To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Evangelical Church in Brazil
Evangelical Church in Brazil

The political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America is a phenomenon that has resulted in increased political influence and activism by the Evangelical Christian community in the region.[1][2][3] Marginal at first, different news reports and political analysts have pointed the important weight that such community has and its impact in electoral politics, even helping in the electoral victories of conservative candidates.[2][4][5]

Evangelical political parties are a particular type of political parties in Latin America generally linked or known to advocate for the interests of the Evangelical Christian community.[1][2][3][4][5]

They are normally associated with certain stances like cultural conservatism, strong opposition to same-sex marriage and LGBT rights, legalization of abortion, drug liberalization and marijuana legalization, what they refer as "gender ideology" or identity politics, gun control and globalism.[2][5] Although exceptions exist, they tend to be located on the right of the spectrum due to the Prosperity Theology associated to them,[4][6] whilst supporting such things as death penalty, "hard hand" on crime, corporal punishment for minors and harder laws for juvenile delinquents.[6]

Similar movements often interconnected or analogous according to some analysts are the Tea Party movement, the Christian right, the neo-nationalism, the alt-right, the QAnon and the conservative wave.[citation needed]

History

Protestant missionary groups mainly from the Charismatic Movement originated in the Deep South of the United States were introduced deliberately as a strategy from Washington particularly during Republican administrations as a way to reduce the influence of left-leaning Catholic movements like Liberation theology (which was popular among many far-left political parties and guerrillas) and the more moderate Christian socialist and Christian Democratic parties.[7][8] According to Catholic blogger Jorge Rondón in his essay: La Expansión del Protestantismo Fue Parte del Plan de Guerra de la CIA para América del Sur (The Expansion of Protestantism Was Part of CIA War Plan for South America), U.S. President Richard Nixon encouraged the introduction of Protestant missions after a 1969 memorandum received by then Vice President Nelson Rockefeller which stated: "the Catholic church has ceased to be an ally in whom the U.S. can have confidence."[9] Something confirmed by Wade Clark Roof in his book World Order and Religion.[9] Guatemalan archbishop Próspero Penados also blamed the US for encouraging and sponsor Evangelicalism in Guatemala for, according to him, more political than religious reasons arguing that: "The diffusion of Protestantism in Guatemala is more part of an economic and political strategy" to oppose the Catholic social justice doctrine".[10]

In recent decades, the Catholic Church has suffered a drain of followers, some of whom became irreligious, agnostics or atheists. Some also went to other alternative religions like Buddhism, Islam and new religious movements; but a large segment of former Catholics, particularly those of more humble origins and lower classes, went into the Evangelical Churches, with neo-Pentecostal and Charismatic movements proven popular amongst the converts.[11] Pentecostalism also became popular among the lower income classes and the most abandoned sectors of society specially those of very poor and peripheral areas who see the Churches' ideas of economic growth through faith as an opportunity for social mobility.[11] In any case, the growth of Evangelicals was quickly followed by their newly discovered political and electoral weight, with new forms of political activism and even the creation of specific political parties connected to their communities.[12] Guatemalan dictator Efraín Ríos Montt was one of the first Evangelical Christians in attain power in Latin America's history.[12][9]

Some examples of these movements include the support from the Evangelical Christian community to Jimmy Morales (himself an Evangelical) in Guatemala,[5] Juan Orlando Hernández in Honduras,[5] Mauricio Macri in Argentina, Sebastián Piñera in Chile[13] The Evangelical opposition in the Colombian peace agreement referendum is considered for many pivotal in its rejection,[14] as was the Evangelical parties' support of the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff in Brazil. Countries with notorious conservative right-wing candidates supported by Evangelicals include Venezuela where pastor Javier Bertucci was the third-most voted nominee, Costa Rica where preacher and gospel singer Fabricio Alvarado went into the electoral run-off[5] and Brazil where Evangelical Christians were pivotal in the triumph of Jair Bolsonaro.[5][15][16][6]

However, in some countries the alliance was with the left. The Authentic Renewal Organization is a Venezuelan Evangelical political party and member of the official Great Patriotic Pole of President Nicolás Maduro. Daniel Ortega was also supported by Evangelical pastors in Nicaragua[17] and his wife and Vice President Rosario Murillo has links with Evangelical Churchers.[18] The Social Encounter Party in Mexico is also unofficially linked to the Mexican Evangelical community (as the Mexican Constitution forbids the existence of confessional parties) and is a member of the Juntos Haremos Historia coalition that endorsed leftist Andrés Manuel López Obrador,[5] a move that brought out criticism as it was a coalition with two left-wing parties.[19]

