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Political party strength in Massachusetts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following table indicates the party of elected officials in Massachusetts:

The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:

For years in which a United States presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes, and whether they Green tickY won the election or Red XN lost the election.

Each time an official is elected or re-elected, a new box for that official is included to indicate their repeated political party strength.

The parties are as follows:   American (A) (More commonly known as the Know Nothing Party),   Anti-Administration (AA),   American Labor (AL)   Conservative (C),   Constitutional Union (CU),   Democratic (D),   Democratic-Republican (DR),   Federalist (F),   Independence (I),   Jacksonian Democratic (JD),   no party (N),   National Republican (NR),   National Union (NU),   People's Party (P),   Pro-Administration (PA),   Republican (R),   Whig (W),   Working Families (WF), and   a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.

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  • ✪ POLITICAL THEORY - Karl Marx
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  • ✪ Jordan Peterson: People are Deeply Confused About Structures of Value

Transcription

Most people agree that we need to improve our economic system somehow. Yet we’re also often keen to dismiss the ideas of capitalism’s most famous and ambitious critic, Karl Marx. This isn’t very surprising. In practice, his political and economic ideas have been used to design disastrously planned economies and nasty dictatorships. Nevertheless, we shouldn’t reject Marx too quickly. We ought to see him as a guide whose diagnosis of Capitalism’s ills helps us navigate towards a more promising future. Capitalism is going to have be reformed - and Marx’s analyse are going to be part of any answer. Marx was born in 1818 in Trier, Germany. Soon he became involved with the Communist party, a tiny group of intellectuals advocating for the overthrow of the class system and the abolition of private property. He worked as a journalist and had to flee Germany, eventually settling in London. Marx wrote an enormous number of books and articles, sometimes with his friend Friedrich Engels Mostly, Marx wrote about Capitalism, the type of economy that dominates the western world. It was, in his day, still getting going, and Marx was one of its most intelligent and perceptive critics. These were some of the problems he identified with it: Modern work is “alienated” One of Marx’s greatest insights is that work can be one of the sources of our greatest joys. But in order to be fulfilled at work, Marx wrote that workers need ‘to see themselves in the objects they have created’. Think of the person who built this chair: it is straightforward, strong, honest and elegant It’s an example of how, at its best, labour offers us a chance to externalise what’s good inside us. But this is increasingly rare in the modern world. Part of the problem is that modern work is incredibly specialised. Specialised jobs make the modern economy highly efficient, but they also mean that it is seldom possible for any one worker to derive a sense of the genuine contribution they might be making to the real needs of humanity. Marx argued that modern work leads to alienation = Entfremdung in other words, a feeling of disconnection between what you do all day and who you feel you really are and would ideally be able to contribute to existence. Modern work is insecure Capitalism makes the human being utterly expendable; just one factor among others in the forces of production that can ruthlessly be let go the minute that costs rise or savings can be made through technology. And yet, as Marx knew, deep inside of us, we don’t want to be arbitrarily let go, we are terrified of being abandoned. Communism isn’t just an economic theory. Understood emotionally, it expresses a deep-seated longing that we always have a place in the world’s heart, that we will not be cast out. Workers get paid little while capitalists get rich This is perhaps the most obvious qualm Marx had with Capitalism. In particular, he believed that capitalists shrunk the wages of the labourers as much as possible in order to skim off a wide profit margin. He called this primitive accumulation = ursprüngliche Akkumulation Whereas capitalists see profit as a reward for ingenuity and technological talent, Marx was far more damning. Profit is simply theft, and what you are stealing is the talent and hard work of your work force. However much one dresses up the fundamentals, Marx insists that at its crudest, capitalism means paying a worker one price for doing something that can be sold for another, much higher one. Profit is a fancy term for exploitation. Capitalism is very unstable Marx proposed that capitalist systems are characterised by series of crises. Every crisis is dressed up by capitalists as being somehow freakish and rare and soon to be the last one. Far from it, argued Marx, crises are endemic to capitalism - and they’re caused by something very odd. The fact that we’re able to produce too much - far more than anyone needs to consume. Capitalist crises are crises of abundance, rather than - as in the past - crises of shortage. Our factories and systems are so efficient, we could give everyone on this planet a car, a house, access to a decent school and hospital. That’s what so enraged Marx and made him hopeful too. Few of us need to work, because the modern economy is so productive. But rather than seeing this need not to work as the freedom it is, we complain about it masochistically and describe it by a pejorative word “unemployment.” We should call it freedom. There’s so much unemployment for a good and deeply admirable reason: because we’re so good at making things efficiently. We’re not all needed at the coal face. But in that case, we should - thought Marx - make leisure admirable. We should redistribute the wealth of the massive corporations that make so much surplus money and give it to