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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils
Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒləi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of'[1]) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system.[2] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[3] Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology (microbial metabolism), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology.[3]

Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells.[4]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In medicine, a physiologic state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically, which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.[5]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1
  • Intro to Human Physiology by Professor Fink
  • How To Study Anatomy and Physiology (3 Steps to Straight As)
  • Cell Physiology (Unit 1 - Video 7)
  • Anatomy and Physiology of Blood


I’d like you to take a second and really look at yourself. I don’t mean take stock of your life, which really isn't any of my business, but I mean just look at your body. Hold up a hand and wiggle it around. Take a sip of water. Hold your breath. Sniff the air. These things are so simple for most of us that we don’t give them a moment’s thought. But each one of those things is, oh, SO much more complex than it feels. Every movement you make, every new day that you live to see, is the result of a collection of systems working together to function properly. In short, you, my friend, are a magnificent beast. You are more convoluted and prolific and polymorphously awesome than you probably even dare to think. For instance, did you know that, if they were all stretched out, your intestines would be about as long as a three story building is tall? Or that by the time you reach old age, you’ll have produced enough saliva to fill more than one swimming pool? Or that you lose about two-thirds of a kilogram every year in dead skin cells? And you will lose more than 50 kilograms of them in your lifetime? Just tiny, dried-up pieces of you, drifting around your house, and settling on your bookshelves, feeding entire colonies of dust mites. You’re your own little world. And I’m here to help you get to know the body that you call a home, through the twin disciplines of anatomy - the study of the structure and relationships between body parts, and physiology - the science of how those parts come together to function, and keep that body alive. Anatomy is all about what your body is, physiology is about what it does. And together, they comprise the science of us. It’s a complicated science - I’m not gonna lie to you - and it draws on a lot of other disciplines, like chemistry and even physics. And you’ll have to absorb a lot of new terms - lots of Latin, gobs of Greek. But this course isn't just gonna be an inventory of your individual parts, or a diagram of how a slice of pizza gives you energy. Because these disciplines are really about why you’re alive right now, how you came to be alive, how disease harms you, and how your body recovers from illness and injury. It's about the big-picture things that we either spend most of our time thinking about, or trying not to think about: death, and sex, and eating, and sleeping, and even the act of thinking itself. They’re all processes that we can understand through anatomy and physiology. If you pay attention, and if I do my job well enough, you’ll come out of this course with a richer, more complete understanding not only of how your body works, to produce everything from a handshake to a heart attacks, but I think you’ll also start to see that you really are more than just the sum of your parts. We have come to understand the living body by studying a lot of dead ones. And for a long time, we did this mostly in secret. For centuries, the dissection of human bodies was very taboo in many societies. And as a result, the study of anatomy has followed a long, slow, and often creepy road. The 2nd century Greek physician Galen gleaned what he could about the human form by performing vivisections on pigs. Da Vinci poked around dead bodies while sketching his beautifully detailed anatomical drawings, until the pope made him stop. It wasn’t until the 17th and 18th centuries that certified anatomists were allowed to perform tightly regulated human dissections -- and they were so popular that they were often public events, with admission fees, attended by the likes of Michelangelo and Rembrandt The study of human anatomy became such a craze in Europe that grave-robbing became a lucrative, if not legal, occupation … until 1832, when Britain passed the Anatomy Act, which provided students with plentiful corpses, in the form of executed murderers. Today, students of anatomy and physiology still use educational cadavers to learn, in person and hands-on, what’s inside a human body by dissecting them. And it’s totally legal. The cadavers are volunteers -- which is what people mean when they say they’re “donating their body to science.” So what have all of these dead bodies shown us? Well, one big idea we see over and over is that the function of a cell or an organ or a whole organism always reflects its form. Blood flows in one direction through your heart simply because its valves prevent it from flowing backward In the same way, your your bones are strong and hard and this allows them to protect and support all your soft parts. The basic idea -- that what a structure can do depends on its specific form -- is called the complementarity of structure and function. And it holds true through every level of your body’s organization, from cell to tissue to system. And it begins with the smallest of the small: atoms. Just like the chair you’re sitting on, you are just a conglomeration of atoms -- about 7 octillion of them, to be precise. Fortunately for both of us here, we've covered the basics of chemistry that every incoming physiology student needs to know, in Crash Course Chemistry. So I’ll be referring you there throughout the course, when it comes to how things work at the atomic level. But the next level up from the chemistry of atoms and molecules includes the smallest units of living things -- cells. All cells have some basic functions in common, but they also vary widely in size and shape, depending on their purpose. For example! One of the smallest cells in your body is the red blood cell, which measures about 5 micrometers across. Now contrast that with the single motor neuron that runs the length of your entire leg, from your big toe to the bottom of your spine, about a meter from end to end. Typically, cells group with similar cells to form the next level of organization: tissues, like muscles, membranes and cavity linings, nervous, and