Positions

The movement is generally characterized by its staunch cultural conservatism (even for Latin American standards) with a very strong opposition to same-sex marriage, LGBT rights, legalization of abortion, drug liberalization and marijuana legalization, "gender ideology" and identity politics, gun control and globalism.[2][5] Some may hold strong anti-communist and anti-socialist positions and endorse neoliberal and pro-free market capitalist ideas in part due to the Prosperity Theology that many hold.[4][6] Some conspiracy theories like Cultural Marxism and New World Order have proven popular among its base. South American Evangelicals also tend to follow Christian Zionism and be supporters of Israel, supporting policies such as the moving of the embassies of their countries to Jerusalem.[2][20][21][22][23][24]

Some have been described also as supporters of the death penalty, "hard hand" on crime, Creationism (and opposition of teaching the scientific theories of Evolution and Big Bang on schools),[25] corporal punishment for kids and harder laws for juvenile delinquents.[6] Their most critical opponents signal them as having far-right, religious fundamentalist, theocratic, anti-democratic and authoritarian ideas wanting to replace democracy by theocracy.[26][27]

Roman Catholics in Latin America tend to be relatively more left-wing in economics[28][29] due to the traditional teachings of the Catholic social doctrine and the Christian Democracy.[5] Evangelical Christians on the other hand are mostly from the neo-Pentecostal movement and thus believers in the Prosperity Theology which justify most of their neoliberal economic ideas.[5]

Political positions in contrast to other groups

With Roman Catholics

With agnostics, atheist and nonreligious

Atheist, agnostics and non-religious people are the third largest group of Latin America behind Catholics and Protestants.[11] Coincidences with the conservative neo-Pentecostal are scarce. Although exceptions exist, non-religious in Latin America tend to be strongly culturally liberal, generally more than the average Latin American,[11] being much more likely to support such things like secularism, abortion, same-sex marriage and birth control than their Catholic counterparts and specially the neo-Pentecostal community.[11] Nonreligious are also much more supportive of Palestine than Israel and come mostly from the middle and high class, especially the professional and intellectual camps.[11] Although in economic and politics nonreligious may also support right-wing libertarian, liberal and economically conservative ideas, it is also slightly more common for secularists to be more on the left and center-left of the spectrum.[38][39]

With other religiones

Brazil's Spiritualist community had criticized the Evangelical position on Human Rights, social justice and economic policies.[40][41]

The Brazilian Muslim community is split on the issue of supporting or rejecting right-wing figures like Donald Trump and Jair Bolsonaro.[42] Muslims in the West tend to be socially conservative but economically progressive.

Corruption cases

Brazil

Pastor Magno Malta

Prominent pentecostal politicians in Brazil have been involved in cases of corruption and law violations. Since 2007 Federal deputy Pastor Magno Malta was in involved in many scandals including embezzlement, nepotism, bribing and emission of fake bill of goods.[43][44][45][46][47]

Pastor Everaldo Pereira

In 2012, Pastor Everaldo Pereira was convicted and ordered to pay his ex-wife, Katia Maia, an indemnity of R$ 85,000 (US$ 26,350) for material and moral damage. Pastor Everaldo asked the Justice Court of Rio de Janeiro (TJ-RJ) to overturn the decision and was acquitted by the Supreme Federal Court.[48] In 2013, Pereira's ex-wife initiated in the Superior Court of Justice (STJ) a new judicial process, alleging that the pastor committed physical violence, followed by death threats. Katia Maia said that during the aggression there were "kicks and punches, that caused a puncture in [her] eardrum". Pereira, however, said he acted in legitimate self-defense after a car pursuit in the streets of Rio de Janeiro.[49]

Pastor Marco Feliciano

Federal deputy Pastor Marco Feliciano, one of the most prominent names of the PSC, stated that Africans were cursed by Noah,[50] leading to accusations of racism.[51]

The deputy was charged with attempted rape and assault by 22-year-old Patricia Lelis, a PSC activist who attended the same church as the pastor.[52] The deputy chief of staff, Talma Bauer, was arrested for initially being suspected of kidnapping the young woman and forcing her to record videos defending the deputy in order to dismiss the initial complaint.[53] After a police inquiry, Bauer was released and the São Paulo Civil Police concluded that there was no kidnapping or aggression,[54] and requested the arrest of Patrícia Lélis for the crimes of slanderous denunciation and extortion against Bauer.[55]

