To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Plasma antenna

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hettinger's Aerial Conductors for Wireless Signaling US1309031A
Hettinger's Aerial Conductors for Wireless Signaling US1309031A

A plasma antenna is a type of radio antenna currently in development in which plasma is used instead of the metal elements of a traditional antenna.[1] A plasma antenna can be used for both transmission and reception.[2] Although plasma antennas have only become practical in recent years[when?], the idea is not new; a patent for an antenna using the concept was granted to J. Hettinger in 1919.[3]

Early practical examples of the technology used discharge tubes to contain the plasma and are referred to as ionized gas plasma antennas. Ionized gas plasma antennas can be turned on and off and are good for stealth and resistance to electronic warfare and cyber attacks. Ionized gas plasma antennas can be nested such that the higher frequency plasma antennas are placed inside lower frequency plasma antennas. Higher frequency ionized gas plasma antenna arrays can transmit and receive through lower frequency ionized gas plasma antenna arrays. This means that the ionized gas plasma antennas can be co-located and ionized gas plasma antenna arrays can be stacked. Ionized gas plasma antennas can eliminate or reduce co-site interference. Smart ionized gas plasma antennas use plasma physics to shape and steer the antenna beams without the need of phased arrays. Satellite signals can be steered or focused in the reflective or refractive modes using banks of plasma tubes making unique ionized gas satellite plasma antennas. The thermal noise of ionized gas plasma antennas is less than in the corresponding metal antennas at the higher frequencies.[1] Solid state plasma antennas (also known as plasma silicon antennas) with steerable directional functionality that can be manufactured using standard silicon chip fabrication techniques are now also in development.[4] Plasma silicon antennas are candidates for use in WiGig (the planned enhancement to Wi-Fi), and have other potential applications, for example in reducing the cost of vehicle-mounted radar collision avoidance systems.[4]

Operation

In an ionized gas plasma antenna, a gas is ionized to create a plasma. Unlike gases, plasmas have very high electrical conductivity so it is possible for radio frequency signals to travel through them so that they act as a driven element (such as a dipole antenna) to radiate radio waves, or to receive them. Alternatively the plasma can be used as a reflector or a lens to guide and focus radio waves from another source.[5]

Solid-state antennas differ in that the plasma is created from electrons generated by activating thousands of diodes on a silicon chip.[4]

Advantages

Plasma antennas possess a number of advantages over metal antennas, including:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c 'Stealth' Antenna Made Of Gas, Impervious To Jamming science20.com, published 2007-11-12, accessed 2010-12-14
  2. ^ a b c Plasma Antenna Center for Remote Sensing, accessed 2010-12-14
  3. ^ Aerial Conductor for Wireless Signaling and Other Purposes United States Patent 1309031, published 1919-07-08, accessed 2010-12-15
  4. ^ a b c Wireless at the speed of plasma New Scientist, published 2010-12-13, accessed 2010-12-14
  5. ^ Plasma Antennas: Survey of Techniques and the Current State of the Art D C Jenn, published 2003-09-29, accessed 2010-10-15
  6. ^ a b c Advances in Plasma Antenna Design Alexeff, I et al., Tennessee University, ISSN 0730-9244, ISBN 0-7803-9300-7, published 2007-05-15, accessed 2010-12-14
  7. ^ a b c d Plasma Antennas Theodore Anderson, Artech house, 2011, ISBN 978-1-60807-143-2
  8. ^ Plasma Antennas scribd, accessed 2010-12-15
  9. ^ An Electronically Steerable and Focusing Plasma Reflector Antenna and An Electronically Steerable and Focusing Bank of Plasma Tubes Archived 2011-01-04 at the Wayback Machine Haleakala Research and Development, accessed 2010-12-14

External links

This page was last edited on 12 July 2020, at 19:18
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.