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Pittsburgh mayoral election, 1993

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pittsburgh mayoral election, 1993
Flag of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.svg

← 1989 November 2, 1993 1997 →

Tom Murphy (1).jpg
Nominee Tom Murphy Duane Darkins Kathy Matta
Party Democratic Independent Republican
Popular vote 57,172 13,271 12,058
Percentage 66.2% 15.4% 14.0%

Mayor before election

Sophie Masloff

Elected Mayor

Tom Murphy

The mayoral election of 1993 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1993. The incumbent mayor, Sophie Masloff of the Democratic Party chose not to run for re-election.

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this is the story of the most dangerous and secret criminal organization in the world the Mafia the Mafia was born in Sicily but from that Italian island it would soon be exported to the United States where it became known as La Cosa Nostra throughout the 20th century a century marked by world wars and political assassinations the Mafia often played a key role in world events our program retraces the footsteps of the men behind those events the great Mafia bosses the great Don's known as the Godfather's our journey begins in Sicily Vito Cascio Ferro is 31 he had been affiliated with the Mafia in his early 20s now he is a so-called man of honor in the late 19th century the Mafia was a secret mysterious society feared by the local peasants no one dared call it mafia but in the countryside things began to change a new social movement is born called the ctvn fashi it demands justice progress and democracy for the people cause of the movements success among the rural population Cascio Ferro understands that it can make him even more powerful he infiltrates the Sicilian fashi by posing as a socialist he clutches the hammer and sickle along with the shotgun and images of the Madonna it doesn't matter the decision young fashi is opposed to landowners and even the mafiosi eventually the government of Rome sends in the army to suppress the Sicilian fashi as a result more than 100 people die hundreds are wounded and arrested and the Sicilian fashi is banned the defeat brings the dreamers to their knees many leave for the new world those who stay returned to working the land then Vito Cascio Ferro takes off his socialist mask using all of his power he is determined to become a godfather Don Vito meanwhile another mafia drama takes place in New Orleans in 1892 Mafia families the Matranga 's and the province arms are about to fight for control over the docks a port of entry for illegal trafficking they caught a family probably the chance often it's not a family it's a it's a illegal business organization in which a group of men pledge loyalty to each other divide up different areas of business and divide up the profits that they're making in the streets of New Orleans the Mafia have a legitimate front they sell oranges in 1888 the Matranga 's and the province on those families had gone to war with each other to control the docks these families exist to make money they will resort to anything in order to continue their criminal operations up to an including murder in many cases even murdering innocent people who aren't even involved in the criminal operations between 1888 and 1890 over 40 people were killed in the so-called war of the oranges among the victims Orleans Police Chief David Hennessy who had been investigating mafia activities in the area a public outcry follows his assassination in March 1891 a dozen Sicilian suspected of his murder are arrested an angry mob storms the jail where the suspects are held drags them to the street and winches them a headline in the item a local New Orleans newspaper reads justice is done but president Benjamin Harrison expresses outrage and gives $25,000 to the family of each lynched man the rival families respond by going into hiding yes every family withdrew into its shell applying the Mafia proverb that says then back like a rush until the flood passes if you maintain the war of the oranges weakened the Mafia families because too many peacock tea or soldiers had died too much energy had been spent on fighting rather than business racketeering prostitution and gambling absolutamente per cosa nostra farag where the cosa nostra war is absolutely no game it's something you engage in only if unavoidable it is in the DNA of cosa nostra to avoid any internal clash because it would mean an opportunity for the police to investigate and fight them in Gansu the force investigated the in de Garay any contrast element for centuries the italian island of sicily had no government of its own it was repeatedly conquered by the greeks the arabs the Normans and the Spanish not one of the conquerors was remotely interested in the Sicilians or their welfare men like Don Vito Cascio Ferro realized that they could bypass the government by currying favors and using violence they became known as Godfather's why Godfather why Padrino because their authority is so complete it's like a dictatorship you know there's no legislature there's no rule making body they don't consult they don't go to the flock they don't go to the voters it's the boss the boss says what's right the boss says what's wrong and people follow him Don Vito wants to be invisible to the law but to the people he wants to be seen as the friend of all friends a mafia Godfather is like everyone's father is recognized by the lowest ranks as the man who administers justice and fixes wrongdoings he is a man you can turn to for a job Don Vito Cascio Ferro doesn't carry a gun his weapons are cynicism and intelligence those caught in the Godfather's web know that each of his favors must be repaid don't be showing a little demon ticket but we also can't forget that if the old Godfather's orders were not obey he issued a death sentence in 1902 Don Vito Cascio Ferro comes to America through Ellis Island blending in with the other immigrants he is 40 years old he wants to become a player in American gambling prostitution and immigrant trafficking he wants to control racketeering in the United States he begins his criminal career in America in New York City's East Harlem in America many of the Italian gangsters belong to an organization called the black hand this does not prevent struggles for control of criminal activity like those in New Orleans Don Vito soon realizes that his bid for power relies on the peaceful coexistence of these factions he starts to build alliances among the gangs of the black hag a typical crime of the black hand was extortion the victim was told to pay up to avoid being kidnapped or even murdered this is the story of the most dangerous and secret criminal organization in the world the Mafia the Mafia was born in Sicily but from that Italian island it would soon be exported to the United States where it became known as La Cosa Nostra throughout the 20th century a century marked by world wars and political assassinations the Mafia often played a key role in world events our program retraces the footsteps of the men behind those events the great Mafia bosses the great dons known as the Godfather's our journey begins in Sicily Vito Cascio Ferro is 31 he had been affiliated with the Mafia in his early 20s now he is a so-called man of honor in the late 19th century the Mafia was a secret mysterious society feared by the local peasants no one dared call it mafia but in the countryside things began to change a new social movement is born called the ctvn fashi it demands justice progress and democracy for the people cause of the movements success among the rural population Cascio Ferro understands that it can make him even more powerful he infiltrates this assured young fashi by posing as