everyone. This is, in its own way, as beautiful a dream as Jesus’s promise of heaven; but a good deal more realistic sounding. Capitalism is bad for capitalists Marx did not think capitalists were evil. For example, he was acutely aware of the sorrows and secret agonies that lay behind bourgeois marriage. Marx argued that marriage was actually an extension of business, and that the bourgeois family was fraught with tension, oppression, and resentment, with people staying together not for love but for financial reasons. Marx believed that the capitalist system forces everyone to put economic interests at the heart of their lives, so that they can no longer know deep, honest relationships. He called this psychological tendency commodity fetishism = Warenfetischismus because it makes us value things that have no objective value. He wanted people to be freed from financial constraint so that they could - at last - start to make sensible, healthy choices in their relationships. The 20th century feminist answer to the oppression of women has been to argue that women should be able to go out to work. Marx’s answer was more subtle. This feminist insistence merely perpetuates human slavery. The point isn’t that women should imitate the sufferings of their male colleagues,it’s that men and women should have the permanent option to enjoy leisure. Why don’t we all think a bit more like marx? An important aspect of Marx’s work is that he proposes that there is an insidious, subtle way in which the economic system colours the sort of ideas that we ending up having. The economy generates what Marx termed an “ideology”. A capitalist society is one where most people, rich and poor, believe all sorts of things that are really just value judgements that relate back to the economic system: that a person who doesn’t work is worthless, that leisure (beyond a few weeks a year) is sinful, that more belongings will make us happier and that worthwhile things (and people) will invariably make money. In short, one of the biggest evils of Capitalism is not that there are corrupt people at the top—this is true in any human hierarchy—but that capitalist ideas teach all of us to be anxious, competitive, conformist, and politically complacent. Marx didn’t only outline what was wrong capitalism: we also get glimpses of what Marx wanted the ideal utopian future to be like. In his Communist Manifesto he describes a world without private property or inherited wealth, with a steeply graduated income tax, centralised control of the banking, communication, and transport industries, and free public education. Marx also expected that communist society would allow people to develop lots of different sides of their natures: “in communist society…it is possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, herdsman or critic.” After Marx moved to London he was supported by his friend and intellectual partner Friedrich Engels, a wealthy man whose father owned a cotton plant in Manchester. Engels covered Marx’s debts and made sure his works were published. Capitalism paid for Communism. The two men even wrote each other adoring poetry. Marx was not a well-regarded or popular intellectual in his day. Respectable, conventional people of Marx’s day would have laughed at the idea that his ideas could remake the world. Yet just a few decades later they did: his writings became the keystone for some of the most important ideological movements of the 20th century. But Marx was like a brilliant doctor in the early days of medicine. He could recognise the nature of the disease, although he had no idea how to go about curing it. At this point in history, we should all be Marxists in the sense of agreeing with his diagnosis of our troubles. But we need to go out and find the cures that will really work. As Marx himself declared, and we deeply agree: Philosophers until now have only interpreted the world in various ways. The point, however, is to change it.

List of political office holders in Massachusetts

Year Executive/Constitutional offices General Court United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Sec. of Comm. Attorney General Treasurer Auditor Senate House U.S. Senator (Class 1) U.S. Senator (Class 2) U.S. House
1780 John Hancock (N) Thomas Cushing (N) John Avery Jr. Robert Treat Paine Henry Gardner (N) no such office
1781 ? ?
1782
1783 Thomas Ivers (N) ? ?
1784
1785   Vacant[1] ? ?
  James Bowdoin (N)
1786
1787 John Hancock (N) Alexander Hodgen (N) ? ?
1788 Benjamin Lincoln (N)
1789 Samuel Adams (N) F Majority F Majority Tristram Dalton (P) Caleb Strong (P) 6 Pro-A,
2 Anti-A
George Washington Green tickY
and
John Adams Green tickY
1790 James Sullivan (DR) F Majority F Majority
1791 F Majority F Majority George Cabot (P) 7 Pro-A,
1 Anti-A
1792 Thomas Davis (N) F Majority F Majority
1793 Vacant[1] F Majority F Majority Caleb Strong (P) 11 Pro-A,
3 Anti-A
George Washington Green tickY
and
John Adams Green tickY
1794 Samuel Adams (N) Moses Gill (N) F Majority F Majority
1795 Samuel Adams (N) Moses Gill (N) F Majority F Majority George Cabot (F) Caleb Strong (F) 10F, 4DR
1796 Samuel Adams (N) Moses Gill (N) F Majority F Majority   Theodore Sedgwick (F) 9F, 5DR
1797 Increase Sumner (F) Moses Gill (N) Peleg Coffin (F) 29F
1DR, 10?
93F
54DR, 52?
Benjamin Goodhue (F) 11F, 3DR John Adams (F)
Green tickY
and
Thomas Pinckney (F)
Red XN
1798 Increase Sumner (F) Moses Gill (N) 29F
4DR, 7?
139F
54DR, 22?
1799 Vacant[1] Moses Gill (N) 35F
3DR, 2?
122F
61DR, 30?
Samuel Dexter (F) 12F, 2DR
1800   Governor's Council[2] Vacant 33F
4DR, 3?
166F
81DR, 13?
11F, 3DR
  Caleb Strong (F) Samuel Phillips Jr. (F) Jonathan Mason (F) Dwight Foster (F)
1801 Caleb Strong (F) Samuel Phillips Jr. (F) 23F
16DR, 1?
152F
113DR, 14?
7F, 7DR John Adams (F)
Red XN
and
Charles C. Pinckney (F)
Red XN
1802 Caleb Strong (F) Edward Robbins (F) Jonathan Jackson (F) 28F
12DR
133F
88DR, 13?
8F, 6 DR
1803 Caleb Strong (F) Edward Robbins (F) 28F
12DR
152F
102DR, 4?
John Quincy Adams (F) Timothy Pickering (F) 10F, 7DR
1804 Caleb Strong (F) Edward Robbins (F) 26F
14DR
150F
129DR, 2?
1805 Caleb Strong (F) Edward Robbins (F) 22F
18DR
181F
163DR
1I, 2?