Guatemala

Jimmy Morales

In January 2017, Samuel "Sammy" Morales, the older brother and close adviser to Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales, whose campaign slogan was, "neither corrupt, nor a crook", as well as one of Morales' sons, José Manuel Morales, were arrested on corruption and money laundering charges.[56][57] According to media reports, the arrests prompted several large protests of up to 15,000 people demanding for President Morales' removal.[58][59][60]

Jimmy Morales ordered the expulsion of Colombian Iván Velásquez, commissioner of the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), after it began "investigating claims that his party took illegal donations, including from drug-traffickers" and asked "congress to strip him of immunity from prosecution."[61][62] After Minister of foreign affairs Carlos Raul Morales refused to sign the executive order, he was removed from office along with viceminister Carlos Ramiro Martínez.[63] The Constitutional Court of Guatemala finally blocked the move.[62]

Furthermore, former cabinet minister Édgar Gutiérrez accused Jimmy Morales of having sexually abused young female public workers with complicity of other government officials.[64]

Criticism

Some parties and candidates are criticized for being supporters of Creationism over the scientific theories of Evolution and Big Bang.[65][25], or for believing in conspiracy theories like Cultural Marxism, Gender ideology and New World Order.

They are also often accused of far-right, religious fundamentalist, theocratic, anti-democratic and authoritarian ideologies,[26] or for planning to replace democracy with theocracy.[27]

Political parties

Country Party
 Brazil Social Christian Party
Patriota
Republicanos
 Colombia Independent Movement of Absolute Renovation
Colombia Fair Free
 Costa Rica National Restoration Party
Costa Rican Renewal Party
New Republic Party
 Guatemala National Convergence Front
 Peru Agricultural People's Front of Peru
National Victory
 Venezuela Authentic Renewal Organization