a socialist he clutches the hammer and sickle along with the shotgun and images of the Madonna it doesn't matter the decision young fashi is opposed to landowners and even the mafiosi eventually the government of Rome sends in the army to suppress the Sicilian fashion as a result more than 100 people die hundreds are wounded and arrested and the sicilian fashi is banned the defeat brings the dreamers to their knees many leave for the new world those who stay returned to working the land then Vito Cascio Ferro takes off his socialist mask using all of his power he is determined to become a godfather Don Vito meanwhile another mafia drama takes place in New Orleans in 1892 Mafia families the Matranga 's and the province arms are about to fight for control over the docks a port of entry for illegal trafficking they call a family probably just soften it it's not a family it's a it's a illegal business organization in which a group of men pledged loyalty to each other divided up different areas of business and divided up the profits that they're making in the streets of New Orleans the Mafia have a legitimate front they sell oranges in 1888 the Matranga 's and the Provencal most families had gone to war with each other to control the docks these families exist to make money they will resort to anything in order to continue their instigating the crime was Italian parliament member Raphael a ballad solo yet behind him was the great godfather Don Vito Cascio Ferro Cascio Ferro had Polly Solo elected in order to control him the first major trial against the Mafia was held in Bologna Italy in 1902 Palazzolo was found guilty and sentenced to 30 years in prison but then Don Vito called in some flavours the most influential members of the Sicilian society mobilized and accused the Italian government of discriminating against Sicily thanks to strong pressure the case was heard on appeal and in 1904 Palazzolo was acquitted for lack of evidence Don Vito Cascio Ferro organized a triumphant return to Palermo for Palazzolo then in 1908 he decided to send him to the United States assemblies were organized in New York City Boston Philadelphia Pittsburgh Chicago and New Orleans wherever he went our lead solo gave the same speech he calls for the formation of a Sicilian organization an actual government within the government with its own laws that speech was cleverly worded by Don Vito loaded with double meanings that were understood only by the Mafia Sicilians need to know how to engage in politics says Polly solo what he meant was Godfather's must know how to engage in politics in order to become really powerful New York City undercover policeman Joe Petrosino understands the Sicilian dialect so he understands the coded messages the important thing about Petrosino is that he was quintessential anti-mafia and that if you did an analysis of the italian-american experience the children the sons and daughters of those giants the immigrants and they were giants the numbers would show you that there is a great great disproportion there are many more Joe Petrosino types through his investigations Petrosino discovers that the man in charge of racketeering was not in the United States but in the heartland of the Mafia Sicily in 1909 he leaves for Palermo on a top-secret mission but on February 20th 1909 the New York Herald breaks the story behind his trip and his investigation is secret no more Petrosino ignores the obvious danger but Don Vito Cascio Ferro is ahead of the game on march 12 1909 Joe Petrosino is shot to death in Palermo's Piazza marina there was a funeral in Manhattan for him and I think over a quarter of a million people at that time went to that funeral he was the first italian-american to be killed in the line of duty Villalba is a remote village in southern Sicily Calogero Vizzini has four priests in his family among whom are his brothers Salvatori and Giovanni both Don's in their own right as priests are addressed in Italy Calogero was born in 1877 at age 17 he had his first brush with the law when he was charged with assault now as an adult he also aspires to the title of dawn but in its criminal sense as the mark of respect do a godfather there were pretensions of grandeur in the Mafia you know the the idea that they were recreating the Roman legions and that maybe that insulated some of them from the reality of the fact that they were pretty vicious common criminals in 1891 pope leo xiii had issued the encyclical rerum navarro a papal document whose title means of new things it was an era of the invention not only in Italy but in most of the Western world big machines powerful ships impressive downs in their sermons the four priests in done busy nice family protest against the exploitation of women and children who often paid the highest price for progress in Italy but despite the progress Sicily still had no government to take care of Sicilians don calogero Vizzini pretends to be a union man and gives jobs to the unemployed if I don't meet about the life of its eenie was very peculiar he never got married his only interest was power that's one of the characteristics of a godfather a godfather becomes powerful when he is able to have his orders carried out New York City the mid-20s Joe Masseria was the most powerful Godfather in town he prefers to be called the boss because it sounds more American to him reporting to Masseria are mafia soldiers like Salvatore Lucania Carlo Gambino and Vito Genovese II they are known as the Young Turks the moment we let Matthew when the mafia is at its strongest those destined to be men of honor are given a specific kind of education it's a school when World War one eventually breaks out the Mafia is ready for it Italy calls its immigrants back home but instead of going back many high afraid of losing their jobs in America they ask for help and the godfathers are ready to hand out favors when the United States finally enters the war in 1916 they pour money into Italy for new armaments this time many Italian Americans enlist Don Calogero Vizzini quickly seizes the opportunity he buys horses mules and donkeys and sells them to the army but there are other business opportunities the weapons of World War one requires sulfur for their gunpowder and Sicily has a monopoly on sulfur coincidentally Don Vizzini owns enormous sulfur mines his men worked like slaves naked so they can bear the heat Don vicini becomes more and more powerful a true mafia kay by the end of World War one the European economies are in ruins but in America the Mafia was still making money the godfather of Chicago is Big Jim Colosimo to protect his criminal business he recruits a clever mafioso Johnny Torrio partnering with Torrio would turn out to be Big Jim Colosimo biggest mistake On January 16 1920 the 18th amendment prohibition goes into effect in the United States in Chicago mafia Don Johnny Torrio immediately seized the opportunity for profiting from prohibition but his boss Big Jim Colosimo does not Johnny Torrio recruits a violent young man to help him not brilliant but smart enough his name is Alphonse Caponi Al Capone five months after prohibition begins Big Jim Colosimo is dead now Torrio along with Capone can begin trafficking in alcohol Capone is power-hungry and a show-off but Johnny Torrio is the brains of the operation working backstage to prevent clashes between the gangs everyone gets a piece of the action the right agreement can be reached Torrio didn't make it on January 24th 1925 he is shot repeatedly and slips into a coma Al Capone alone is on top of the world if Johnny Torrio had been around the 1929 Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago would never have happened this is how hitman Frank fridge NT described the carnage of that day four of us went in on Valentine's