Timothy Pickering (F) 10DR, 7F Thomas Jefferson
and
George Clinton (DR)
Green tickY
1806 Caleb Strong (F) Edward Robbins (F) Jonathan L. Austin (DR) Thomson J. Skinner (DR) 21DR
19F
263DR
215F, 3?
1807 Jonathan L. Austin (DR) Thomson J. Skinner (DR) James Sullivan (DR) Levi Lincoln Sr. (DR) Barnabas Bidwell (DR) 21DR
19F
250DR
130F, 2?
11DR, 6F
1808 Vacant[1] William Tudor (F) Josiah Dwight (N) 23F
17DR
253F
231DR
James Lloyd (F)
1809 Christopher Gore (F) William Tudor (F) David Cobb (F) 22F
18DR
316F
278DR
9F, 8DR Charles C. Pinckney
and
Rufus King (F)
Green tickY
1810 Elbridge Gerry (DR) William Gray (DR) Benjamin Homans (DR) Perez Morton (DR) Thomas Harris (N) 20F
20DR[3]
335DR
308F
10F, 7DR
1811 Elbridge Gerry (DR) William Gray (DR) Jonathan L. Austin (DR) 21DR
19F
345DR
315F
Joseph Bradley Varnum (DR) 9DR, 8F
1812 Caleb Strong (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) Alden Bradford (F) John T. Apthorp (N) 29DR
11F
429F
320DR
1813 Caleb Strong (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 29F
11DR
420F
215DR, 1?
Christopher Gore (F) 16F, 4DR De Witt Clinton
and
Jared Ingersoll (F)
Red XN
1814 Caleb Strong (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 27F
13DR
354F
159DR, 1?
1815 Caleb Strong (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 25F
15DR
303F
149DR
Christopher Gore (F) 18F, 2DR
1816 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 22F
18DR
324F
214DR, 3?
Eli P. Ashmun (F)
1817 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) Daniel Sargent (N) 27F
13DR
189F
92DR, 5?
Harrison Gray Otis (F) 11F, 9DR Rufus King
and
John E. Howard (F)
Red XN
1818 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 26F
14DR
132F
82DR, 10?
Prentiss Mellen (F)
1819 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 22F
18DR
231F
161DR, 16?
13DR, 7F
1820 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 23F
8DR
87F
64DR, 42?
14DR, 6F
1821 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) 24F
7DR
F Majority Elijah H. Mills (F) 7F, 6DR James Monroe Green tickY
and
(split) Richard Stockton Red XN / Daniel D. Tompkins Green tickY (F)
1822 John Brooks (F) William Phillips Jr. (F) Nahum Mitchell (F) 31F
9DR
105F
53DR, 2?
James Lloyd (F)
1823 William Eustis (DR) Levi Lincoln Jr. (DR) 24DR
16F
DR Majority 7F, 6DR
1824 William Eustis (DR) Marcus Morton (DR) Edward D. Bangs (W) 28DR
12F
DR Majority
1825   Vacant[1] Marcus Morton (DR) NR Majority NR Majority Elijah H. Mills (AJ) James Lloyd (AJ) 12Anti-J, 1J John Q. Adams
and
John C. Calhoun (Adams)
Green tickY
  Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR)
1826 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) NR Majority NR Majority Nathaniel Silsbee (AJ)
1827 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) Joseph Sewall (N) NR Majority NR Majority Daniel Webster (AJ) 13 Anti-J
1828 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) NR Majority NR Majority
1829 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) 37NR
1D, 2?
NR Majority 13 Anti-J John Q. Adams
and
Richard Rush (AJ)
Red XN
1830 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) 38NR
1AM
1D
NR Majority
1831 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) 29NR
6AM
2D, 3?
320NR
87AM
68D, 6 Wkmn.
13 Anti-J
1832 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Thomas L. Winthrop (DR) James T. Austin (N) Hezekiah Barnard (N) 36NR
3AM
1D
313NR
119AM
92D, 4?
1833 Levi Lincoln Jr. (AJ) Samuel T. Armstrong (AJ) 37NR
3AM
372NR
117AM
73D, 11?
Daniel Webster (AJ) 9 AJ, 2 AM, 1J Henry Clay
and
John Sergeant (AM)
Red XN
1834 John Davis (W) Samuel T. Armstrong (W) 32NR
8AM
314NR
131AM
116D
1835 Vacant[1] Samuel T. Armstrong (W) 40W 450W
87D
78AM, 3 Wkmn.
John Davis (W) 8W, 3AM, 1J
1836 Edward Everett (W) George Hull (W) John P. Bigelow (W) 22W
10D
8AM
397W
174D
53AM
1837 Edward Everett (W) George Hull (W) David Wilder Jr. (W) 24W
16D
373W
262D
Daniel Webster (W) 10W, 2D Daniel Webster
and
Francis Granger (W)
Red XN
1838 Edward Everett (W) George Hull (W) 40W 363W
114D, 3?