connective tissues. When two or more tissue types combine, they form organs -- the heart, liver, lungs, skin and etcetera that perform specific functions to keep the body running. Organs work together and combine to get things done, forming organ systems. It’s how, like, the liver, stomach, and intestines of your digestive system all unite to take that burrito from plate to pooper. And finally, all those previous levels combine to form the highest level of organization -- the body itself. Me and you and your dog -- we’re all glorious complete organisms, made from the precise organization of trillions of cells in nearly constant activity. This ability of all living systems to maintain stable, internal conditions no matter what changes are occurring outside the body is called homeostasis, and it’s another major unifying theme in anatomy and physiology. Your survival is all about maintaining balance -- of both materials and energy. For example, you need the right amount of blood, water, nutrients, and oxygen to create and disperse energy, as well as the perfect body temperature, the right blood pressure, and efficient movement of waste through your body, all that needs to stay balanced. And by your survival depending on it? I mean that everyone’s ultimate cause of death is the extreme and irreversible loss of homeostasis. Organ failure, hypothermia, suffocation, starvation, dehydration -- they all lead to the same end, by throwing off your internal balances that allow your body to keep processing energy. Take an extreme and sudden case -- your arm pops off. If nothing is done quickly to treat such a severe wound, you would bleed to death, right? But … what does that really mean? What's gonna happen? How do I die? Well, that arterial wound, if left untreated, will cause a drastic drop in blood pressure that, in turn, will prevent the delivery of oxygen throughout the body. So the real result of such an injury -- the actual cause of death -- is the loss of homeostasis. I mean, you can live a full and healthy life without an arm. But you can’t live without blood pressure, because without blood, your cells don’t get oxygen, and without oxygen, they can’t process energy, and you die. With so many connected parts needed to make your life possible, you can see how we need a hyper-precise language to identify the parts of your body and communicate what’s happening to them A doctor isn't gonna recommend a patient for surgery by telling the surgeon that the patient has an “achey belly.” They’re going to need to give a detailed description -- essentially, it's like a verbal map So, over time, anatomy has developed its own standardized set of directional terms that described where one body part is in relation to another. Imagine a person standing in front of you -- this is what’s called the classic anatomical position -- where the body is erect and facing straight ahead, with arms at the sides and palms forward. Now imagine slicing that person into different sections, or planes. Don't imagine it too graphically though. The sagittal plane comes down vertically and divides a body or organ in left and right parts. If you imagine a plane parallel to the sagittal plane, but off to one side, that plane is the parasagittal. The coronal, or frontal plane splits everything vertically into front and back. And the transverse, or horizontal plane divides the body top and bottom. Look at that body again and you’ll notice more divisions, like the difference between the axial and appendicular parts. Everything in line with the center of the body -- the head, neck, and trunk -- are considered axial parts, while the arms and legs -- or appendages-- are the appendicular parts that attach to the body’s axis. Everything at the front of your body is considered anterior, or ventral, and everything in the back is posterior, or dorsal. So your eyes are anterior, and your butt is posterior, but you’d also say that your breastbone is anterior to, or in front of, the spine, and that the heart is posterior to, or behind the breastbone. Features toward the top of your body, like your head, are considered superior, or cranial, while structures that are lower down are inferior, or caudal. So the jaw is superior to the lungs because it’s above them, while the pelvis is inferior to the stomach because it’s below it. And, there's more: if you imagine that center line running down the axis of a body, structures toward that midline are called medial, while those farther away from the midline are lateral. So the arms are lateral to the heart, and the heart is medial to the arms. Looking at the limbs -- your appendicular parts of your body -- you’d call the areas closer to the center of the trunk proximal, and those farther away distal. In anatomy-talk, your knee is proximal to your ankle because it’s closer to the axial line, while a wrist is distal to the elbow because it’s farther from the center. Okay, so pop quiz! I’m eating a club sandwich -- I'm not, I wish I was, but imagine I am. I’m so ravenous and distracted that I forget to take out that little frilly toothpick at the top, and I end up swallowing it with a raft of turkey, bacon, and toast. A fragment of the toothpick gets lodged somewhere in here, and my doctor takes an x-ray, and says I need surgery. Using anatomical language, how would she direct the surgeon to that tiny wooden stake inside of me? She might describe it as being “along the medial line, posterior to the heart, but anterior to the vertebrae, inferior to the collarbone, but superior to the stomach.” That would give the surgeon a pretty good idea of where to look -- in the esophagus, just above to the stomach! I warned you at the beginning: Lots of terms! But all those terms might have just saved my life. And it’s the end of your first lesson, and you’ve already started to talk the talk. Today you learned that anatomy studies the structure of body parts, while physiology describes how those parts come together to function. We also talked about some of these disciplines’ central principles, including the complementarity of structure and function, the hierarchy of organization, and how the balance of materials and energy known as homeostasis is really what keeps you alive. And then we wrapped it all up with a primer on directional terms, all held together with a toothpick. Thank you for watching, especially to our Subbable subscribers, who make Crash Course available not just to themselves, but also everyone else in the world. To find out how you can become a supporter, just go to This episode was written by Kathleen Yale, edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant, is Dr. Brandon Jackson. Our director and editor is Nicholas Jenkins, the script supervisor is Valerie Barr, the sound designer is Michael Aranda, and the graphics team is Thought Café.