Day we arrived at one o'clock they were in the garage we went in with a submachine gun and blew them away we were dressed like cops because that gang didn't want to be led by alcohol at the time Al Capone only vaguely understands what it means to be a godfather he knows a godfather needs recognition and respect so during the Depression he opens a soup kitchen for the unemployed he brags about being an employer and paying people's wages he wants to think big like a real Godfather but he is just showing off he never imagined he could be sent to Alcatraz for a trivial thing like not filing an income tax return a prisoner of his own legend he also has no idea that one day syphilis could make him a permanent idiot New York City the mid-1920s before leaving for Sicily once more Don Vito Cascio Ferro orders his lieutenant salvatore maranzano to stay in town and take care of business you'd think that the most successful Italians were the ones who got to be Coppola through T copy and but that's not true and and it was improbable because a generation ago two generations ago the people who came here were mostly very humble and modest of means Don Vito's choice of Maranzano did not please Joe the boss Masseria the most powerful Godfather in town he knows that Maranzano could one day be a true rival for control of the American families both Maranzano and Masseria bolster their gangs enlisting new soldiers from Castellammare del Golfo a Sicilian base for new illegal trafficking in 1928 the new fascist regime in Italy comes down on the Mafia in Sicily Don Vito Cascio Ferro is arrested on smuggling charges with his boss in jail overseas Maranzano decides that the time has finally come to take over but he wasn't ready to become a godfather and the biggest mafia war ever breaks after the Castellammarese a war in one of those clashes on October 16th 1929 one of masseria's men Salvatori Lou Konrad gets hit the killers leave him for dead but Luke Anya survives he gets a fitting new nickname Lucky Luciano engrossed in the Castellammarese a war Maranzano and Masseria do not realize Lucky Luciano is beginning to build his own third force by his side his Meyer Lansky a Jewish friend from childhood Luciano's first step is to eliminate Joe the boss Masseria five months later he kills Salvatore Maranzano as well but he doesn't stop there on the night of September 10th 1931 Luciano eliminated all the other men still loyal to the two dead bosses the night is remembered as the Sicilian Vespers that marked the end of the Castellammarese a war Atlantic City 1929 the godfathers acting like heads of state gather for a top-secret conference the government takes care of public virtues we take care of private vices Luciano reportedly tells the other Godfather's business he explains requires a stable environment the drug market was growing but sneaking past u.s. customs inspectors requires a high level of organization they had to rely on corruption to stop the police and the judges cosa nostra since I respected Cosa Nostra and followed certain rules it wouldn't be what it is no sorry missus this Luciano established a round table known as the Commission membership in this board of directors for the American Mafia requires that a godfather be recognized for his control of a certain area the boss of all bosses is abolished no one ranks higher than anyone else the Commission is ruled by many bosses all of whom are equal Joe Bonanno described it in his book and described it to me when I interviewed him and questioned him as being like the United Nations which is a rather exalted way to describe it but he's thought of it as the heads of state coming together and trying to create a peaceful environment in which they can make the maximum amount of money the other members of the Commission suggest that Luciano named this criminal holding company no names you applies no one can refer to this our thing La Cosa Nostra you will be invisible he also wants to do away with rituals like finger prick and burning Saints pictures Meyer Lansky convinces him otherwise telling him that young people need rituals to believe in something dear something he thinks are the mafia without a degree of ritual and sacredness would mean an entirely different criminal organization but Aladdin you know criminality since it had no name Luciano's organization did not exist even FBI director J Edgar Hoover agreed he was certainly in just a few years the Mafia would discover new business opportunities and in that time the Mafia would prosper and grow New York 1929 the sudden crash of the stock market triggers the Great Depression millions lose their jobs making it easier for the Mafia to find new recruits Cosa Nostra no name abanda t repertory Cosa Nostra is not a gang of bank robbers it's not a series of gangsters all over the territory Washington DC in 1933 Democrat Franklin D Roosevelt takes office as president of the United States and prohibition ends he promises a new deal for the country but Lucky Luciano knows perfectly well how to make a new deal for himself as announced by Roosevelt the New Deal means dams bridges streets railroads in other words enormous contracts the New Deal brings with it national labor contracts and labor union growth the Godfather's are ready for their new deal of racketeering Cosa Nostra is a human phenomena made of organized men who want to rule the place they live in and want to make money that has been the case since the beginning of cosa nostra Cristo seemed that he needs the other story controlling workers and directing strikes requires knowing how to ignite passions and control them at the same time this is a new deal for the Mafia a world away from Al Capone's soup kitchen by controlling laborers unions they were able to control the trucking industry construction industry the docks along the eastern seaboard of the United States beginning with Italy Sicilian fashi movement in the 19th century the godfathers had learned how to disguise themselves as union leaders now in the 1930s the Godfather's involvement in US labor unions became a dense tangle of contracts and racketeering it was a way to break into politics politics is a tool that the Mafia uses to obtain its own objectives the historical roots of the Mafia go back in history and feed off a counterculture of its own through American labor unions the mafia found a way to corrupt politics how do they corrupt you with money they give you money for your campaign and return you're supposed to forget about what's good for everybody and do what's good for me because I gave you the money and a lot of that is very successfully done by big money in the United States of America should be no surprise therefore that the Mafia which has its own organized crime which has its own desires for its own business we want to be able to reach a judge to make him more lenient in a case now that's that's pure corruption while the Great Depression was a crisis for most US businesses it did not affect the underworld Lucky Luciano was living it up between nightclubs and strip teasers he began restructuring his prostitution ring turning brothels into supermarkets of sex women were his weakness a New York City's District Attorney Thomas Dewey spotted it he convinced two women to testify against Luciano through them he gathered enough evidence to arrest and try Luciano for abetting prostitution on July 2nd 1936 the jury pronounced the word guilty 549 times he is sentenced to 30 to 50 years in prison his friend Meyer Lansky gets word to him that one of their soldiers plans to assassinate Thomas Dewey no attacks on government officials the Godfather orders Luciano saves the life of his prosecutor and maintains his power even from a prison cell it'll be 1922 the country fell under the fascist dictatorship