1839 Edward Everett (W) George Hull (W) 37W
3D
344W
178D
Daniel Webster (W) 10W, 2D
1840 Marcus Morton (D) George Hull (W) 21W
19D
277W
242D
1841 John Davis (W) George Hull (W) 37W
3D
278W
119D
Rufus Choate (W) Isaac C. Bates (W) 11W, 1D William H. Harrison
and
John Tyler (W)
Green tickY
1842 John Davis (W) George Hull (W) Thomas Russell (N) 27W
13D
201W
135D
1843 Marcus Morton (D) Henry H. Childs (D) John A. Bolles (W) Office abolished John Mills (N) 28D
12W
177W
172D
3 Lty.
8W, 2D
1844 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) John G. Palfrey (W) Thomas Russell (N) 34W
6D
185W
133D
4 Lty.
1845 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) Joseph Barrett (N) 40W 200W
70D
2 Lty.
Daniel Webster (W) John Davis (W) 10W Henry Clay
and
Theodore Frelinghuysen (W)
Red XN
1846 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) 40W 198W
63D
4A
1847 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) 40W 208W
43D
3 Lty., 1A
John Davis (W) 10W
1848 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) William B. Calhoun (W) 39W
1D
191W
78D
3 Lty., 1?
1849 George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) John H. Clifford (W) Ebenezer Bradbury (W) David Wilder Jr. (W) 40W 178W
83 Coal., 1?[4]
8W, 1FS, 1Vac Zachary Taylor
and
Millard Fillmore (W)
Green tickY
1850   George N. Briggs (W) John Reed Jr. (W) 27W
13 Coal.[5]
168W
129 Coal., 1?[6]
  Robert C. Winthrop (W)
1851   George S. Boutwell (D) Henry W. Cushman (D) Amasa Walker (W) Charles B. Hall (N) 26 Coal.
14W[7]
218 Coal.
183W[8]
Robert Rantoul Jr. (D) 7W, 2FS, 1D
  Charles Sumner (FS)
1852 George S. Boutwell (D) Henry W. Cushman (D) 28 Coal.
12W[9]
208 Coal.
194W[10]
1853 John H. Clifford (W) Elisha Huntington (W) Ephraim M. Wright (W) Rufus Choate (W) Jacob H. Loud (N) 32W
8 Coal.[11]
151W
137 Coal.[12]
Edward Everett (W) 9W, 1FS, 1D Winfield Scott
and
William Alexander Graham (W)
Red XN
1854   Emory Washburn (W) William C. Plunkett (W) John H. Clifford (W) Joseph Mitchell (N) 30W
10 Coal.[13]
198W
112 Coal.[14]
  Julius Rockwell (W)
1855 Henry Gardner (A) Simon Brown (A) Thomas J. Marsh (N) Stephen N. Gifford (W) 40A 376A
1D, 1R, 1W, 1?
Henry Wilson (FS) 11A
1856 Henry Gardner (A) Henry Wetherby Benchley (A) Francis DeWitt (A) Moses Tenney Jr. (W) Chandler R. Ranson (N) 29A
9R
2D
168A
68R
58W, 34D, 1 Lib.
1857 Henry Gardner (A) Henry Wetherby Benchley (A) 23R
17A
314R
27A
8D, 4W, 2?
Charles Sumner (R) Henry Wilson (R) 11R John C. Frémont
and
William L. Dayton (R)
Red XN
1858 Nathaniel P. Banks (R) Eliphalet Trask (R) Oliver Warner (R) Stephen H. Phillips (R) Charles White (N) 33R
4A
2D, 1W
169R
41D
29A, 1 Cit.
1859 Nathaniel P. Banks (R) Eliphalet Trask (R) 37R
3D
197R
29D
10A
4?
Henry Wilson (R) 11R
1860 Nathaniel P. Banks (R) Eliphalet Trask (R) 34R
6D
183R
50D
6A, 1?
1861 John Albion Andrew (R) John Z. Goodrich (R) Dwight Foster (R) Henry K. Oliver (R) Levi Reed (R) 28R
8U
4D
223R
15D
2NR
10R, 1U Abraham Lincoln
and
Hannibal Hamlin (R)
Green tickY
1862 John Albion Andrew (R) John Nesmith (R) 31R
6D
3U
156R
45U
24D, 4?
9R, 2U
1863 John Albion Andrew (R) Joel Hayden (R) 35R
5D
198R
41D
1?
Charles Sumner (R) 10R
1864 John Albion Andrew (R) Joel Hayden (R) Chester L. Reed (R) 40R 228R
12D
1865 John Albion Andrew (R) Joel Hayden (R) Chester L. Reed (R) Julius L. Clarke (R) 40R 234R
6D
Henry Wilson (R) 10R Abraham Lincoln
and
Andrew Johnson (NU)
Green tickY
1866 Alexander H. Bullock (R) William Claflin (R) Chester L. Reed (R) Jacob H. Loud (R) Henry S. Briggs (R) 39R
1D
221R
19D
1867 Alexander H. Bullock (R) William Claflin (R) Charles Allen (N) 40R 229R
11D
10R
1868 Alexander H. Bullock (R) William Claflin (R) 32R
8D
180R
60D
1869 William Claflin (R) Joseph Tucker (R) 38R
2D
224R
16D
Charles Sumner (R) 10R Ulysses S. Grant
and
Schuyler Colfax (R)
Green tickY
1870 William Claflin (R) Joseph Tucker (R) 29R
10D
1LR
160R
