), or to Pomerelia or the Pomeranian Voivodeship (in Polish usage).

West Pomerania East Southeast
Damgarten,
Barth,
Tribsees,
Grimmen,
Franzburg,
Richtenberg,
Bergen auf Rügen,
Garz/Rügen,
Sassnitz,
Stralsund
Loitz,
Greifswald,
Lassan,
Wolgast,
Gützkow
Demmin,
Altentreptow
Jarmen,
Anklam,
Usedom
Pasewalk,
Torgelow,
Ueckermünde,
Eggesin,
Penkun
Gartz Świnoujście,
Międzyzdroje,
Wolin,
Goleniów,
Police,
Szczecin,
Dąbie
Widuchowa,
Gryfino,
Banie,
Pyrzyce
Maszewo,
Stargard,
Stepnica,
Dziwnów,
Kamień Pomorski,
Golczewo,
Ińsko,
Dobrzany,
Dolice,
Chociwel,
Gryfice,
Gościno,
Płoty,
Nowogard,
Łobez,
Węgorzyno
Resko,
Trzebiatów
Świdwin,
Połczyn-Zdrój,
Kalisz Pomorski,
Drawsko Pomorskie,
Złocieniec,
Kołobrzeg,
Koszalin,
Polanów,
Sianów,
Karlino,
Tychowo,
Bobolice,
Białogard,
Biały Bór,
Szczecinek,
Sławno,
Darłowo
Ustka,
Słupsk,
Miastko
Łeba,
Lębork,
Bytów
(Lauenburg and Bütow Land
German: Lande Lauenburg und Bütow
Polish: Ziemia lęborsko-bytowska)
Człuchów,
Chojnice,
Kościerzyna,
Kartuzy,
Żukowo,
Puck,
Władysławowo,
Hel
Wejherowo,
Reda,
Rumia,
(so-called Little Kashubian Tricity)
Gdynia,
Sopot,
Gdańsk
(Tricity)
Starogard Gdański,
Skarszewy,
Pelplin,
Tczew,
Gniew
Świecie
Tuchola
Toruń,
Grudziądz,
Chełmno,
Chełmża
Current countries Germany Poland
Current administrative regions Land Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
(State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
Land Brandenburg
(State of Brandenburg)
województwo zachodniopomorskie
(West Pomeranian Voivodeship)
województwo pomorskie
(Pomeranian Voivodeship)
województwo kujawsko-pomorskie
(Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Vorpommern-Rügen District Vorpommern-Greifswald District Mecklenburgische Seenplatte District Vorpommern-Greifswald District Uckermark District
German terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pommern[1]
(Pomerania)
Pomerellen, Pommerellen[1]
(Pomerelia)[1]
Westpreussen
(West Prussia)
before Partitions of Poland Königlich-Preußen or Preußen Königlichen Anteils
(Royal Prussia)
Vorpommern
in modern usage the part Located in Germany only
(Hither Pomerania, Fore Pomerania)
Hinterpommern
(Farther/Further Pomerania, Rear Pomerania)
Kaschubei[5]
(Kashubia)
areas south-east of Könitz (Schwarzwasser, Czersk): Tucheler Heide
(Tuchola Forest),
Koschneiderei
Kociewie Tucheler Heide
(Tuchola Forest),
Koschneiderei
Kulmerland
(Chełmno Land)
Neuvorpommern
(New Hither Pomerania)
Altvorpommern
(Old Hither Pomerania)
Westpommern
(Western Pomerania)
Mittelpommern
(Middle Pomerania)
Ostpommern
(Eastern Pomerania)
Mittelpommerscher Keil
(Middle Pomeranian Wedge)
excluding Świnoujście, Międzyzdroje and Wolin
Polish terminology
(corresponding English term)
Pomorze Zachodnie
(Western Pomerania)
Pomorze Wschodnie
(Eastern Pomerania)
Pomorze Nadwiślańskie
(Vistula Pomerania)
before World War II simply Pomorze[1]
(Pomerelia,[1] literally Pomerania)
before Partitions of Poland Prusy Królewskie
(Royal Prussia)
Pomorze Nadodrzańskie
(Oder Pomerania)
Pomorze Szczecińskie
(Szczecin Pomerania)
Pomorze Zachodnie w węższym znaczeniu
(Western Pomerania in narrower sense)
Pomorze Środkowe
(Middle Pomerania)
Pomorze Gdańskie
(Gdańsk Pomerania)
Ziemia chełmińska
(Chełmno Land)
ethnocultural region
Pomorze Przednie
(Hither Pomerania, Fore Pomerania) in modern usage the part located in Germany only
Pomorze Tylne
(Farther/Further Pomerania, Rear Pomerania) usage limited mainly to translations of German texts
Kaszuby
(Kashubia)
ethnocultural region
areas south-east of Chojnice (Czarna Woda, Czersk): Bory Tucholskie
(Tuchola Forest)
ethnocultural region,
Kosznajderia
former ethnocultural region
Kociewie
ethnocultural region
Bory Tucholskie
(Tuchola Forest)
ethnocultural region,
Kosznajderia
former ethnocultural region
Kashubian terminology
(corresponding English term)
Zôpadnô Pòmòrskô
(Western Pomerania)
Lãbòrskò-bëtowskô Zemia
(Lauenburg and Bütow Land)
Pòrénkòwô Pòmòrskô
(Eastern Pomerania)
Kaszëbë
(Kashubia
ethnocultural region)
Kòcéwskô (Kociewie)
ethnocultural region
Tëchòlsczé Bòrë (Tuchola Forest)
ethnocultural region,
Kòsznajderiô (Kosznajderia)
former ethnocultural region
Chełmińskô Zemia (Chełmno Land)
ethnocultural region