of Benito Mussolini who calls himself el Dulce two years later in 1924 during a trip to sicily mussolini meets Don ciccio's cook a local godfather and town mayor Don ciccio's says to Mussolini your excellency you have no need for all these guards here you are under my protection nothing will happen to you the fact that another power other than fascism still existed in Sicily was intolerable for Mussolini he took immediate action he requested an iron-fisted officer and was presented with the unrelenting cesare mori as chief of operations Mori considered Sicily occupied enemy territory confident that he was backed by Mussolini he sent in the Italian Army and ordered torture forced to drink salt water or indoor electrical shocks to their testicles the Mafia soldiers started revealing the names of the Godfather's 500 mafiosi fled to the United States helped by their American cousins those who remained in Italy faced hard times Don Calogero Vizzini the godfather who had prospered during World War one thanks to the sulfur mines was brought to trial and sentenced to five years but thanks to his good relationship with the fascist regime he was freed after just a few days in prison and returned to his hometown of Villalba prefect Morrie's investigation revealed new information including the names of contacts at major banks and Mafia families in America Cesare Mori had gone far too far the ancient Romans had a say let him be promoted and removed by June 1929 he'll do che and the public were both satisfied with the Mori investigation the prefect of iron was promoted and left Sicily the time has come to introduce yet another American Godfather dito Genovese II he was one of the Young Turks who had worked for Joe the boss Masseria by the mid-1930s Genovese a had become a ruthless killer who had also gained control of many nightclubs and prostitution rings in 1937 the New York Police Department issued a warrant for his arrest for the murder of one Ferdinando boccia Genovese he was forced to flee to Italy but Jenna vase a was more than a fugitive even under Italy's fascist regime he would soon find new ways to do business 1937 40 year old godfather Vito Genovese a arrives in fascist Italy from the United States he was fleeing the New York Police Department which wants him for homicide Genovese a realizes immediately that the Mussolini regime could present great opportunities and new business he orders shipments of cocaine from the US a fashionable drug among the Italian intellectual elite he works his way into the social circles of count Galeazzo Giano who was married to ADA Mussolini's favorite daughter he even finances the building of a fascist party office when cocaine and money aren't enough to curry favor with the regime he tries crime Carlo Tresca an anti-fascist publisher and Mussolini enemy was living in exile in New York City on Vito Genovese order Tresca is murdered on January 11th 1943 on Fifth Avenue in his late 30s Bugsy Siegel was as handsome as a Hollywood actor he was also a well-known gunslinger passionately dedicated to women in 1939 he travels to Italy with one of his mistresses countess Dorothy de frazzle her plan is to assassinate Mussolini with a bomb the countess in fact never even tried but lugs he found himself inside what the Nazis called the fortress of Europe a continent under Nazi occupation Bugsy was a gangster and a Jew under the Nazis his life would be considered worthless horrified by anti-semitism he leaves the countess and returns to America meanwhile the Godfather's Commission reprimands vito genovese a they are not happy with his pro mussolini initiatives the Mafia is against fascism and nazism to properly manage its business it needs democracy with its freedoms and rights December 1941 the United States enters World War two it soon discovers that its docks aren't secure that strikes were still taking place in the factories and that enemy submarines can move right up to the shorelines or supplies are kept a series of attacks spread the panic that many Italian German and Japanese spies have infiltrated the United States indeed some saboteurs are captured tried and executed once mores in the previous World War lucky Luciano's cosa nostra shows an uncanny ability to increase its power New York's Navy shipyards were at work on the Normandy it was the fastest transatlantic ship in the world able to elude German u-boats while carrying American troops to Europe On February 11th 1942 New York awoke to a cloud of smoke above the overturned ship the destruction was planned by one of Luciano's men Albert Anastasia the Mafia wanted to show the US military that the docks of New York were Cosa Nostra power then the war did not allow any more time the military had to work with cosa nostra us chief of staff admiral hevanddan and new york city's district attorney dewey approved the top-secret project operation underworld the Navy Secret Service made contact with the Mafia soon afterward the docks become safer and sabotage stops as do strikes in the factories the Allied countries against Nazi fascism can now count on yet another ally although a secret the Mafia had now entered World War two cooperation with the Mafia extended to the Allied landing in Sicily on July 9th 1943 it was the largest naval operation ever attempted in history legend has it that one lone American tank arrived in the village of Villalba a soldier called out to Don Vizzini on a bullhorn when he approached the tank the soldier waved the symbol of collaboration with the Mafia a handkerchief with an L for Lucky Luciano but there's no need for legend in the heart of the war zone a combat cameraman filmed a fisherman's boat transporting a man of honor on his way to boarding a military ship Italy 1943 an allied military government is formed headed by attorney-at-law charles Poletti in 1942 Poletti had been the temporary Governor of New York shortly after the Normandy incident at the peak of operation underworld he held this post for just a few weeks long enough for him to pardon a few mafia men vito genovese a was hired as a translator in military governor coletti's office he was fired only after his file landed on the desk of the chief of staff several Italian Godfather's subsequently claimed to be anti-fascists they said they had been persecuted by Morrie the prefect of iron sent to Sicily by Mussolini a viewer even appointed mayor's among them Calogero Vizzini the godfather of the Alba after the end of World War two a separatist movement was born in Sicily which favored annexing the Italian island to the United States a leader of this movement was godfather Don Calogero Vizzini in Rome the time finally came to call elections to form the first democratic government after 20 years of dictatorship the Communist Party many of those members had played a major role in resisting Nazi fascism wanted seats in the new Italian cabinet and they would never allow Sicily to become part of the United States the United States actually prepared a top-secret plan to reoccupy Sicily if the Communists won but the rationing of flowers sparked an unexpected reaction a young man had reacted by opening fire his name was Salvatore Guiliano he became a gang leader a top fighter in the separatist movement which appointed him commander of the revolutionary army annexing Sicily to America meant stopping the Communists first on May 1st 1947 Labor Day Salvatori Giuliano's men attacked workers demonstrating in portela de la jeunesse today near palermo it was a massacre April 18th 1948 after a dramatic electoral campaign Election Day arrived the Communists lost however Salvatore Guiliano knew he was in trouble with democratic order now in place in Rome Sicily would never become part of the United States Salvatore days gang had drawn the attention of