58D
22LR
1871 William Claflin (R) Joseph Tucker (R) Charles Adams Jr. (R) Charles Endicott (R) 34R
5D
1LR
195R
34D
11LR
Henry Wilson (R) 10R
1872 William B. Washburn (R) Joseph Tucker (R) Charles R. Train (R) 35R
5D
186R
49D
5LR
1873 William B. Washburn (R) Thomas Talbot (R) 39R
1D
212R
28D
Charles Sumner (LR) George S. Boutwell (R) 11R Ulysses S. Grant
and
Henry Wilson (R)
Green tickY
1874 Vacant[1] Thomas Talbot (R) 25R
11D
4I
168R
70D
2I
William B. Washburn (R)
1875 William Gaston (D) Horatio G. Knight (R) 24R
15D
1I
155R
79D
6I
Henry L. Dawes (R) 5R, 4D, 2I
1876 Alexander H. Rice (R) Horatio G. Knight (R) Henry B. Pierce (R) Charles Endicott (R) Julius L. Clarke (R) 31R
9D
182R
58D
5D, 4R, 2I
1877 Alexander H. Rice (R) Horatio G. Knight (R) 33R
7D
181R
59D
George Hoar (R) 10R, 1D Rutherford B. Hayes
and
William A. Wheeler (R)
Green tickY
1878 Alexander H. Rice (R) Horatio G. Knight (R) 35R
5D
171R
69D
9R, 2D
1879 Thomas Talbot (R) John Davis Long (R) George Marston (N) Charles R. Ladd (R) 35R
5D
185R
40D
15GB
10R, 1D
1880 John Davis Long (R) Byron Weston (R) 32R
8D
185R
52D
3GB
1881 John Davis Long (R) Byron Weston (R) Daniel A. Gleason (R) 35R
5D
192R
47D
1GB
Henry L. Dawes (R) 10R, 1D James A. Garfield
and
Chester A. Arthur (R)
Green tickY
1882 John Davis Long (R) Byron Weston (R) 36R
4D
181R
55D
4I
1883 Benjamin F. Butler (D) Oliver Ames (R) Edgar J. Sherman (R) 22R
17D
1I
150R
85D
5I
George Hoar (R) 8R, 4D
1884 George D. Robinson (R) Oliver Ames (R) 25R
14D
1I
137R
92D
8I, 3GB
1885 George D. Robinson (R) Oliver Ames (R) 34R
5D
1IR
166R
71D
3I
10R, 2D James G. Blaine
and
John A. Logan (R)
Red XN
1886 George D. Robinson (R) Oliver Ames (R) Alanson W. Beard (R) 28R
12D
154R
77D
3I, 3IR, 2GB-L, 1ID
1887 Oliver Ames (R) John Q. A. Brackett (R) Andrew J. Waterman (R) 25R
15D
158R
82D
Henry L. Dawes (R) 8R, 4D
1888 Oliver Ames (R) John Q. A. Brackett (R) 30R
10D
165R
72D
3I
1889 Oliver Ames (R) John Q. A. Brackett (R) George A. Marden (R) 29R
11D
160R
80D
George Hoar (R) 10R, 2D Benjamin Harrison
and
Levi P. Morton (R)
Green tickY
1890 John Q. A. Brackett (R) William H. Haile (R) 20R
20D[15]
141R
98D
1 Proh.
1891 William Russell (D) William H. Haile (R) William M. Olin (R) Albert E. Pillsbury (R) William D.T. Trefry (D) 24R
16D
141R
98D
1 Proh.
7D, 5R
1892 William Russell (D) William H. Haile (R) John W. Kimball (R) 24R
16D
149R
90D
1 Proh.
1893 William Russell (D) Roger Wolcott (R) 30R
10D
166R
74D
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) 9R, 4D Benjamin Harrison
and
Whitelaw Reid (R)
Red XN
1894 Frederic T. Greenhalge (R) Roger Wolcott (R) Hosea M. Knowlton (R) Henry M. Phillips (R) 33R
7D
181R
56D
1I
1895 Frederic T. Greenhalge (R) Roger Wolcott (R) Edward P. Shaw (R) 36R
4D
194R
46D
George Hoar (R) 12R, 1D
1896   Frederic T. Greenhalge (R) Roger Wolcott (R) 33R
7D
182R
58D
  Vacant[1]
1897 Roger Wolcott (R) Winthrop M. Crane (R) 35R
5D
198R
38D
4I
12R, 1D William McKinley
and
Garret A. Hobart (R)
Green tickY
1898 Roger Wolcott (R) Winthrop M. Crane (R) 33R
7D
179R
53D
8I
1899 Roger Wolcott (R) Winthrop M. Crane (R) 33R
7D
174R
65D
1 Proh.
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) 10R, 3D
1900 Winthrop M. Crane (R) John L. Bates (R) Edward S. Bradford (R) 31R
9D
166R
72D
2 Ind. Cit.
1901 Winthrop M. Crane (R) John L. Bates (R) Henry E. Turner (R) 31R
9D
180R
58D
2SD
George Hoar (R) 10R, 3D William McKinley
and
Theodore Roosevelt (R)
Green tickY
1902 Winthrop M. Crane (R) John L. Bates (R) Herbert Parker (R) 33R
7D
166R
72D
2SD
1903 John L. Bates (R) Curtis Guild Jr. (R) 31R
9D
153R
84D
3S
10R, 4D
1904 John L. Bates (R) Curtis Guild Jr. (R) 31R
9D
155R
84D
1S
1905 William Douglas (D) Curtis Guild Jr. (R) Arthur B. Chapin (R) 34R
6D
170R
69D
1I
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) Winthrop Crane (R) 11R, 3D Theodore Roosevelt
and
Charles W. Fairbanks (R)
