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Pole of inaccessibility

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of distance to the nearest coastline[1] (including oceanic islands, but not lakes) with red spots marking the poles of inaccessibility of main landmasses, Great Britain, and the Iberian Peninsula, and a blue dot marking the oceanic pole of inaccessibility. Thin isolines are 250 km (160 mi) apart; thick lines 1,000 km (620 mi). Mollweide projection.
Map of distance to the nearest coastline[1] (including oceanic islands, but not lakes) with red spots marking the poles of inaccessibility of main landmasses, Great Britain, and the Iberian Peninsula, and a blue dot marking the oceanic pole of inaccessibility. Thin isolines are 250 km (160 mi) apart; thick lines 1,000 km (620 mi). Mollweide projection.

A pole of inaccessibility with respect to a geographical criterion of inaccessibility marks a location that is the most challenging to reach according to that criterion. Often it refers to the most distant point from the coastline, implying a maximum degree of continentality or oceanity. In these cases, pole of inaccessibility can be defined as the center of the largest circle that can be drawn within an area of interest without encountering a coast. Where a coast is imprecisely defined, the pole will be similarly imprecise.

Northern pole of inaccessibility

Northern pole of inaccessibility
Northern pole of inaccessibility

The Northern pole of inaccessibility, sometimes known as the Arctic pole, is located on the Arctic Ocean pack ice at a distance farthest from any land mass.

The original position was falsely believed to lie at 84°03′N 174°51′W. It is not clear who first defined this point but it may have been Sir Hubert Wilkins, who wished to traverse the Arctic Ocean by aircraft, in 1927. He was finally successful in 1928.

In 1968 Sir Wally Herbert came very close to reaching what was then considered to be the position by dogsled but by his own account, "Across The Roof Of The World", did not make it due to the flow of sea ice.

In 1986, an expedition of Soviet polar scientists led by Dmitry Shparo claimed to reach the original position by foot during a polar night.[citation needed]

In 2005, explorer Jim McNeill asked scientists from National Snow and Ice Data Center and Scott Polar Research Institute to re-establish the position using modern GPS and satellite technology. This was published as a paper in the Polar Record, Cambridge University Press in 2013.[2]

McNeill launched his own, unsuccessful, attempt to reach the new position in 2006, whilst measuring the depth of sea-ice for NASA.[3]

In 2010 he and his Ice Warrior team was thwarted again by the poor condition of the sea ice.[4]

The new position lies at 85°48′N 176°9′W, 1,008 km (626 mi) from the three closest landmasses: It is 1008 km from the nearest land, on Henrietta Island in the De Long Islands, at Arctic Cape on Severnaya Zemlya, and on Ellesmere Island. It is over 200 km from the originally accepted position.[5] Due to constant motion of the pack ice, no permanent structure can exist at this pole.

As of February 2021, McNeill said that, as far as he could ascertain, no one had reached the new position of the Northern Pole of Inaccessibility - certainly not from the last landfall across the surface of the ocean and it remains an important scientific transect.

Southern pole of inaccessibility

The old Soviet Pole of Inaccessibility Station, revisited by Team N2i on 19 January 2007
The old Soviet Pole of Inaccessibility Station, revisited by Team N2i on 19 January 2007

The southern pole of inaccessibility is the point on the Antarctic continent most distant from the Southern Ocean. A variety of coordinate locations have been given for this pole. The discrepancies are due to the question of whether the "coast" is measured to the grounding line or to the edges of ice shelves, the difficulty of determining the location of the "solid" coastline, the movement of ice sheets and improvements in the accuracy of survey data over the years, as well as possible topographical errors.

The pole of inaccessibility commonly refers to the site of the Soviet Union research station mentioned below, which was constructed at 82°06′S 54°58′E / 82.100°S 54.967°E / -82.100; 54.967 (Pole of Inaccessibility (WMO))[6] (though some sources give 83°06′S 54°58′E / 83.100°S 54.967°E / -83.100; 54.967 (South Pole of Inaccessibility (IPHC))[7]). This lies 878 km (546 mi) from the South Pole, at an elevation of 3,718 m (12,198 ft). Using different criteria, the Scott Polar Research Institute locates this pole at 85°50′S 65°47′E / 85.833°S 65.783°E / -85.833; 65.783 (South Pole of Inaccessibility (SPRI)).[8]