the police disturbing the Mafia's business the Godfather's issued a death sentence Juliano was killed on May 5th 1950 Massa Paula Miller Bambi told even the Bandit becomes a myth after many years when the murders he is committed are forgotten but at what age I mean you know Salvatore Guiliano was abandoned responsible for the murder of many innocent people yet he had posed as a guerrilla fighter criminal it's a fact that a criminal in disguise adds to reduce the criminal level of the Mafia itself the bandit Giuliano as he is still called was a criminal mouth yesterday said during his time as a guerrilla fighter Salvatore Guiliano fell in love he had a son we named after his father Salvatore a Giuliana when trouble came Giuliano had his son taken out of Sicily through the Mafia's secret Network as an adult Juliano son denied the very existence of the Mafia it's the Italian government that says their Godfather's will have to see the word Godfather means a mafioso since the Mafia doesn't exist Godfather's cannot exist in the United States the help and cooperation of the Mafia during World War two did not go unrewarded lucky Luciano's 30-year sentence vanishes into thin air he is released from prison in 1946 someone even proposes that the US Congress award him a medal as if he were a war hero this man was not a hero he was a very bad man he was a criminal and criminals deserve to be off the streets they shouldn't be roaming the streets of this city or any city for that matter the motion for the medal is soon forgotten after all Luciano was still a criminal he is sent to Italy on the condition that he never returned to America again silently Lucky Luciano begins solidifying relations with Don Calogero Vizzini of the Alba the only Sicilian Godfather he really trusted Lucky Luciano is that will remain Lucky Luciano was of course a highly intelligent and efficient criminal who was a bridgehead in Italy and made business between the two organizations easier creating more consistency between their criança delegate Sione in the 1950s Italy's economy began to change dramatically it started to become a modern industrialized country inevitably the Sicilian Mafia began to die out it was time to breed a new generation of mafiosi Lucky Luciano and Don vicini would take care of that the United States the 1950s the Commission was made up of five families the Mafia's Board of Directors the Gambino's the Genovese the bonanno's the Colombo's and the Lucases well I think the role that was typify din the Godfather movies never existed that was a highly romantic view of what many people say was modeled after Carlo Gambino but every Mafia family in Sicily and the families in the United States are vicious criminals vicious murderers they are not romantic family individuals as were portrayed the title character in the movie The Godfather was actually inspired by a number of different real-life Godfather's different but all former pupils of lucky Luciano's Mafia school Carlo Gambino was the smartest of them all his rise as a godfather begins in 1946 when Luciano was deported to Italy Luciano was his role model from him Gambino learns to keep a low profile when somebody called him a coward he let him he knew his true weapon was his intelligence in 1947 after just one year in Italy Lucky Luciano already felt Italy was too small for him but he couldn't go back to the states so he settles for the next best thing Cuba another mafia haven Cuba was where the American Godfather's expanded their casino and nightclub businesses Luciano called for another underworld conference this time in Havana like any ordinary tourist Lucky Luciano leaves Italy for Cuba there he meets up with his old friend Meyer Lansky and other middle-aged Godfather's in Cuba Luciano explains his plan to the other Godfather's there is now a global market for narcotics that he wants to take advantage of and the grocer but he'll either ok system only called da mafia has a kind of stock mark a serial a major drug shipments had cartels which were groups of family bosses that coordinated the purchase of a huge drug shipment going on someone's work and then it was split among the members of the cartel he guaranteed the payment for what they had purchased Selig I mean total but they were not besito at the Havana conference Luciano laid out his grand plan to expand this business the drugs would be produced in the Far East where the government's pretended not to see the enormous plantations the refining process would then be entrusted to the Italians in Sicily Cuba would be the distribution point to move refined narcotics overseas they could rely on Italians connected to the Mafia who traveled to see their families in the United States so when I say Idid they were undercover journeys at the old lady who visits her relatives in the United States and smuggles in one or two kilos of heroin or store owners who sneaked in a small amount compared to the enormous quantity that was refined it was called the rain method and it wasn't the only way to smuggle narcotics into the United States many Godfather's like Vito Genovese a and Don Calogero Vizzini entered a new business this time legal importing canned food it was another perfect way to conceal drugs you know chico president pierre important so mr. Tomita know she comprises who beat okay so at first the whole thing was underestimated no one thought that behind all this lay drug smuggling no one thought the drug smuggling directly involved Sicily ent General Order political engorge anymore the transition ironically the canned food business run by the Godfather's was a success all on its own La Cosa Nostra Arbutin approach Oh con con la droga cosa nostra began dealing in drugs back in the 50s and it improved this business over two decades almost three seedings not only to become a part of the worldwide drug business but also to manage it on its own thanks to the Far East and the Middle East production sources of morphine at the huge Western markets its own very safe and profitable distribution channels Palermo Italy 1957 managing the global drug market was more difficult than Luciano and the other Godfather's had anticipated ten years earlier at the Havana conference in a world changing so quickly it was time to call another meeting in Lamar Sami sembra dilemma knowledge endo tchen quanta said in March 1957 at the hotel la palma and palermo a meeting was held at the highest historical criminal relevance of course it was the occasion to gather around a table and for several days the leading personalities of the American Cosa Nostra from New York to Buffalo to Detroit in other areas of the states with leading Cosa Nostra personalities from Palermo and other towns in Sicily for the Mafia it is an historic conference all the Godfather's are in attendance say we gambled a day if we want to find a definition for the palm a meeting we can sum it up as follows the Italian mafia modeled itself after the Americans without abdicating its authority to the American cousins and it opened very profitable channels for drug trafficking a few months after the Palermo conference Vito Genovese a on his own initiative calls for another meeting this time in the United States the Appalachian Conference in upstate New York is held in late 1957 so we believe that the main purpose was for the bosses of the American families to decide whether or not they would engage jointly in heroin trafficking with their cousins from Sicily in Italy Luciano immediately understands that Vito Genovese is real purpose is to take control of the Commission he sends only Carlo Gambino to the meeting ordering his men to stay away then he tips off the New York Police Department there would be national meetings involving the families from all over the country and of course