Bibliography

  • Freston, Paul (2008). Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Latin America. Print ISBN 9780195174762. Oxford Publishing.
  • Colbi, Gerald. Dennett, Charlotte. (1996), Thy Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon : Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Allen, John (2006-08-18). "The dramatic growth of evangelicals in Latin America". National Catholic. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Pointu, Tupac (6 October 2018). "Evangelicals wield voting power across Latin America, including Brazil". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b Puglie, Frederic (19 February 2018). "Evangelicals' newfound political clout in Latin America unnerves politicians, Catholic Church". Washington Times. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d Corrales, Javier (17 January 2018). "A Perfect Marriage: Evangelicals and Conservatives in Latin America". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lissardy, Gerardo (17 April 2018). ""La fuerza política más nueva": cómo los evangélicos emergen en el mapa de poder en América Latina". BBC. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e Polimédio, Chayenne (24 January 2018). "The Rise of the Brazilian Evangelicals". The Atlantic. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  7. ^ Sabanes Plou, Dafne. "Ecumenical history of Latin America". Overcoming Violence. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  8. ^ Arsenault, Chris (26 Mar 2012). "Evangelicals rise in Latin America". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Severo, Julio (2018-01-10). "The Religious War between CIA and KGB in Latin America". Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  10. ^ Keeley, Theresa (October 2015). "Medellín Is "Fantastic": Drafts of the 1969 Rockefeller Report on the Catholic Church". The Catholic Historical Review. 101 (4): 809–834. doi:10.1353/cat.2015.0216. S2CID 155337167. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Religion in Latin America". Pew Research Center. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  12. ^ a b Davis, Joseph (1991). "Evangelical Growth and Politics in Latin America". First Thing. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  13. ^ "Macri hace un guiño a los evangélicos y los exime de registrarse en la IGJ". La Política Online. 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  14. ^ Cosoy, Natalio (5 October 2016). "El rol de las iglesias cristianas evangélicas en la victoria del "No" en el plebiscito de Colombia". BBC. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  15. ^ Schipani, Andres; Leahy, Joe (19 October 2018). "Jair Bolsonaro courts Brazil's evangelical Christians". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  16. ^ Warren, Steven (29 October 2018). "How Evangelical Christians Helped Elect Brazil's New President". CBN. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  17. ^ Ortega Ramírez, Pedro (4 August 2016). "Iglesias evangélicas respaldan candidatura a la vicepresidencia de la compañera Rosario Murillo". 19 Digital. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  18. ^ Ducca, Isabel (1 May 2018). "¿Habrá algo que una a Daniel Ortega con Rony Chaves y Fabricio Alvarado? II". El País. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  19. ^ Camhaji, Elías (13 December 2017). "López Obrador se alía con el conservador Encuentro Social para las elecciones de 2018". El País. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  20. ^ a b Baeza, Cecila (8 June 2018). "Why did Latin America stop standing up for Palestine?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  21. ^ "Hispanic Evangelicals among Israel's greatest supporters". Jerusalem Post. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  22. ^ a b Morris, Loveday (28 January 2018). "Long, uneasy love affair of Israel and U.S. evangelicals may have peaked". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 November 2018. Faced with the dip in support, Israel is increasingly looking to evangelical communities in Latin America, Africa and elsewhere to build international support. Guatemala, where President Jimmy Morales is an avowed evangelical, was the first country to follow suit after the U.S. recognition of Jerusalem.
  23. ^ a b "Israel and South America: Strange Bedfellows or Great New Besties?". Ozy. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  24. ^ a b Graff, Valery (18 May 2018). "On Trump's heels, two Latin American embassies make jump to Jerusalem". France 24. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  25. ^ a b Lazacano, Antonio (2016-03-16). "Evolution in Mexico". ncse.com. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  26. ^ a b Freston, Paul (2004). "Evangelical protestantism and democratization in contemporary Latin America and Asia". Democratization. 11 (4): 21–41. doi:10.1080/1351034042000234512. S2CID 146370768.
  27. ^ a b Smith, Dennis (29 May 2015). "Changing religious landscapes and political communication in Latin America". WACC. Retrieved 1 November 2018. One additional comment about the political theology often embraced by these groups is needed. In the 1980s, a new movement known as Dominion Theology or the Reconstructionist Movement surfaced among conservative Evangelicals. This group interpreted the Bible – especially the Old Testament – as commanding believers “to restore” each nation according to theocratic principles and to promote Evangelical moral paradigms. Reconstructionists affirm an eschatological and political vision founded on the belief that Christians were destined to govern the world. Many prominent Evangelical politicians in Latin America have embraced this ideology. They seek to bring others to their faith not only because of their propensity for proselytism but also because of their conviction that, once a nation reaches a critical mass of believers, the Spirit will pour out God’s justice and prosperity upon the population (Smith & Campos, 2012). Undoubtedly, this ideology is present, in one form or another, in other contexts and people need to be aware of its presence. It is worth noting that nowhere that the Reconstructionists have held power or influence – in Guatemala, Brazil, Nicaragua, El Salvador or Peru, for example – have they been able successfully to model sound public governance nor successfully resolve such issues as systemic corruption and violence. But they are present, they have money, and they often have access to media and to opinion leaders.
  28. ^ a b c Young, Julia (31 March 2013). "The Church in Latin America". Commonweal Magazine. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  29. ^ a b c "Christianity and Conflict in Latin America". Pew Research Center. 6 April 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2018.