According to ThePoles.com, the point farthest from the sea accounting only for the Antarctic land surface proper is at 82°53′14″S 55°4′30″E / 82.88722°S 55.07500°E / -82.88722; 55.07500 (point farthest from the sea), and the farthest point when ice sheets are taken into account is 83°50′37″S 65°43′30″E / 83.84361°S 65.72500°E / -83.84361; 65.72500 (point farthest from the sea counting ice). These points, calculated by the British Antarctic Survey, are quoted as being "the most accurate measure available" (as of 2005).[9]

The southern pole of inaccessibility is far more remote and difficult to reach than the geographic South Pole. On 14 December 1958, the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition for International Geophysical Year research work, led by Yevgeny Tolstikov, established the temporary Pole of Inaccessibility Station (Polyus Nedostupnosti) at 82°06′S 54°58′E / 82.100°S 54.967°E / -82.100; 54.967 (Pole of Inaccessibility Station). A second Russian team returned there in 1967. Today, a building still remains at this location, marked by a bust of Vladimir Lenin that faces towards Moscow, and protected as a historical site.

On 11 December, 2005, at 7:57 UTC, Ramón Hernando de Larramendi, Juan Manuel Viu, and Ignacio Oficialdegui, members of the Spanish Transantarctic Expedition, reached for the first time in history the southern pole of inaccessibility at 82°53′14″S 55°04′30″E / 82.88722°S 55.07500°E / -82.88722; 55.07500 (British Antarctic Survey-accredited Pole of Inaccessibility), updated that year by the British Antarctic Survey. The team continued their journey towards the second southern pole of inaccessibility, the one that accounts for the ice shelves as well as the continental land, and they were the first expedition to reach it, on 14 December, 2005, at 83°50′37″S 65°43′30″E / 83.84361°S 65.72500°E / -83.84361; 65.72500 (British Antarctic Survey-accredited Pole of Inaccessibility). Both achievements took place within an ambitious pioneer crossing of the eastern Antarctic Plateau that started at Novolazarevskaya Station and ended at Progress Base after more than 4,500 km (2,800 mi). This was the fastest polar journey ever achieved without mechanical aid, with an average rate of around 90 km (56 mi) per day and a maximum of 311 km (193 mi) per day, using kites as their power source.[9][10][11][12]

On 4 December, 2006, Team N2i, consisting of Henry Cookson, Rupert Longsdon, Rory Sweet and Paul Landry, embarked on an expedition to be the first to reach the historic pole of inaccessibility location without direct mechanical assistance, using a combination of traditional man hauling and kite skiing. The team reached the old abandoned station on 19 January, 2007, rediscovering the forgotten statue of Lenin left there by the Soviets some 48 years previously.[13] The team found that only the bust on top of the building remained visible; the rest was buried under the snow.[14] The explorers were picked up from the spot by a plane from Vostok base, flown to Progress Base and taken back to Cape Town on the Akademik Fyodorov, a Russian polar research vessel.[14]

On 27 December, 2011, Sebastian Copeland and partner Eric McNair-Laundry also reached the 82°06′S 54°58′E / 82.100°S 54.967°E / -82.100; 54.967 (Pole of Inaccessibility Station) southern pole of inaccessibility. They were the first to do so without resupply or mechanical support, departing from Novolazarevskaya Station on their way to the South Pole to complete the first East/West crossing of Antarctica through both poles, over 4,000 km (2,485 mi).[15]

As mentioned above, due to improvements in technology and the position of the continental edge of Antarctica being debated, the exact position of the best estimate of the pole of inaccessibility may vary. However, for the convenience of sport expeditions, a fixed point is preferred, and the Soviet station has been used for this role. This has been recognized by Guinness World Records for Team N2i's expedition in 2006–2007.[16]

Oceanic pole of inaccessibility

Oceanic pole of inaccessibility at 48° 52′ 32″S 123° 23′ 33″W
Oceanic pole of inaccessibility at 48° 52′ 32″S 123° 23′ 33″W

The oceanic pole of inaccessibility (48°52.5′S 123°23.6′W / 48.8750°S 123.3933°W / -48.8750; -123.3933 (Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility))[17] is the place in the ocean that is farthest from land. It lies in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,688 km (1,670 mi) from the nearest lands: Ducie Island (part of the Pitcairn Islands) to the north, Motu Nui (part of the Easter Islands) to the northeast, and Maher Island (near the larger Siple Island, off the coast of Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica) to the south. The area is so remote that—as with any location more than 400 kilometres (about 250 miles) from an inhabited area—sometimes the closest human beings are astronauts aboard the International Space Station when it passes overhead.[18][19]