that's what was that's what was interrupted and discovered in Appalachian New York in the late 1950s they were having a national meeting of all of the all of the families that was rare those kinds of meetings took place infrequently because they were too dangerous the New York Police Department raids the meeting and arrests a few of the godfathers including Carlo Gambino he had been lucky Luciano's sacrificial lamb the FBI is caught off guard by Luciano's move after years of saying the Mafia didn't exist FBI director J Edgar Hoover got to work Cosa Nostra had lost its legendary invisibility Italy in the mid-50s Enrico Mattei crosses paths with the major international oil companies also known as the Seven Sisters as the president of our Jeep Italy state-owned oil company he interferes with the huge business of black gold he would have to be stopped and the Mafia would be very useful in doing just that Enrico Mattei had been a great resistance commander during World War two he was one of the men who had decided to send in a unit to arrest Mussolini the unit had captured Mussolini before the Allies did on April 29th 1945 in the lawn Mussolini was shot and strung up in public by his feet after the war mati could have held any prestigious political position unexpectedly he asked for a seemingly dead-end state-owned oil company named a jeep and then Ma Tei found oil everywhere in just a few years he quickly rose in the global market of black gold he laid the foundations for Italy's economic boom of the 1960's he reached agreements with the Russian communists and the Arab countries for the exploitation of their oil fields soon mati becomes a problem for the international oil companies they realized their monopoly over black gold is in danger on October 27th 1962 Matei boards a private jet in Sicily he takes off from Catania at 4:50 7 p.m. exactly two hours later the plane crashes in best Capay near Milan la mafia tainted you children a maniera pure focaccia a possibility the Mafia tries to kill in the most efficient way without leaving any traces the Mafia says that a perfect murder is one that eliminated the body and eliminates the memory of it eliminate corpo the living a la memoria On February 7th 1966 the crash is ruled an accident but in September 1994 the investigation is reopened mafia Informer Gaetano Yanni testifies that Motta's plane has been sabotage by the Sicilian Mafia as a favor to their American cousins to this day there is no official verdict in the case she dippity me daddy the Mafia kills to get rid of the potential enemy a potential adversary is somebody who can harm the family it gives a warning to the others beware of what you're doing this is how you will ended up we said a feeling a positive father Naples January 26 1962 Lucky Luciano is conducting business as usual when he collapsed at the Naples Airport struck by a heart attack he was about to negotiate the book and film rights to his biography New York City 1962 Joe Valachi a soldier in the family of Vito Genovese a is arrested for narcotics violations when Valachi is arrested his boss is not confident that he will keep quiet he attempts to have Valachi killed three times in prison Genovese a was right on July 13th 1962 Joe Valachi becomes the most famous mafia Informer up until that time Lindy fillings like a prima cultura listing we before the indifference that used to characterize most people's attitude toward the Mafia had changed there is much less of it people realized the Mafia is a criminal phenomenon that may lead to the end of the Mafia phenomenal criminality the wall of silence that had surrounded the Mafia for decades began showing its first cracks in Italy however one mafia informers predicament is quite different from Joe Valachi 's his name is Leonardo Vitali he is a man of honor of the family of art or a low near Palermo in 1973 he explains to Italian judges how the Mafia is really a single powerful organization with branches throughout the world the court deemed him crazy and sent him to a psychiatric his killers had to wait ten years on December 2nd 1984 Leonardo Vitali is killed when he finally leaves the asylum everyone had to know that speaking against the Mafia was a death sentence in Italy princes barons and counts had been a part of the Mafia since its inception even Joseph Bonanno one of the founding members of the American Mafia was of noble descent the bronze door in pieces duomo is named after the Bonanno family however he did not like being called Don he preferred to be called the father and he's one of those people about which you would say if he had gone in another direction he could have been very successful fortunately he sought the direction of crime but then he tried to I think insulate himself from facing what it was all about with these pretensions of this is like a government this is like I'm like the head of head of state which he said I'm like a deposed head of state when he was finally retired by the mid-60s Joseph Bonanno had a plan to kill all of the members of the Commission so that he could become the big mafia chief of New York City in 1964 the Commission gets wind of this and has him kidnapped they advised him that it was time to abdicate he wisely agrees carlo gambino made a different choice than banana and he retains control of his family until his final day he had learned lucky Luciano's lesson on invisibility better than any other Godfather when he died in 1976 he is replaced by big Paul Castellano Castellano had a temper and was so contentious that even his soldiers hated him he didn't have the right stuff to be a real Godfather he is killed in front of a New York City Steakhouse in 1985 there have been plenty of italian-american heroes in law enforcement but these are not well known these were not the subjects of series these were not the subjects of one blockbuster movie after another these were not for our spectacular 's know these were not series like The Sopranos what works in this country is blood dripping from a stiletto rape crushing a man's head with a golf club because your boss ordered you to do it italian-american thugs even the Italians go watch it Sicily in the mid 50s back to Italy in the town of coeur Leoni 30 miles south of palermo for decades this small town had been dominated by Don Michaela Nevada a godfather who was also a physician but whose only interest was power he was successful too until luciano leggio one of his soldiers began his own rise to power on august 2nd 1958 li geo decides the time had come to take over he kills Don Nevada he then forms the Corleone a gang one of the most ruthless gangs in the history of the Mafia he expanded his activity to northern Italy in 1973 he kidnaps paul Getty the third the grandson of oil tycoon paul Getty senior and cuts off his earlobe to convince the family to pay a ransom in 1974 Li geo is arrested in Milan and subsequently receives a life sentence he is replaced by Toto Riina known as toto the shorty because he is only 5 feet 2 but he has big ambitions without consulting anyone toto Veena's Corleone a gang begins killing other Godfather's to make room for themselves in the drug market no attack on government officials had been lucky Luciano's order many years before but by the mid 70s the lesson had been forgotten in Sicily the core Leone gang killed policemen some of the organized crime figures are among the most vicious horrible awful human beings you'd ever meet almost animalistic in quality and some of them except for the criminal part of their life they can be very nice people through it all the town of Corleone II struggled to be known for something other than mafia got a popular series it must be said that core Leone has taken some huge steps forward considering the antenna trouble omerta that