Green tickY
1906 Curtis Guild Jr. (R) Ebenezer S. Draper (R) Dana Malone (R) 31R
9D
169R
71D
1907 Curtis Guild Jr. (R) Ebenezer S. Draper (R) 28R
11D
1I
174R
61D
5 Ind. Leag.
Winthrop Crane (R) 11R, 3D
1908 Curtis Guild Jr. (R) Ebenezer S. Draper (R) 32R
8D
174R
61D
5 Ind. Leag.
1909 Ebenezer S. Draper (R) Louis A. Frothingham (R) Elmer A. Stevens (R) 34R
6D
180R
56D
3 Ind. Leag., 1 Ind. Cit.
9R, 5D William Howard Taft
and
James S. Sherman (R)
Green tickY
1910 Ebenezer S. Draper (R) Louis A. Frothingham (R) 31R
9D
167R
71D
1 Ind. Cit., 1S
1911 Eugene Foss (D) Louis A. Frothingham (R) Albert P. Langtry (R) James M. Swift (R) John E. White (R) 26R
14D
127R
112D
1S
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) 10R, 4D
1912 Eugene Foss (D) Robert Luce (R) 27R
13D
140R
97D
1 Ind. Cit., 1I, 1S
1913 Eugene Foss (D) David I. Walsh (D) Frank J. Donahue (D) 25R
14D
1 Prog.
134R
96D
8 Prog., 1I, 1S
John W. Weeks (R) 9R, 7D Woodrow Wilson
and
Thomas R. Marshall (D)
Green tickY
1914 David I. Walsh (D) Edward P. Barry (D) Thomas J. Boynton (D) Frederick Mansfield (D) Frank H. Pope (D) 21R
17D
2 Prog.
118R
104D
17 Prog., 1S
8R, 8D
1915 David I. Walsh (D) Grafton D. Cushing (R) Albert P. Langtry (R) Henry Converse Atwill (R) Charles L. Burrill (R) Alonzo B. Cook (R) 28R
12D
150R
90D
13R, 3D
1916 Samuel W. McCall (R) Calvin Coolidge (R) 34R
6D
166R
73D
1S
1917 Samuel W. McCall (R) Calvin Coolidge (R) 34R
6D
174R
64D
1I, 1S
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) 13R, 3D Charles Evans Hughes
and
Charles Fairbanks (R)
Red XN
1918 Samuel W. McCall (R) Calvin Coolidge (R) 33R
7D
179R
59D
1 Ind. Cit., 1S
1919 Calvin Coolidge (R) Channing H. Cox (R) Albert P. Langtry (R) Vacant 30R
10D
180R
60D
David I. Walsh (D) 13R, 3D
1920 Calvin Coolidge (R) Channing H. Cox (R) J. Weston Allen (R) Fred J. Burrell (R) 33R
7D
177R
62D
1I
1921 Channing H. Cox (R) Alvan T. Fuller (R) J. Weston Allen (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) James Jackson (R) 35R
5D
188R
49D
3I
14R, 2D Warren Harding
and
Calvin Coolidge (R)
Green tickY
1922
1923 Channing H. Cox (R) Alvan T. Fuller (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Jay R. Benton (R) 33R
7D
164R
75D
1I
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) 13R, 3D
1924 William S. Youngman (R)
1925 Alvan T. Fuller (R) Frank G. Allen (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Jay R. Benton (R) 34R
6D
167R
67D
6R+D
William M. Butler (R) Frederick H. Gillett (R) 13R, 3D Calvin Coolidge
and
Charles Dawes (R)
Green tickY
1926
1927 Alvan T. Fuller (R) Frank G. Allen (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Arthur K. Reading (R) 35R
5D
149R
54D
31 Unaffiliated
6 R+D
David I. Walsh (D) 13R, 3D
1928 Joseph E. Warner (R) John W. Haigis (R)
1929 Frank G. Allen (R) William S. Youngman (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Joseph E. Warner (R) 31R
9D
160R
80D
David I. Walsh (D) 13R, 3D Al Smith
and
Joseph Robinson (D)
Red XN
1930 Vacant
1931 Joseph B. Ely (D) William S. Youngman (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Joseph E. Warner (R) Charles F. Hurley (D) Francis X. Hurley (D) 30R
10D
141R
99D
Marcus A. Coolidge (D) 12R, 4D
1932
1933 Joseph B. Ely (D) Gaspar G. Bacon (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Joseph E. Warner (R) 26R
14D
148R
92D
10R, 5D Franklin Roosevelt
and
John Nance Garner (D)
Green tickY
1934
1935 James Michael Curley (D) Joseph L. Hurley (D) Frederic W. Cook (R) Paul A. Dever (D) Thomas H. Buckley (D) 21R
19D
124R
116D
David I. Walsh (D) 8R, 7D
1936
1937 Charles F. Hurley (D) Francis E. Kelly (D) Frederic W. Cook (R) Paul A. Dever (D) William E. Hurley (R) 26R
14D
136R
104D
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R) 10R, 5D Franklin Roosevelt
and
John Nance Garner (D)
Green tickY
1938
1939 Leverett Saltonstall (R) Horace T. Cahill (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Paul A. Dever (D) William E. Hurley (R) 28R
12D
142R
98D
10R, 5D
1940
1941 Leverett Saltonstall (R) Horace T. Cahill (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Robert T. Bushnell (R) William E. Hurley (R) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 25R
15D
141R
99D
David I. Walsh (D) 9R, 6D Franklin Roosevelt
and
Henry Wallace (D)
Green tickY
1942
1943 Leverett Saltonstall (R) Horace T. Cahill (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Robert T. Bushnell (R) Francis X. Hurley (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 26R
14D
141R
99D
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R) 10R, 4D
1944 Sinclair Weeks (R)