The point and the areas around it have attracted literary and cultural attention. It is known as Point Nemo, Nemo being Latin for "no one" and also a reference to Jules Verne's Captain Nemo.[18] The general area plays a major role in the 1928 short story The Call of Cthulhu by H. P. Lovecraft, as holding the location of the fictional city of R'lyeh, although this story was written 66 years before the official discovery of Point Nemo.[18]

The area is also known as a "spacecraft cemetery" because hundreds of decommissioned satellites, space stations, and other spacecraft have been deposited there upon re-entering the atmosphere to lessen the risk of hitting inhabited locations[20] or maritime traffic. Point Nemo is relatively lifeless; its location within the South Pacific Gyre blocks nutrients from reaching the area, and being so far from land it gets little nutrient run-off from coastal waters.[18]

Continental poles of inaccessibility

Proposed continental pole of inaccessibility at 46°17′N 86°40′E, ignoring the Caspian Sea
Proposed continental pole of inaccessibility at 46°17′N 86°40′E, ignoring the Caspian Sea

Eurasia

Distance to the sea in Asia, showing the two candidate locations for Eurasian pole of inaccessibility.
Distance to the sea in Asia, showing the two candidate locations for Eurasian pole of inaccessibility.

In Eurasia, the continental pole of inaccessibility (Eurasian pole of inaccessibility, EPIA), is the place on land that is farthest from the ocean, and it lies in northwestern China, near the Kazakhstan border, if the oceanic Caspian Sea is ignored.

Earlier calculations suggested that it is 2,645 km (1,644 mi) from the nearest coastline, located at 46°17′N 86°40′E / 46.283°N 86.667°E / 46.283; 86.667 (Proposed Continental Pole of Inaccessibility), approximately 320 km (200 mi) north of the city of Ürümqi, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert. The nearest settlements to this location are Hoxtolgay Town at 46°34′N 85°58′E / 46.567°N 85.967°E / 46.567; 85.967 (Hoxtolgay), about 50 km (31 mi) to the northwest, Xazgat Township (Chinese: 夏孜盖乡; pinyin: Xiàzīgài xiāng) at 46°20′N 86°22′E / 46.333°N 86.367°E / 46.333; 86.367 (Xazgat), about 20 km (12 mi) to the west, and Suluk at 46°15′N 86°50′E / 46.250°N 86.833°E / 46.250; 86.833 (Suluk), about 10 km (6.2 mi) to the east.[citation needed]

However, the previous pole location disregards the Gulf of Ob as part of the oceans, and a 2007 study[1] proposes two other locations as the ones farther from any ocean (within the uncertainty of coastline definition): EPIA1 44°17′N 82°11′E / 44.29°N 82.19°E / 44.29; 82.19 and EPIA2 45°17′N 88°08′E / 45.28°N 88.14°E / 45.28; 88.14, located respectively at 2,510±10 km (1560±6 mi) and 2,514±7 km (1,562±4 mi) from the oceans.[1] These points lie in a close triangle about the Dzungarian Gate, a significant historical gateway to migration between the East and West. EPIA2 is located near a settlement called K̂as K̂îr Su in a region named K̂îzîlk̂um (قىزىلقۇم) in the Karamgay Township [zh], Burultokay County.

Elsewhere in Xinjiang, the location 43°40′52″N 87°19′52″E / 43.68111°N 87.33111°E / 43.68111; 87.33111 in the southwestern suburbs of Ürümqi (Ürümqi County) was designated by local geography experts as the "center point of Asia" in 1992, and a monument to this effect was erected there in the 1990s. The site is a local tourist attraction.[21]

Coincidentally, the continental and oceanic poles of inaccessibility have a similar radius; the Eurasian poles EPIA1 and EPIA2 are about 178 km (111 mi) closer to the ocean than the oceanic pole is to land.

The North-West portion of the North American Pole of Inaccessibility.
The North-West portion of the North American Pole of Inaccessibility.