History

Prehistory to the Middle Ages (circa 400 A.D. – 1400 A.D.)

Settlement in the area called Pomerania for the last 1,000 years started by the end of the Vistula Glacial Stage, some 13,000 years ago.[6] Archeological traces have been found of various cultures during the Stone and Bronze Age, Baltic peoples, Germanic peoples and Veneti during the Iron Age and, in the Dark Ages, West Slavic tribes and Vikings.[7][8][9][6][10][11][12] Starting in the 10th century, early Polish rulers subdued the region, successfully integrating the eastern part with Poland, while the western part fell under the suzerainty of Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire in the late 12th century.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Gdańsk, established during the reign of Mieszko I of Poland has since become Poland's main port (apart from periods of Poland losing control over the region).

The main burial sites of Pomeranian dukes of the houses of Sobiesław and Griffin

In the 12th century, the Duchy of Pomerania (western part), as a vassal state of Poland, became Christian under saint Otto of Bamberg (the Apostle of the Pomeranians); at the same time Pomerelia (eastern part) became a part of diocese of Włocławek within Poland. Since the late 12th-early 13th century, the Griffin Duchy of Pomerania stayed with the Holy Roman Empire and the Principality of Rugia with Denmark, while Pomerelia, under the ruling of Samborides, was a part of Poland.[20][21][22][23] Pomerania, during its alliance in the Holy Roman Empire, shared borders with West Slavic state Oldenburg, as well as Poland and the expanding Margraviate of Brandenburg. In the early 14th century the Teutonic Knights invaded and annexed Pomerelia from Poland into their monastic state, which already included historical Prussia. As a result of the Teutonic rule, in German terminology the name of Prussia was also extended to conquered Polish lands like Gdańsk Pomerania, although it was not inhabited by Baltic Prussians but Lechitic Poles. Meanwhile, the Ostsiedlung started to turn Slavic narrow Pomerania into an increasingly German-settled area; the remaining Wends and Polish people, often known as Kashubians, continued to settle within Pomerelia.[24][25] In 1325 the line of the princes of Rügen died out, and the principality was inherited by the Griffins.[26]

Renaissance (circa 1400–1700) to Early Modern Age

In 1466, with the Teutonic Order's defeat in the Thirteen Years' War, Pomerelia became again subject to the Polish Crown and formed the Pomeranian Voivodeship within the province of Royal Prussia.[27] While the German population in the Duchy of Pomerania adopted the Protestant reformation in 1534,[28][29][30] the Polish (along with Kashubian) population remained with the Roman Catholic Church. The Thirty Years' War severely ravaged and depopulated narrow Pomerania; few years later this same happened to Pomerelia (the Deluge).[31] With the extinction of the Griffin house during the same period, the Duchy of Pomerania was divided between the Swedish Empire and Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648, while Pomerelia remained in with the Polish Crown.

Modern Age

The Prussian Province of Pomerania within Prussia and the German Empire circa 1871.
The Prussian Province of Pomerania within Prussia and the German Empire circa 1871.