1945 Maurice J. Tobin (D) Robert F. Bradford (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Clarence A. Barnes (R) John E. Hurley (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 23R
17R
137R
103D
Leverett Saltonstall (R) 10R, 4D Franklin Roosevelt
and
Harry Truman (D)
Green tickY
1946
1947 Robert F. Bradford (R) Arthur W. Coolidge (R) Frederic W. Cook (R) Clarence A. Barnes (R) Laurence Curtis (R) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 24R
16D
145R
95D
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R) 9R, 5D
1948
1949 Paul A. Dever (D) Charles F. Sullivan (D) Edward J. Cronin (D) Francis E. Kelly (D) John E. Hurley (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 20R
20D[16]
122D
118R
Leverett Saltonstall (R) 8R, 6D Harry Truman
and
Alben Barkley (D)
Green tickY
1950
1951 Paul A. Dever (D) Charles F. Sullivan (D) Edward J. Cronin (D) Francis E. Kelly (D) John E. Hurley (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 22R
18D
124D
116R
8R, 6D
1952 Foster Furcolo (D)
1953 Christian Herter (R) Sumner G. Whittier (R) Edward J. Cronin (D) George Fingold (R) Foster Furcolo (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 25R
15D
124R
116D
John F. Kennedy (D) 8R, 6D Dwight Eisenhower
and
Richard Nixon (R)
Green tickY
1954
1955 Christian Herter (R) Sumner G. Whittier (R) Edward J. Cronin (D) George Fingold (R) John Francis Kennedy (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 21R
19D
128D
112R
Leverett Saltonstall (R) 7R, 7D
1956
1957 Foster Furcolo (D) Robert F. Murphy (D) Edward J. Cronin (D) George Fingold (R) John Francis Kennedy (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 22R
18D
132D
108R
7R, 7D Dwight Eisenhower
and
Richard Nixon (R)
Green tickY
1958 J. Henry Goguen (D) Vacant
1959 Foster Furcolo (D) Robert F. Murphy (D) Joseph D. Ward (D) Edward J. McCormack Jr. (D) John Francis Kennedy (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 24D
16R
145D
95R
John F. Kennedy (D) 8D, 6R
1960
1961 John Volpe (R) Edward F. McLaughlin Jr. (D) Kevin White (D) Edward J. McCormack Jr. (D) John T. Driscoll (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 26D
14R
156D
84R
Benjamin Smith (D) Leverett Saltonstall (R) 8D, 6R John F. Kennedy
and
Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
Green tickY
1962
1963 Endicott Peabody (D) Francis Bellotti (D) Kevin White (D) Edward Brooke (R) John T. Driscoll (D) Thomas J. Buckley (D) 28D
12R
150D
90R
Ted Kennedy (D) 7D, 5R
1964 Thaddeus M. Buczko (D)
1965 John Volpe (R) Elliot Richardson (R) Kevin White (D) Edward Brooke (R) Robert Q. Crane (D) Thaddeus M. Buczko (D) 28D
12R
169D
71R
Ted Kennedy (D) 7D, 5R Lyndon B. Johnson
and
Hubert Humphrey (D)
Green tickY
1966
1967 John Volpe (R) Francis Sargent (R) John Davoren (D) Elliot Richardson (R) Robert Q. Crane (D) Thaddeus M. Buczko (D) 26D
14R
168D
71R
1I
Edward Brooke (R) 7D, 5R
1968
1969 Vacant[1] Robert H. Quinn (D) 27D
13R
173D
67R
8D, 4R Hubert Humphrey
and
Edmund Muskie (D)
Red XN
1970
1971 Francis Sargent (R) Donald Dwight (R) John Davoren (D) Robert H. Quinn (D) Robert Q. Crane (D) Thaddeus M. Buczko (D) 30D
10R
178D
62R
Ted Kennedy (D) 8D, 4R
1972
1973 33D
7R
181D
57R
2I
Edward Brooke (R) 9D, 3R George McGovern
and
Sargent Shriver (D)
Red XN
1974
1975 Michael Dukakis (D) Thomas P. O'Neill III (D) Paul H. Guzzi (D) Francis Bellotti (D) Robert Q. Crane (D) Thaddeus M. Buczko (D) 33D
7R
191D
46R
3I
10D, 2R
1976
1977 33D
7R
194D
43R
3I
Ted Kennedy (D) 10D, 2R Jimmy Carter
and
Walter Mondale (D)
Green tickY
1978
1979 Edward J. King (D) Thomas P. O'Neill III (D) Michael Connolly (D) Francis Bellotti (D) Robert Q. Crane (D) Thaddeus M. Buczko (D) 34D
6R
128D
30R
2I
Paul Tsongas (D) 10D, 2R
1980
1981 John J. Finnegan (D) 32D
7R
1I
128D
31R
1I
10D, 2R Ronald Reagan
and
George H. W. Bush (R)
Green tickY
1982
1983 Michael Dukakis (D) John Kerry (D) Michael Connolly (D) Francis Bellotti (D) Robert Q. Crane (D) John J. Finnegan (D) 33D
7R
131D
29R
Ted Kennedy (D) 10D, 1R
1984
1985 Vacant 32D
8R
126D
34R
John Kerry (D) 10D, 1R Ronald Reagan
and
George H. W. Bush (R)
Green tickY
1986
1987 Michael Dukakis (D) Evelyn Murphy (D) Michael Connolly (D) James Shannon (D) Robert Q. Crane (D) Joe DeNucci (D) 32D
8R
126D
33R
1I
10D, 1R
1988
1989 31D
9R
127D
33R
Ted Kennedy (D) 10D, 1R Michael Dukakis
and
Lloyd Bentsen (D)
Red XN
1990
1991 Bill Weld (R) Paul Cellucci (R) Michael Connolly (D) Scott Harshbarger (D) Joe Malone (R) Joe DeNucci (D) 24D
16R
123D
37R
John Kerry (D) 11D
1992
1993 31D
9R
124D
35R
1I
8D, 2R Bill Clinton
and
Al Gore (D)
Green tickY
1994
1995 Bill Weld (R) Paul Cellucci (R) Bill Galvin (D) Scott Harshbarger (D) Joe Malone (R) Joe DeNucci (D) 30D