North America

In North America, the continental pole of inaccessibility is on the Pine Ridge Reservation in southwest South Dakota about 11 km (7 mi) north of the town of Allen, located 1,650 km (1,030 mi) from the nearest coastline at 43°22′N 101°58′W / 43.36°N 101.97°W / 43.36; -101.97 (Pole of Inaccessibility North America).[1] The pole was marked on July 8, 2021 with a marker that represents the 7 Lakota Values (indicated by an animal characters) and the four colors of the Lakota Medicine Wheel.[22] The pole has been the subject of recent blogs and visits.[23][24][25][26][27] A trail has been developed leading from the nearest road near the highpoint of the Reservation. The location of the pole can be found with the "What Three Words" protocol at https://w3w.co/ties.goalkeeper.print. Parking and the beginning of the trail is at https://w3w.co/thirsty.mercifully.finishers at the Bearkiller home. While the pole is on the open reservation land in an area where buffalo freely roam, the first portion of the trail traverses a family compound. A small donation is encouraged to cross their land to get to the pole.

The Canadian pole of inaccessibility is allegedly in Jackfish River, Alberta 59°02′N 112°49′W / 59.03°N 112.82°W / 59.03; -112.82 (Pole of Inaccessibility Canada), a few kilometres up the Peace River from where the Jackfish River (one of six Canadian rivers of that name) flows through it.[28]

South America

In South America, the continental pole of inaccessibility is in Brazil at 14°03′S 56°51′W / 14.05°S 56.85°W / -14.05; -56.85 (Continental Pole of Inaccessibility in South America), near Arenápolis, Mato Grosso,[1] 1,504 km (935 mi) from the nearest coastline. In 2017, the Turner Twins became the first adventurers to trek to the South American Pole of Inaccessibility.[29]

Australian Pole of Inaccessibility
Australian Pole of Inaccessibility

Australia

In Australia, the continental pole of inaccessibility is located either at 23°10′S 132°16′E / 23.17°S 132.27°E / -23.17; 132.27 (Continental Pole of Inaccessibility of Australia)[1] or at 23°2′S 132°10′E / 23.033°S 132.167°E / -23.033; 132.167 (Australian Pole of Inaccessibility),[30] 920 km (570 mi) from the nearest coastline, approximately 161 km (100 miles) west-northwest of Alice Springs. The nearest town is Papunya, Northern Territory, about 30 km (19 mi) to the southwest of both locations.

Africa

In Africa, the pole of inaccessibility is at 5°39′N 26°10′E / 5.65°N 26.17°E / 5.65; 26.17, 1,814 km (1,127 mi) from the coast,[1] near the town of Obo in the Central African Republic and close to the country's tripoint with South Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Methods of calculation

As detailed below, several factors determine how a pole is calculated.

Poles are calculated with respect to a particular coastline dataset. Commonly used datasets are the Global Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Geography Database[31] as well as OpenStreetMap planet dumps.

Next, a distance function must be determined for calculating distances between coastlines and potential Poles. Earlier works tended to project data onto planes or perform spherical calculations; more recently, improved algorithms and high-performance computing have allowed the use of full-resolution datasets and high-accuracy ellipsoidal calculations.[32]

Finally, an optimization algorithm must be developed. Several works[1][2] use an adaptive grid method. In this method, a grid of, e.g., 21x21 points is created. Each point's distance from the coastline is determined and the point farthest from the coast identified. The grid is then recentered on this point and shrunk by some factor. This process iterates until the grid becomes very small. The adaptive grid method is problematic as it is not guaranteed to find the farthest point from a coastline. A more recent method, B9-Hillclimbing, uses random-restart hill climbing, simulated annealing, and k-d trees to find the farthest points from coastlines with greater probability.[32]

List of poles of inaccessibility

Poles of Inaccessibility, as determined by various authors, are listed in the table below. Calculations relying on spherical projections, planar projections, or adaptive grid methods are likely to be inaccurate.

