To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Plungė massacre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Plungė massacre (in Yiddish Plungyan - פלונגיאן) was a World War II massacre committed on 13 or 15 July 1941 in the town of Plungė, in Lithuania. Following the anti-Soviet June Uprising in Lithuania and the German invasion as part of Operation Barbarossa, Plungė was captured by German forces on 25 June 1941.[1] Lithuanian nationalists, led by Jonas Noreika,[2][3] formed a town administration and police force. German forces killed 60 young Jewish men, accused by the Lithuanians of being a read guard for the Red Army, shortly after the town's capture. On 13 or 15 July the Lithuanian nationalists transported the Jews to ditches near the village of Kausenai where they were shot. Of the 1,700[1]-1,800[4] remaining Jews of Plungė, only a few survived.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    Views:
    1 507 211
    2 985
  • ✪ 10 People Who Exposed Government Secrets
  • ✪ 📉 Stock markets plummet on trade war concerns. | The Closing Beat 🎵

Transcription

Hello, this is Alltime10s. There’s a reason we’ve got so many conspiracy theories - the government has proved time and time again that it is keeping secrets. Here we’re going to count down 10 of the insiders, hackers, and spies who exposed them. 10 People Who Exposed Government Secrets 10. Coleen Rowley The attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001 seemed to come out of nowhere, but could the government have prevented them? Did they really not know until it was too late? Coleen Rowley was an FBI Special Agent based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She had been working on a case involving a man arrested at a Minnesota flying school for acting suspiciously in August 2001. Rowley’s department repeatedly questioned him; they even accused him of being a terrorist, but she couldn’t get a search warrant authorized. He turned out to be Zacarias Moussaoui, a conspirator behind 9/11. Rowley wrote a 13-page letter to the FBI Director six months later, claiming that she had been prevented from aggressively investigating Moussaoui by her supervisor in Washington. She even accused the Director himself of making deliberately misleading public statements in the wake of the attacks to cover up this mistake. 9. Peter Buxtun In 1965, 27-year-old Peter Buxtun joined the United States Public Health Service in San Francisco to work in the venereal disease department. However, he quickly learned from his colleagues that something sinister was going on. They were experimenting on people. Back in 1932 the Public Health Service set up The Tuskegee Experiment, designed to see how syphilis affects the body. But their methodology didn’t take a particularly ethical approach, to say the least. The study involved 600 black men, two thirds of whom had the disease. Without their informed consent, researchers left the men untreated for 40 years. When Buxtun found out that the Health Service was withholding treatment from sick people on purpose, he launched an official complaint. Despite 128 deaths, 40 of the men’s wives contracting the disease, and 19 children being born with it, nothing came of the internal review. So in 1972 Buxtun leaked the story to the press and testified in Congress, finally putting an end to the horrific practice. 8. Joseph Darby US forces seized Abu Ghraib prison, near Baghdad, after the invasion of Iraq in 2003. Joseph Darby was working as a military police soldier there and decided to send some photos of the beautiful surroundings home. He approached prison guard Charles Graner, known to be good with a camera, to ask if he had any pictures. Without hesitating, Graner gave Darby two CDs full of images, which Darby copied over to his hard drive. To Darby’s horror, the CDs contained images of Graner and others torturing detainees in the prison complex. He reported this breach of the Geneva Convention to the army’s investigatory unit. In the end, eleven soldiers were convicted and the prison was handed over to the Iraqi government. 7. David Shayler Renegade British spy David Shayler exposed the devious practices Her Majesty’s Secret Service had been getting up to in the 1990s. The former-MI5 Agent began work by vetting politicians for the British Labour Party, but claimed the agency was actually keeping files on them. In 1997 he sold his story to the Mail on Sunday newspaper for $50,000, including the most serious allegations that MI6 had attempted to assassinate Colonel Gaddafi and that a bombing of an Israeli Embassy in London could have been prevented. Shayler went on the run to France, but ended up in prison twice. Many of his friends think he has suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of pressure from the Security Services. He is part of the 9/11 Truther Movement, and in 2007 he declared he was the Messiah. He now lives in a squat as Delores Kane. 6. Alexander Litvinenko After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the notorious secret agency known as the KGB morphed into the FSB of contemporary Russia. Alexander Litvinenko was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in this transition, but he didn’t like what he saw as the penetration of the security services by organized crime. He described Putin’s Russia as a mafia state, and they understandably fell out over these accusations of corruption. He was arrested in 1998 after exposing an alleged attempted assassination of a Russian businessman. He then published a book claiming that the FSB was responsible for blowing up apartments in Moscow - which it had blamed on separatists - before he fled to the UK. Sadly, the story does not end there. In 2006, Litvinenko was fed radioactive poisoned tea by visiting FSB agents and he died a slow and public death. The result of a British inquiry found that Putin himself was ‘probably’ behind the assassination. 