10R
125D
34R
1NP
Ted Kennedy (D) 8D, 2R
1996
1997 33D
7R
124D
35R
1I
John Kerry (D) 10D Bill Clinton
and
Al Gore (D)
Green tickY
1998 Vacant[1]
1999 Paul Cellucci (R) Jane Swift (R) Bill Galvin (D) Thomas Reilly (D) Shannon O'Brien (D) Joe DeNucci (D) 33D
7R
131D
28R
1I
10D
2000
2001 34D
6R
137D
23R
Ted Kennedy (D) 10D Al Gore
and
Joe Lieberman (D)
Red XN
2002 Vacant[1]
2003 Mitt Romney (R) Kerry Healey (R) Bill Galvin (D) Thomas Reilly (D) Tim Cahill (D) Joe DeNucci (D) 34D
6R
135D
23R
1I
John Kerry (D) 10D
2004
2005 34D
6R
139D
20R
1I
10D John Kerry
and
John Edwards (D)
Red XN
2006
2007 Deval Patrick (D) Tim Murray (D) Bill Galvin (D) Martha Coakley (D) Tim Cahill (D) Joe DeNucci (D) 35D
5R
141D
19R
Ted Kennedy (D) 10D
2008
2009   35D
5R
144D
15R
1I
John Kerry (D) 10D Barack Obama
and
Joe Biden (D)
Green tickY
  Tim Cahill (I)[17] Paul G. Kirk (D)
2010  
  Scott Brown (R)
2011 Deval Patrick (D) Tim Murray (D) Bill Galvin (D) Martha Coakley (D) Steve Grossman (D) Suzanne Bump (D) 36D
4R
127D
33R
10D
2012
2013   36D
4R
131D
29R
Elizabeth Warren (D) Mo Cowan (D) 9D Barack Obama
and
Joe Biden (D)
Green tickY
  Vacant Ed Markey (D)
2014
2015 Charlie Baker (R) Karyn Polito (R) Bill Galvin (D) Maura Healey (D) Deb Goldberg (D) Suzanne Bump (D) 34D
6R
125D
35R
Ed Markey (D)
2016
2017 33D
7R
125D
35R
Hillary Clinton and Tim Kaine (D) Red XN
2018
2019 34D
6R
127D
32R
1I
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Sec. of Comm. Attorney General Treasurer Auditor Senate House U.S. Senator (Class 1) U.S. Senator (Class 2) U.S. House Electoral College votes
Executive/Constitutional offices General Court United States Congress

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lieutenant Governor acted as governor for unexpired term.
  2. ^ Due to the offices of both governor and lieutenant governor being vacant, the council acted as governor.
  3. ^ Elected Harrison Gray Otis, a Federalist, as Senate President.
  4. ^ Starting at the 1848 election, the Free Soilers (mostly former members of the Liberty Party) and Democrats in Massachusetts established a formal coalition to contest elections for the General Court and for state offices. The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1849 after the election was 53 Free Soilers and 30 Democrats.
  5. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the Senate in 1850 after the election was 7 Free Soilers and 6 Democrats.
  6. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1850 after the election was 56 Democrats, 42 Free Soilers, and 32 Free Soil Democrats.
  7. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the Senate in 1851 after the election was 15 Democrats and 11 Free Soilers.
  8. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1851 after the election was 110 Democrats, 98 Free Soilers, and 10 Free Soil Democrats.
  9. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the Senate in 1852 after the election was 15 Democrats and 13 Free Soilers.
  10. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1852 after the election was 118 Democrats and 90 Free Soilers.
  11. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the Senate in 1853 after the election was 4 Democrats and 4 Free Soilers.
  12. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1853 after the election was 83 Democrats and 54 Free Soilers.
  13. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the Senate in 1854 after the election was 6 Democrats and 4 Free Soilers.
  14. ^ The makeup of the members of the coalition in the House in 1854 after the election was 64 Democrats and 48 Free Soilers.
  15. ^ After a tied vote on the first ballot, the Democrats negotiated an agreement to give the Republicans, led by Henry H. Sprague, the Senate Presidency pro tempore in exchange for an even division of all committees. [1]
  16. ^ Owens, Cornelius (January 28, 1949). "State Senate Elects Dolan". The Boston Daily Globe. After 114 ballots, an agreement was negotiated, with Democrats led by Chester A. Dolan Jr. receiving the Presidency for 1949, while Republicans led by Harris S. Richardson receiving it in 1950. Additionally, the Democrats received the majority on the Ways and Means Committee while all Republican-appointed employees of the Senate retained their jobs.
  17. ^ After holding office in his second term for two and a half years, Cahill changed party affiliation from Democratic to independent on July 8, 2009. Antle, W. James, III (July 13, 2009). "Cahill's Charge". spectator.org. The American Spectator. Retrieved January 15, 2010.

See also

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