existed channel it has changed a lot that there has been an awakening and exceptional Renaissance I mean makayley Sindona was born in potty near Messina in 1920 a mathematic and financial genius he achieved success by laundering money for the Mafia in both Italy and the US one day he would cross paths with attorney George Oh Ambrose Olli whose job was to pursue the banker Godfather the son of a mortician Michaelis and ona is born in 1920 in potty Italy near Messina even in junior high school he is already a mathematical genius shortly afterward he begins laundering dirty money for the Mafia in both Italy and the United States and becomes the banker Godfather Milan September 27 1974 attorney Giorgio Ambrose Olli is assigned by the Italian Court to liquidate one of the many firms controlled by Michaelis and ona in his investigation Umbra solely uncovers the secrets of sin donas Empire and his ties to the Mafia in 1972 Sindona bought Franklin National Bank in the u.s. the acquisition was subsequently investigated by an American Court Umbra solely was asked to testify in the case against Sindona shortly after his testimony On June 11th 1979 Giorgio Ambrose Olli is killed in Milan the Italian police traced the Hitman back to Michaela Sindona who was put in jail laundering dirty money from drug smuggling and other illegal activities requires moving it around quickly when Sindona goes to jail the money stops moving from the outside the Godfather sends Sindona a message where is their money Sindona knows he is lost and threatens to cooperate with police in 1986 at age 65 he should have known better than to threaten the Godfather's Sindona has a cup of coffee in his cell it is laced with cyanide aspiring Godfather Stefano boom Tati changed his last name it used to be bonito or goodness in Italian he has a hard time keeping a low profile after assuming the title Don he intends to live in luxury and mix with Palermo's high society bon thought they decides to stop the Corleone a gang he makes new alliances with Masonic lodges and corrupt members of the Italian Secret Service's he attempts to strengthen ties with American Mafia families but the members of the Commission don't approve of the Mafia war in Sicily it is against the rules of the American cosa nostra to use bombs against innocent people as the core Leone families are doing in their war they were told in very strong terms that if they came to the United States conducted criminal operations in the United States they were not allowed to use that type of terror within the United States they were not to do it they were not to attract attention of law enforcement and the American public by engaging in those type of activities here the American Cosa Nostra decides to separate itself from the Sicilians the agreements formed at the hotel la palma conference back in 1957 are essentially canceled Noorie tango vicia no report is totally in teh co-operative Esther I don't believe there's still or many structural relations or intensely strategic theories like those studied at the hotel la palma conference in palermo Stefano bon thought they does not live to become the Godfather of Corleone II he is killed in Palermo on April 23rd 1981 his murder triggers off yet another full-scale mafia war in Italy this time though the core Leone gangs go too far too many Italian law enforcement agents and judges become casualties in Palermo alone the body-count escalates from 101 to 150 victims between 1981 and 82 in the early 80s tommaso buscetta tries to take over the defeated families he is one of the older Godfather's still in charge he managed the drug smuggling business among Europe Asia and both North and South America you know socially forces studying Caracalla leader Diwali Roli bull daddy I don't know if Bush Schechter had been appointed to fill in Bonaparte's role but I do know he had been asked to return to Polaris and meet with everyone who had remained loyal to bond topic and vedalam NT I've been ordered to stir them up against the Corleone a gangster yes you wanna go throw two gorillas buscetta doesn't make it the core Leone gangs forced him to flee for his life to Brazil in October 1983 buscetta is arrested in Rio de Janeiro in a joint operation of the Italian police and Interpol when Italian judge Giovanni Falcone goes to Brazil to interrogate him buscetta decides Falcone is a man he can trust he decides to talk in July 1984 he is extradited to Italy judge Falcone lets loose Quetta speak freely even when he describes the Mafia in romantic terms a attainder Diavolo arraylist he tries to validate his role as a pure mafioso a mafioso who follows all principles and does not concede to drug trafficking by trying to resort to violence as little as possible letting him say what he wants is actually an interrogation technique meanwhile we verify how it all really went checking things independently when necessary dr. rena and his Corleone's amen lash out at the italian government by killing judge giovanni falcone his wife and their bodyguards with a bomb on July 19th of the same year they also killed judge Paolo Borsellino and his bodyguards both judges had been instrumental in gathering evidence for what was called the first maxi trial against the Mafia in Italy in the late eighties in December 1987 at the end of the trial the court in Palermo found 344 of 456 defendants guilty 19 were sentenced to life in prison the Mafia took revenge for that sentence then it lashed out at Italy's artistic heritage on May 9th 1993 even the Pope during his visit to Sicily expresses his outrage at such mayhem on campus the Mafia cannot alter and scorn the holiest light given by God this peak the Sicilian people cannot always live under the pressure of an opposing force a force of death so depression I say this to those responsible convert ourselves God's jdcot responsibie convert ETA V una volta they write judicially do once again the Mafia had gone too far one by one the core Leone gangsters are captured on January 15 1993 dr. rena is arrested in palermo he is tried found guilty and given a life sentence many of the American La Cosa Nostra families they are reluctant to even name one single boss because of the law enforcement efforts that are made against them particularly by the FBI according to both the Italian and the American law enforcement agencies Godfather is no longer exists as they once did once upon a time cosa nostra bosses were invisible as mafiosi but recognizable as Godfather's now they only hide cosa nostra trying to inspire us without doing anything outrageous so they can avoid the government's and investigative bodies key to the changes taking place in order to survive Cosa Nostra now has no choice but to try to transform itself beneath the cloak of silence but without the guidance of Godfather's the Mafia has been unable to achieve its old invisibility it has become vulnerable we can't afford to relax because the Mafia takes advantage of those moments becoming stronger than it was before silence and peace for what it wants mafia has become one of the world's best-known words there's talk of a Russian mafia a Japanese mafia a Colombian mafia and many others worldwide although they are established criminal organizations they are not the Mafia as we know it yet the real mafia needs them just like it needs silence as it attempts to reach agreements on old and new business this includes everything from the illegal trafficking of human beings to drug smuggling it is a fact that we are observing and we believe it's a very dangerous trend because they are not fighting with each other they are engaging in partnerships and we know that the only way we can address that is having our own partnerships throughout the world and we want to carry on the legacy of judge Falcone