Physiological studies date back to the ancient civilizations of India[6][7] and Egypt alongside anatomical studies, but did not utilize dissection or vivisection.[8]

The study of human physiology as a medical field dates back to at least 420 BC to the time of Hippocrates, also known as the "father of medicine."[9] Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water, air and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm, blood and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates also noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudis Galenus would later expand on. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold, wet and dry.[10] Claudius Galenus (c. ~130–200 AD), known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates though, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body.[11] His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen also played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were also tied to the humours, and added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood; phlegmatic is tied to phlegm; yellow bile is connected to choleric; and black bile corresponds with melancholy. Galen also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations; the heart and arteries, which give life; and the liver and veins, which can be attributed to nutrition and growth.[11] Galen was also the founder of experimental physiology.[12] And for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine.[11]

Jean Fernel (1497–1558), a French physician, introduced the term "physiology".[13]

In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man." Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).[14]

In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and surgical wounds. He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreases death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.[5][15]

The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club.[16] The American Physiological Society (APS) is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887. The Society is, "devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences."[17]

In 1891, Ivan Pavlov performed research on "conditional reflexes" that involved dogs' saliva production in response to a plethora of sounds and visual stimuli.[15]

In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929. By homeostasis, Cannon meant "the maintenance of steady states in the body and the physiological processes through which they are regulated."[18] In other words, the body's ability to regulate its internal environment. It should be noted that, William Beaumont was the first American to utilize the practical application of physiology.

Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions,[14] later renamed in the twentieth century as cell biology.[19]

In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.[20] Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.[21]

In 1920, August Krogh won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated.[15]

In 1954, Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.[15]

Women in physiology

Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological Society, for example, was founded in 1887 and included only men in its ranks.[22] In 1902, the American Physiological Society elected Ida Hyde as the first female member of the society.[23] Hyde, a representative of the American Association of University Women and a global advocate for gender equality in education,[24] attempted to promote gender equality in every aspect of science and medicine.

Soon thereafter, in 1913, J.S. Haldane proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Society, which had been founded in 1876.[citation needed] On 3 July 1915, six women were officially admitted: Florence Buchanan, Winifred Cullis, Ruth C. Skelton, Sarah C. M. Sowton, Constance Leetham Terry, and Enid M. Tribe.[25] The centenary of the election of women was celebrated in 2015 with the publication of a book "Women physiologists: centenary celebrations and beyond for The Physiological Society ISBN 978-0-9933410-0-7.