Prussia gained the southern parts of Swedish Pomerania in 1720,[32]:341–343 invaded and annexed Pomerelia from Poland in 1772 and 1793, and gained the remainder of Swedish Pomerania in 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars.[32]:363, 364 The former Brandenburg-Prussian Pomerania and the former Swedish parts were reorganized into the Prussian Province of Pomerania,[32]:366 while Pomerelia was made part of the Province of West Prussia. With Prussia, both provinces joined the newly constituted German Empire in 1871. Under the German rule the Polish minority suffered discrimination and oppressive measures aimed at eradicating its culture. Following the empire's defeat in World War I, however, Pomorze Gdańskie/Pomerelia was returned to the rebuilt Polish state as part of the so-called Polish Corridor), while German-majority Gdansk/Danzig was transformed into the independent Free City of Danzig. Germany's Province of Pomerania was expanded in 1938 to include northern parts of the former Province of Posen–West Prussia, and in late 1939 the annexed Pomorze Gdańskie/Polish Corridor became part of the wartime Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. The Nazis deported the Pomeranian Jews to a reservation near Lublin[33] in Pomerelia. The Polish population suffered heavily during the Nazi oppression; more than 40,000 died in executions, death camps, prisons and forced labour, primarily those who were teachers, businessmen, priests, politicians, former army officers, and civil servants.[34] Thousands of Poles and Kashubians suffered deportation, their homes taken over by the German military and civil servants, as well as some Baltic Germans resettled there between 1940 and 1943.

After Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II, the German–Polish border was shifted west to the Oder–Neisse line, and all of Pomerania was under Soviet military control.[32]:512–515[35]:373ff The German citizens of the former eastern territories of Germany and Poles of German ethnicity from Pomerelia were expelled. The area was resettled primarily with Poles of Polish ethnicity, (some themselves expellees from former eastern Poland) and some Poles of Ukrainian ethnicity (resettled under Operation Vistula) and few Polish Jews.[35]:381ff[36][37] Most of Hither or Western Pomerania (Vorpommern) remained in Germany, and at first about 500,000 fled and expelled Farther Pomeranians found refuge there, later many moved on to other German regions and abroad. Today German Hither Pomerania forms the eastern part of the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, while the Polish part is divided mainly between the West Pomeranian, Pomeranian voivodeships, with their capitals in Szczecin and Gdańsk. During the 1980s, the Solidarity and Die Wende ("the change") movements overthrew the Communist regimes implemented during the post-war era; since then, Pomerania is democratically governed.

Pomeranian dialect and traditions still live in the country of Brazil in a colony where the language is still spoken. The arrival of Pomerania immigrants with Germans and Italians helped form the state of Espírito Santo since the early 1930s.[38] Their importance and respect are one of the cultural signatures of the area. The Brazilian city of Pomerode (in the state of Santa Catarina) was founded by Pomeranian Germans in 1861 and is considered the most typically German of all the German towns of southern Brazil.

Demographics

Kashubians in regional dress
Kashubians in regional dress

The German part of Hither Pomerania is inhabited by German Pomeranians. In other parts, Poles are the dominant ethnic group since the territorial changes of Poland after World War II, and the resulting Polonization. Kashubians, descendants of the medieval West Slavic Pomeranians, are numerous in rural Pomerelia.

German Hither Pomerania had a population of about 470,000 in 2012 (districts of Vorpommern-Rügen and Vorpommern-Greifswald combined) – while the Polish districts of Hither Pomerania had a population of about 580,000 in 2012 (Szczecin and Świnoujście cities with powiat rights, Police County, as well as Goleniów Wolin and Międzyzdroje gminas combined). So overall, about 1.15 million people live in the historical region of Hither Pomerania today, while the Szczecin metropolitan area reaches even further.

Pomerelia is dominated by the Tricity metropolitan area (Pomeranian Voivodeship) with its population in 2012 estimated at least at 1,035,000 and the area at 1,332,51 km2, encompassing the Tricity itself with a population of 748,986 combining the eponymous three cities of Gdańsk (population 460,427), Gdynia (population 248,726) and Sopot (population 38,217), as well as the Little Kashubian Tricity with a population of 120,158 people (2012), formed by the City of Wejherowo (population 50,310 in 2012) and the towns (urban gminas) of Rumia (population 49,230 in 2020) and Reda (population 26,011 in 2019). The area also includes two smaller towns of Żukowo and Pruszcz Gdański belonging to the eponymous urban-rural gminas, and a number of rural gminas.