5. Mordechai Vanunu There are just nine countries in the world with nuclear capabilities and Israel is presumed to be one of them, although it won’t quite admit it. One man who tried to force them to do so was nuclear technician Mordechai Vanunu. In September 1986, Vanunu flew to London to give an interview and hand secret photographs to The Sunday Times, which revealed the scope of the nuclear weapons program that Israel was running. Mossad, Israel’s security service, allegedly went after him using a ‘honeytrap’ to get him to travel to Italy where a boat lay in wait. Vanunu was kidnapped and transported back to Israel where he was put on trial. He ended up serving 18 years in prison. Israel has called Vanunu "embittered and vengeful" and claims he has been “imagining things”. Although it is estimated they possess 80 nuclear warheads, they still refuse to confirm or deny it. 4. Chelsea Manning 700,000 documents were stolen from military computers in 2010; they were distributed to Wikileaks, who published them for the world to see. But who was the source of this leak? And what secrets were revealed? Chelsea Manning, who at the time was known as Bradley, was sent to Iraq as a Junior Intelligence Analyst. While there she was horrified by the inhumanity of much of what the military was doing, and so she resolved to begin a global debate. However, a hacker she had been communicating with in California reported her to the FBI, fearing that national security was at stake. Among the information that Manning revealed were US figures on an Iraqi death toll of over 100,000, despite the UK and US previously saying that there were no official statistics. There was also an infamous video showing helicopter crew laughing as they killed people in an airstrike, and a damaging diplomatic cable that showed the King of Saudi Arabia urging the US to attack Iran. Government prosecutors said the leak amounted to “aiding the enemy” and Chelsea Manning was sentenced to 35 years in jail - the longest ever term for a whistleblower. 3. Jan Karski During the Second World War the Nazis invaded Poland and put the Jewish population into ghettos; by July 1942 they were being moved en masse to extermination camps. But did the Allied Forces know before the war was over? Jan Karski was a top of the class diplomat sent to Warsaw in late 1942 to gather intelligence. He entered the Ghetto and met leaders of the Jewish underground who informed him that a Holocaust was underway. According to their estimates, 1.8 million Jews had already been killed, as well as 300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto being sent to a death camp 60 miles away. Karski returned safely to London where he met the Foreign Secretary and told him what the German government was up to, but he was snubbed. He then traveled to America and met President Roosevelt, but again he was met with inaction. Why didn’t they believe him? Karski himself later said of the Holocaust: “The Nazis did it because they could. The Allies denied it because they did nothing about it.” 2. Julian Assange The notorious website Wikileaks, which we saw earlier helped distribute Chelsea Manning’s documents, was founded by Australian internet activist Julian Assange in 2006. From Guantanamo Bay to the Church of Scientology, Julian Assange has been behind a huge number of damaging leaks for the past ten years. When a warrant was issued for his arrest by Sweden in 2010, he took refuge in the Ecuadorian Embassy in London. The charges are for alleged sexual assault, and Assange claims he could be extradited to the US and suffer a similar fate to Manning. Despite still being stuck in the embassy, he has still managed to facilitate one of his biggest leaks yet: Hillary Clinton’s emails. In July, over a thousand emails from her personal mail server and 20,000 DNC emails were leaked. This was followed by her campaign manager John Podesta’s hacked emails being leaked throughout October. The emails Assange leaked revealed worrying relationships between the Clinton Foundation and donors, showed her back room dealings in Wall Street, and ultimately contributed to her loss of the election. 1. Edward Snowden The National Security Agency, or NSA, is the leading intelligence organization in the US and we didn’t really have a clue what the hell they were up to. That is, until Edward Snowden came along. Having been a contracted infrastructure analyst for consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton, in 2012 he was stationed at an NSA facility in Hawaii to work as a high-level systems administrator. While there, he was disturbed by the degree of surveillance and government encroachment on US citizen’s privacy. Snowden registered complaints with more than 10 officials, but nothing changed. He got a hard drive and downloaded 200,000 files, flew to Hong Kong and gave them to journalists from the Washington Post and the Guardian. The contents of those files changed the world. Government agencies on both sides of the Atlantic were shown to be collecting vast swathes of data from their own people in a seemingly unchecked manner and many people were furious. Privacy campaigners continue to push for greater government transparency. Snowden meanwhile, fearful for his freedom, is currently living in Russia in exile. Thanks for watching AllTime10s - do you think you would take the plunge if you saw something wrong, or just keep quiet? Let me know in the comments. And if you want to see something else, head over here and check out ‘10 Disturbing Alien Conspiracies’. Cheers.