Democratic primary

State Representative Tom Murphy, who had finished in second to Masloff during the previous election cycle's Democratic primary won the party's nomination, defeating City Councilman (and future Pennsylvania Auditor General) Jack Wagner. Murphy had been well regarded for his work in the legislature for projects designed to improve the unity and community feel of city neighborhoods. However, he also gain a reputation as being difficult to work with. Nonetheless, his previous run for mayor had laid a strong foundation for a primary win.

1993 Pittsburgh mayoral election, Democratic primary
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Tom Murphy 49,530 71.9
Democratic Jack Wagner 19,338 28.1
Total votes 68,868 100

General Election

A total of 86,414 votes were cast. Although Murphy won by a large margin, as is typical of Pittsburgh Democrats, he lost the city's black vote. City Councilman Duane Darkins, an activist for the short lived black progressive movement The Campaign for a New Tomorrow, ran on the platform of giving a voice to the city's minorities.[1][2] Kathy Matta, a nonprofit director, was the Republican nominee.

Pittsburgh mayoral election, 1993
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Tom Murphy 57,172 66.2
Independent Duane Darkins 13,271 15.4
Republican Kathy Matta 12,058 14.0
Independent Jeff Hitchcock 3,913 4.5
Turnout 86,414
Democratic hold Swing


Preceded by
Pittsburgh mayoral election
Succeeded by
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