Poles of inaccessibility as calculated by various authors
Pole Latitude (deg N) Longitude (deg E) Distance from Coast (km) Dataset Projection Method Reference
Africa 5.65 26.17 1814 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Africa 5.6413 26.1533 1814.5158 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Africa 5.6589 26.1295 1815.4150 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Antarctica -77.3963 105.3855 1136.2129 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1+L6) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Antarctica -78.2582 104.1178 1271.1539 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Antarctica -78.2633 103.6340 1273.2928 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1+L5) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Arctic Pole 85.7911 176.2386 1008.9112 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Arctic Pole 85.8015 176.1423 1007.6777 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Arctic Pole 85.802 176.149 1008 GSHHG 2014 WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Rees (2014)[2]
Atlantic Ocean 24.1851 -43.3704 2033.8849 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Atlantic Ocean 24.1923 -43.3728 2033.5187 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Australia -23.17 132.27 928 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Australia -23.1732 132.2759 925.4459 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Australia -23.1948 132.1727 921.9290 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Eurasia 1 45.28 88.14 2514 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Eurasia 1 45.3413 88.2483 2513.9415 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Eurasia 1 45.4435 88.3172 2509.9536 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Eurasia 2 44.29 82.19 2510 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Eurasia 2 44.3184 82.1144 2509.9685 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Eurasia 2 44.6740 83.9694 2505.2134 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Great Britain 52.65 -1.56 108 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Great Britain 52.0141 -0.9640 114.4462 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Great Britain 52.6552 -1.5641 108.0925 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Greenland 76.50 -41.0 469 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Greenland 75.9660 -40.4239 471.9905 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Greenland 76.0305 -40.3902 474.2257 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Indian Ocean -47.6319 99.9677 1940.8913 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Indian Ocean -47.7347 100.0547 1943.3848 GSHHG L1 WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Madagascar -18.33 46.67 260 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Madagascar -18.3382 46.6663 259.5957 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Madagascar -18.2645 46.7003 264.0657 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
North America 43.46 -101.97 1639 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
North America 43.3764 -102.0111 1639.6549 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
North America 43.4370 -102.0101 1643.7562 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Pacific Ocean (Point Nemo) -48.89 -123.45 2690 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
Pacific Ocean (Point Nemo) -49.0031 -123.3920 2701.1721 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
Pacific Ocean (Point Nemo) -49.0273 -123.4345 2704.7991 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
South America -14.05 -56.85 1517 GSHHS 1996 Sphere Adaptive Grid Garcia (2007)[1]
South America 1 -14.3902 -56.9922 1490.5321 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
South America 1 -6.3248 -63.1885 1511.6636 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
South America 2 -10.7342 -59.2126 1467.2206 OpenStreetMap WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]
South America 2 -5.0537 -65.5487 1476.4901 GSHHG v2.3.6 (L1) WGS84 B9-Hillclimbing Barnes (2019)[32]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c Rees, Gareth; Headland, Robert; Scambos, Ted; Haran, Terry (2014). "Finding the Arctic pole of inaccessibility". Polar Record. 50: 86–91. doi:10.1017/S003224741300051X.
  3. ^ "Explorer set for historic Arctic adventure". BBC. 20 February 2006. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 10 November 2010.
  4. ^ Becker, Kraig (10 February 2010). "North Pole 2010: Expedition To The Pole of Inaccessibility is Postponed". theadventureblog.blogspot.com. The Adventure Blog. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  5. ^ Duhaime-Ross, Arielle (15 October 2013). "A New Race to Earth's End". Scientific American. 309 (16): 16. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican1113-16a. PMID 24283006.
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  9. ^ a b "Spaniards reach the 'second' South Pole of Inaccessibility – still no trace of Lenin". explorersweb.com. ThePoles.com. 15 December 2005. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  10. ^ "Polar News ExplorersWeb – Spaniards reach South Pole of Inaccessibility – but where is Lenin?". explorersweb.com. ThePoles.com. 12 December 2012. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  11. ^ "Reached the South Pole of Inaccessibility". Barrabes.com. 13 December 2005. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  12. ^ "The South Pole of Inaccessibility". tierraspolares.es. Tierras Polares. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  13. ^ "Team N2i successfully conquer the Pole of Inaccessibility by foot and kite on 19th Jan '07". Archived from the original on August 16, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2011.
  14. ^ a b "UK team makes polar trek history". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC News. 20 January 2007. Archived from the original on 22 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  15. ^ "Polar News ExplorersWeb – ExWeb interview Sebastian Copeland and Eric McNair-Landry (part 1/2): The battle of body and gear across 2 South Poles". Explorersweb.com. ExWeb. 5 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
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  18. ^ a b c d Davies, Ella (5 October 2016). "The Place Furthest from Land is Known as Point Nemo". BBC. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
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External links

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