Polish voivodeship/
German Landkreis
Capital Registration
plates
Area
(km2)
Population
Polish 31 December 1999
German December 2010
Territorial
code
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship
(northern half)
Bydgoszcz (Voivod office)
Toruń (Voivod council)
C 17,969.72 2,100,771 04
Pomeranian Voivodeship Gdańsk G 18,292.88 2,192,268 22
West Pomeranian Voivodeship Szczecin Z 22,901.48 1,732,838 32
Polish Pomerania and Kuyavia total 59,164.08 6,025,877
Vorpommern-Greifswald Greifswald VG and locally optional: ANK, GW, HGW, PW, SBG, UEM, WLG 3,927 245,733
Vorpommern-Rügen Stralsund VR and locally optional: GMN, HST, NVP, RDG, and RÜG 3,188 230,743
German Pomerania total 7,115 476,476

Cities

The list includes the 14 municipalities in Poland electing a city mayor (Polish: prezydent miasta) instead of a town mayor (Polish: burmistrz), with 9 of them holding the status of a city with powiat rights (Polish: miasto na prawach powiatu, an independent city), as well as the 2 municipalities in Germany holding the status of a district-belonging city (German: Große kreisangehörige Stadt), as no city of the German part of Pomerania holds currently any higher status, such as a partially of fully independent city (German: Große selbständige Stadt, Kreisfreie Stadt, or Stadtkreis), or a city-state (German: Stadtstaat). Subscript text

Cities in the historical region of Hither Pomerania

Cities in the historical region of Farther Pomerania

Cities in the historical region of Pomerelia

Culture

Languages and dialects

A map of Polish dialects. The Pomorze region contains the Kashubian language and a mix of Polish dialects from other parts of the country.
A map of Polish dialects. The Pomorze region contains the Kashubian language and a mix of Polish dialects from other parts of the country.

In the German part of Pomerania, Standard German and the East Low German Mecklenburgisch-Vorpommersch and Central Pomeranian dialects are spoken, though Standard German dominates. Polish is the dominating language in the Polish part; Kashubian dialects are also spoken by the Kashubians in Pomerelia.

East Pomeranian, the East Low German dialect of Farther Pomerania and western Pomerelia, Low Prussian, the East Low German dialect of eastern Pomerelia, and Standard German were dominating in Pomerania east of the Oder-Neisse line before most of its speakers were expelled after World War II. Slovincian was spoken at the Farther Pomeranian–Pomerelian frontier, but is now extinct.

Kashubian and East Low German are also spoken by the descendants of émigrées, most notably in the Americas (e.g. Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Canada).

Cuisine

For typical food and beverages of the region, see Pomeranian cuisine.

Museums

National Museum in Szczecin (Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, Landeshaus)
National Museum in Szczecin (Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, Landeshaus)

The Pomeranian State Museum in Greifswald, dedicated to the history of Pomerania, has a variety of archeological findings and artefacts from the different periods covered in this article. At least 50 museums in Poland cover the history of Pomerania, the most important of them being the National Museum in Gdańsk, the Central Pomerania Museum in Słupsk,[40] the Darłowo Museum,[41] the Koszalin Museum,[42] and the National Museum in Szczecin.[43]

Economy

Agriculture primarily consists of raising livestock, forestry, fishery, and the cultivation of cereals, sugar beets, and potatoes. Industrial food processing is increasingly relevant in the region. Key producing industries are shipyards, mechanical engineering facilities (i.a. renewable energy components), and sugar refineries, along with paper and wood fabricators.[1] Service industries today are an important economical factor in Pomerania, most notably with logistics, information technology, life science, biotechnology, health care, and other high-tech branches often clustering around research facilities of the Pomeranian universities.

Since the late 19th century, tourism has been an important sector of the economy, primarily in the numerous seaside resorts along the coast.

