To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pico Bolívar
PicoBolivar2.jpg
Peak Bolívar during snow season
Highest point
Elevation 4,978 m (16,332 ft) [1]
Prominence 3,957 m (12,982 ft) [2]
Ranked 25th
Isolation 265 kilometres (165 mi)
Listing Country high point
Ultra
Coordinates 08°32′30″N 71°02′45″W / 8.54167°N 71.04583°W / 8.54167; -71.04583[2]
Geography
Pico Bolívar is located in Venezuela
Pico Bolívar
Pico Bolívar
Venezuela
Location Mérida, Mérida, Venezuela
Parent range Sierra Nevada, Andes
Climbing
First ascent 1935 by Enrique Bourgoin, H. Márquez Molina and Domingo Peña

Pico Bolívar is the highest mountain in Venezuela, at 4,978 metres (16,332 ft).[1] Located in Mérida State, its top is permanently covered with névé snow and three small glaciers. It can be reached only by walking; the Mérida cable car, was the highest and longest cable car in the world when it was built, and only reaches Pico Espejo. From there it is possible to climb to Pico Bolívar. The peak is named after the Venezuelan independence hero Simon Bolívar.

The Pico Bolívar is located on the mountain previously called La Columna, next to El León (4,743 m) and El Toro (4,695 m). The new name was suggested by Tulio Febres Cordero in 1925. It was officially renamed on December 30, 1934.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    9 201
    4 658
    875
  • Merida, Pico Bolivar
  • Driving at Pico El Águila, Venezuela
  • Nuevo Teleférico de Mérida ( Venezuela / The Cinematography of Anthony Xavier ) - Sir Zavier

Transcription

Contents

Elevation

Panoramic of Bolívar Peak. Ascent route Bourgoin - Peña

The height of this prominent Andean peak has been estimated and calculated various times during history. In 1912 one triangular measurement pointed at 5,002 metres. In 1928 came another calcutation at 5,007 metres, which stood as official height for a long time.[1]

During the 1990s the scientists Saler and Abad estimated the height, based upon GPS observations to be 4,980.8 metres.[3] However, no validation was made. New GPS measurements were made in 2002, which stated a height of 4,978.4 ±0.4 metres. These more correct findings were published in 2005.[1]

The final measurement was made by José Napoleon Hernández from IGVSB; Diego Deiros and Carlos Rodriguez from USB and two guides from Inparques. GPS measurements designed for geodetic network consists of the vertices Pico Bolívar, El Toro, Piedras Blancas, and Mucuñuque Observatory, the latter belonging to the Venezuelan Red Geocentric REGVEN. Measurements were temporally equally long and continuous to ensure a greater volume of data over time to make more consistent and reliable information, five (5) GPS dual frequency receivers were used.[4]

Glacial retreat

Comparison between the mountain's glacier, 1950 and 2011 respectively.
Comparison between the mountain's glacier, 1950 and 2011 respectively.

During the Merida glaciation in the Pleistocene epoch, the glaciated area had a maximum extent of 600 km2 and covered mountains with a height of at least 3,000 m. At the end of the glaciation, the area covered by the glaciers progressively shrank, and before the start of the Little Ice Age they had possibly all disappeared.[citation needed]

It is estimated that in 1910 the area covered by glaciers was around 10  km2, divided in two large areas, one embracing Picos Bolívar, Espejo and Concha and the other embracing Picos Humboldt and Bonpland. Possibly a small glaciated area covered the northwest side of Pico El Toro.[5]

Aerial pictures taken in 1952 show the glaciated area had already shrunk to 0.9  km2 for the Picos Bolívar, Espejo and Concha and to 2.0  km2 for the Picos Humboldt and Bonpland.

In 2003 almost all the glaciers of the area had disappeared, with the exception of a two small glaciated areas (7.48 Ha on Pico Bolívar and 35.81 Ha on Pico Humboldt). It is forecast that at the current rate Venezuela will lose by 2020 all its glaciers, making it the first Andean country without any glaciated area.

Panoramic view of Pico Bolívar.
Panoramic view of Pico Bolívar.

References

  • Pérez O, Hoyer M, Hernández J, Rodríguez C, Márques V, Sué N, Velandia J, Deiros D. (2005). "Alturas del Pico Bolívar y otras cimas andinas venezolanas a partir de observaciones GPS" Interciencia. 30 (4). [1]
  • Jahn, A. "Observaciones glaciológicas de los Andes venezolanos" Cult. Venez. 1925, 64:265-80

Notes

External links

This page was last edited on 30 August 2018, at 18:20
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.