Contents

Background

Jews first arrived in Plungė in 1348; by 1900, the population of more than 2,500 Jews comprised more than half of the people of the town.[5]

Following the anti-Soviet June Uprising in Lithuania and the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Plungė was occupied by German forces on 25 June 1941.[1]

Ghetto and repressions

Lithuanian nationalists, led by Jonas Noreika,[2][3] formed a town administration and police force. While relatively not involved in subsequent events, German forces executed 60 young Jewish men who were accused of being a rear guard for the Red Army.[1]

On 26 June 1941, the Lithuanians forced the Jews to the area around the local Beth midrash and synagogue which they declared a ghetto. Lithuanians took Jews out of the ghetto to perform hard manual labor, accompanied with humiliations and beatings, and some were murdered and did not return to the ghetto. The living conditions (filth, overcrowding, lack of food and water) in the ghetto led to high mortality and disease, particularly so among the elderly. Valuables were extorted from the Jews by the Lithuanian authorities.[1]

Massacre

On 13 or 15 July the Lithuanian nationalists transported the Jews to ditches near the village of Kausenai where they were shot. Of the 1,700[1]-1,800[4] Jews of Plungė, only a few survived. Survivors included people deported to the Soviet Union prior to the German invasion,[1] and six who were sheltered by Lithuanian friends.[5]

Catholic priest Petras Lygnugaris baptized 74 Jewish maidens, in an effort to spare them, but the Lithuanian activists killed them there, notwithstanding.[6][2] Plungė was perhaps the first town in German-occupied Europe where all of the Jewish inhabitants were murdered, including children, women and the elderly.[6]

Aftermath

Memorial in Holon, Israel
Memorial in Holon, Israel

72 Plungė Jews joined the Red Army, of which 42 died in combat. Following the war there were 138 Jews in Plungė, most emigrated to Israel, South Africa and the United States. By 1970, 45 remained. By 2002, Jacob Bunka was the last Jew in Plungė.[5] Bunka died in 2014.[7][8] Bunka created massive wooden sculptures commemorating the massacres in Plunge and other sites as well as the life of the Jewish community.[5]

Remembrance sites for the events of 1941 exist in and around the town.[9][10][11] A memorial wall bearing the names of most the 1,800 killed Jews stands at the Kaušėnai Holocaust memorial.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945, Geoffrey P. Megargee, Martin C. Dean, and Mel Hecker, Volume II, part B, pages 1105.
  2. ^ a b c „Die Mörder werden noch gebraucht“, Der Spiegel, Von Leonid Olschwang, 23 April 1984
  3. ^ a b She thought her grandfather was a Lithuanian hero. Research leads her to ask, was he a patriot or a Nazi?, Chicago Tribune, Ron Grossman, 14 January 2019
  4. ^ a b c Lithuania, International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
  5. ^ a b c d Around the Jewish World Lone Jew in Lithuanian Town Spends Life Preserving the Past, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 13 June 2002
  6. ^ a b Captain Jonas Noreika Museum. Grant Gochin's "Query Regarding Jonas Noreika’s Criminal Gang.", Andrius Kulikauskas, 15 June 2018
  7. ^ Death of Jakovas Bunka, jewish-heritage-europe.eu, 1 August 2014
  8. ^ Yankl-Yosl Bunk – Jakovas Bunka (1923 – 2014), 4 August 2014, defendinghistory.com
  9. ^ "Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania: MASS MURDER OF THE JEWS FROM PLUNGĖ". www.holocaustatlas.lt. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  10. ^ "Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania: MASS MURDER OF THE JEWS IN PLUNGĖ CEMETERY". www.holocaustatlas.lt. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  11. ^ "Holocaust Atlas of Lithuania: MASS MURDER OF THE JEWS NEAR JOVAIŠIŠKĖ". www.holocaustatlas.lt. Retrieved January 27, 2019.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 October 2019, at 07:28
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.