  30. ^ "Religion in Latin America -Chapter 8: Religion and Science". Pew Research Center. November 13, 2014. Across the region, Catholics, Protestants and people who are not affiliated with any religion generally have similar views on whether there is a conflict between faith and science. But Protestants are less accepting of evolution than are Catholics or the religiously unaffiliated.
  31. ^ Morales, Manuel (July 28, 2015). "Evolution and Christianity in Latin America: Context, History and Challenge". The BioLogos Foundation. Considering that the Latin American social imaginary does not generally include science, and Christians generally do not reflect systematically on science and religion, how we can explain their acceptance of evolution? A possible answer could be uncomfortable for Christians who try to build fruitful initiatives to discuss these issues: many Roman Catholics, who belong to a centralized religion—and who are very devoted to this religious tradition in Latin America—basically follow whatever their church officially establishes at the Vatican, which accepts evolution. On the other hand, many Protestants who accept evolution do so mainly as a reaction to evangelical fundamentalism—which has generally been seen as contrary to evolution— but not as a consequence of taking science seriously in their reflections about faith and natural world. Unfortunately, this makes sense given the uses and abuses of science among Protestants in Latin America. Many Latin American Protestants are suspicious of any attempt to generate dialogue between science and faith, or they are just apathetic about these issues. But what is more problematic is that among Protestants interested in science, it is often for apologetic and opportunistic purposes, rather than as a way to generate an honest discussions about big questions or to re-examine their worldview in the context of science.
  32. ^ Chapter 6: Views on the Economy and Poverty, Pew Research Center
  33. ^ Berich, Heidy. "Radical Traditionalist Catholics Spew Anti-Semitic Hate, Commit Violence Against Jews". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  34. ^ "Zionism". Catholic Scripture. 2017-08-10. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  35. ^ "Israel, Palestine needs two-state solution, Pope Francis says in Christmas message". ABC. 25 Dec 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  36. ^ "Middle East: Holy See Affirms Two-State Solution in Palestine". Zenit. 22 October 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  37. ^ "Hispanic Evangelicals among Israel's greatest supporters". 4 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  38. ^ Guerrero Jiménez, Bernardo (1994). "RELIGIÓN Y CANCIÓN DE PROTESTA EN AMÉRICA LATINA; UN ENSAYO DE INTERPRETACIÓN". Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y el Caribe, España y Portugal. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  39. ^ Iranzo Dosdad, Ángela; Manrique, Carlos (2015). "Religiones, post-secularidad y democracia en América Latina: reconfiguraciones del discurso y la acción política*". Revista de Estudios Sociales.
  40. ^ Cláudia Laurindo, Ana (7 August 2018). "Texto aos espíritas eleitores de Bolsonaro". Reporter Nordeste. Retrieved 1 November 2020. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  41. ^ Félix, Franklin (2020-05-26). "Manifesto de espíritas progressistas pela cassação da chapa Bolsonaro-Mourão". CartaCapital (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-11-01. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  42. ^ "Apoio a Bolsonaro divide comunidade islâmica no Brasil". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 2018-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-01. Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  43. ^ "Folha Online - Brasil - CPI dos Sanguessugas denuncia 72 parlamentares; veja lista - 10/08/2006". www1.folha.uol.com.br.
  44. ^ http://www.estadao.com.br/estadaodehoje/20090623/not_imp391483,0.php
  45. ^ "Ministro passos tortos". ISTOÉ Independente. 15 July 2011.
  46. ^ "Mais um diretor do Dnit cai após escândalo". VEJA. Archived from the original on 12 August 2013.
  47. ^ "E-mails indicam repasse de R$ 100 mil a senador Magno Malta". Folha.
  48. ^ Gregório, Neto (2 June 2014). "Caso de agressão: Justiça entende que pastor Everaldo agiu em legítima defesa" (in Portuguese). Gospel Prime. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  49. ^ "Pastor Everaldo é acusado de agressão por ex-esposa" (in Portuguese). Gospel Prime. 18 May 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  50. ^ Josef Oehrlein: Unaufhaltsame Abwanderung, FAZ, 20. Juli 2013, S. 10
  51. ^ Watts, Jonathan (5 April 2013). "Head of Brazil's equality body accused of homophobia and racism". The Guardian.
  52. ^ "Marco Feliciano é acusado de tentativa de estupro e agressão". Correio do Brasil. 9 August 2016.
  53. ^ "Polícia de SP prende chefe de gabinete de Feliciano e cerca deputado". Política.
  54. ^ "Fachin requisita processo de SP no qual jornalista é acusada de chantagear assessor de Feliciano". G1.
  55. ^ Mattos, Gabriela (6 September 2016). "Polícia pede prisão de mulher que acusou Marco Feliciano de estupro" [Journalist who accused Marco Feliciano of rape arrested in São Paulo]. O Dia (in Portuguese).
  56. ^ "Guatemala president's brother, son held on suspicion of fraud". 19 January 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2019 – via Reuters.
  57. ^ "Samuel Morales irá a juicio por lavado de dinero". Retrieved 27 August 2017.
  58. ^ Malkin, Elisabeth (September 15, 2017). "Protests Erupt in Guatemala Over Laws to Dilute Antigraft Campaign" – via NYTimes.com.
  59. ^ "Crisis flares in Guatemala over corruption and organised crime". the Guardian. August 27, 2017.
  60. ^ "Thousands of protesters in Guatemala demand president's resignation". 7 March 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2019 – via Reuters.
  61. ^ "Jimmy Morales's war on Guatemala's graft-busters". The Economist. 31 August 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  62. ^ a b Schwartz, Rachel (6 September 2017). "Analysis | Guatemala's president tried to expel the U.N. commissioner who announced he was under investigation". Washington Post.
  63. ^ "El presidente de Guatemala destituye a su canciller y al vicecanciller - ELESPECTADOR.COM". 27 August 2017. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  64. ^ Orozco, Andrea (4 July 2018). "Víctimas de abusos cometidos por Jimmy Morales podrían ser 10, denuncia excanciller". Prensa Libre (in Spanish). Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  65. ^ Brateman, Paul (November 2013). "Rebutting Creationism in Brazil". paulbraterman.wordpress.com. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
This page was last edited on 10 July 2021, at 07:50
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.