Gallery

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001–07 Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, 2000, Pomerania [1]
  3. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.23,24, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  4. ^ a b e.g. here (Sheperd Atlas), or in old Enc Britannica
  5. ^ "Duden online Kaschubei". 12 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b Johannes Hoops, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, p.422, ISBN 3-11-017733-1
  7. ^ From the First Humans to the Mesolithic Hunters in the Northern German Lowlands, Current Results and Trends – THOMAS TERBERGER. From: Across the western Baltic, edited by: Keld Møller Hansen & Kristoffer Buck Pedersen, 2006, ISBN 87-983097-5-7 OCLC 43087092, Sydsjællands Museums Publikationer Vol. 1 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.18ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6
  9. ^ Horst Wernicke, Greifswald, Geschichte der Stadt, Helms, 2000, pp.16ff, ISBN 3-931185-56-7
  10. ^ A. W. R. Whittle, Europe in the Neolithic: The Creation of New Worlds, Cambridge University Press, 1996, p.198, ISBN 0-521-44920-0
  11. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.22,23, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  12. ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.pp.237ff,244ff
  13. ^ Joachim Herrmann, Die Slawen in Deutschland, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, 1985, pp.261,345ff
  14. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.32, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092:pagan reaction of 1005
  15. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.25, ISBN 3-88680-272-8: pagan uprising that also ended the Polish suzerainty in 1005
  16. ^ A. P. Vlasto, Entry of Slavs Christendom, CUP Archive, 1970, p.129, ISBN 0-521-07459-2: abandoned 1004 – 1005 in face of violent opposition
  17. ^ Nora Berend, Christianization and the Rise of Christian Monarchy: Scandinavia, Central Europe and Rus' C. 900–1200, Cambridge University Press, 2007, p.293, ISBN 0-521-87616-8, ISBN 978-0-521-87616-2
  18. ^ David Warner, Ottonian Germany: The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg, Manchester University Press, 2001, p.358, ISBN 0-7190-4926-1, ISBN 978-0-7190-4926-2
  19. ^ Michael Borgolte, Benjamin Scheller, Polen und Deutschland vor 1000 Jahren: Die Berliner Tagung über den "Akt von Gnesen", Akademie Verlag, 2002, p.282, ISBN 3-05-003749-0, ISBN 978-3-05-003749-3
  20. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.35ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  21. ^ Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.40ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8
  22. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.34ff,87,103, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  23. ^ Jan M. Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, p.43, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  24. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, 1999, pp.77ff, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  25. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.45ff, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  26. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.115,116, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  27. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.186, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  28. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.205–212, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  29. ^ Richard du Moulin Eckart, Geschichte der deutschen Universitäten, Georg Olms Verlag, 1976, pp.111,112, ISBN 3-487-06078-7
  30. ^ Gerhard Krause, Horst Robert Balz, Gerhard Müller, Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Walter de Gruyter, 1997, pp.43ff, ISBN 3-11-015435-8
  31. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, pp.263,332,341–343,352–354, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  32. ^ a b c d Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  33. ^ Leni Yahil, Ina Friedman, Haya Galai, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, 1932–1945, Oxford University Press US, 1991, ISBN 0-19-504523-8, p.138: 12/13 February 1940, 1,300 Jews of all sexes and ages, extreme cruelty, no food allowed to be taken along, cold, some died during deportation, cold and snow during resettlement, 230 dead by 12 March, Lublin reservation chosen in winter, 30,000 Germans resettled before to make room [2]
  34. ^ "Poland". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  35. ^ a b Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeiten, ISBN 83-906184-8-6 OCLC 43087092
  36. ^ Tomasz Kamusella in Prauser and Reeds (eds), The Expulsion of the German communities from Eastern Europe, p.28, EUI HEC 2004/1 [3] Archived 1 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Philipp Ther, Ana Siljak, Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948, 2001, p.114, ISBN 0-7425-1094-8, ISBN 978-0-7425-1094-4
  38. ^ "Os pomeranos: um povo sem Estado finca suas raízes no Brasil" (in Portuguese).
  39. ^ Entwicklungsprioritäten der Metropolregion Stettin Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine (German PDF; 1,7 MB)
  40. ^ "Muzeum Pomorza Środkowego – Strona główna". Muzeum.slupsk.pl. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  41. ^ "Muzeum w Darłowie – Zamek Książąt Pomorskich zaprasza". Muzeumdarlowo.pl. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  42. ^ "Muzeum w Koszalinie". Muzeum.koszalin.pl. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  43. ^ "Muzeum Narodowe w Szczecinie – Aktualności". Muzeum.szczecin.pl. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
  1. ^ The border valley is formed by the rivers Landgraben, Tollense, Trebel, and Recknitz.

External links

Internet directories

Culture and history

Maps of Pomerania

This page was last edited on 15 June 2021, at 02:41
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.