Prominent women physiologists include:


There are many ways to categorize the subdiscplines of physiology:[34]

Human physiology

Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning,[3] through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals. that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.[citation needed]

Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances.[35][36] Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.[37][38]

Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.[39]

See also


  1. ^ "physiology". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  2. ^ Prosser, C. Ladd (1991). Comparative Animal Physiology, Environmental and Metabolic Animal Physiology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0-471-85767-X. 
  3. ^ a b c Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8. 
  4. ^ Widmaier, Eric P.; Raff, Hershel; Strang, Kevin T. (2016). Vander's Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-259-29409-9. 
  5. ^ a b "What is physiology?". Medical News Today. 
  6. ^ D. P. Burma; Maharani Chakravorty. From Physiology and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. p. 8. 
  7. ^ Francis Zimmermann. The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine. Motilal Banarsidass publications. p. 159. 
  8. ^ "Medicine Across Cultures". 
  9. ^ "Physiology". Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  10. ^ "Early Medicine and Physiology". 
  11. ^ a b c "Galen of Pergamum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  12. ^ Fell, C.; Pearson, F. (November 2007). "Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 17 (4): 443–8. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001. 
  13. ^ Wilbur Applebaum. Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton. Routledge. p. 344. 
  14. ^ a b R. M. Brain. The Pulse of Modernism: Physiological Aesthetics in Fin-de-Siècle Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015. 384 pp., [1].
  15. ^ a b c d "Milestones in Physiology (1822-2013)" (PDF). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  16. ^ "The Society’s history | Physiological Society". Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  17. ^ "American Physiological Society > About". Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  18. ^ Brown Theodore M.; Fee Elizabeth (October 2002). "Walter Bradford Cannon: Pioneer Physiologist of Human Emotions". American Journal of Public Health. 92 (10): 1594–1595. PMC 1447286Freely accessible. doi:10.2105/ajph.92.10.1594. 
  19. ^ Heilbron, J. L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, Oxford University Press, p. 649, link.
  20. ^ Feder, ME; Bennett, AF; WW, Burggren; Huey, RB (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3. 
  21. ^ Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. (1994). "Evolutionary physiology" (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 56 (1): 579–621. PMID 8010752. doi:10.1146/ 
  22. ^ "American Physiological Society > Founders". The American Physiological Society. 
  23. ^ Tucker, GS (December 1981). "Ida Henrietta Hyde: the first woman member of the society" (PDF). The Physiologist. 24 (6): 1–9. PMID 7043502. open access publication – free to read
  24. ^ "Ida Henrietta Hyde". 
  25. ^ "Women in Physiology". 
  26. ^ "Carl Cori and Gerty Cori". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  27. ^ "Cori cycle". 
  28. ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-09-23. 
  29. ^ "Gertrude B. Elion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". 
  31. ^ "Francoise Barre-Sinoussi - biography - French virologist". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  32. ^ "Elizabeth H. Blackburn". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  33. ^ "Carol W. Greider". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  34. ^ Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
  35. ^ van der Linden, S. (2013). "A Response to Dolan. In A. Oliver (Ed.)" (PDF). pp. 209–2015. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  36. ^ "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. WHO. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  37. ^ "Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  39. ^ Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique BH; Herrler, Andreas; Verheijen, Inge WH; Scherpbier, Albert JJA; van der Vleuten, Cees PM (19 November 2013). "Students’ perceptions of anatomy across the undergraduate problem-based learning medical curriculum: a phenomenographical study". US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. PMC 4225514Freely accessible. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-152. Together with physiology and biochemistry, anatomy is one of the basic sciences that are to be taught in the medical curriculum. 

External links


Human physiology

  • Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H., Strang, K.T. Vander's Human Physiology. 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2009.
  • Marieb, E.N. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

Animal physiology

  • Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M. Animal Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2012.
  • Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
  • Randall, D., Burggren, W., and French, K. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanism and Adaptation, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, 2002.
  • Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Withers, P.C. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1992.

Plant physiology

  • Larcher, W. Physiological plant ecology (4th ed.). Springer, 2001.
  • Salisbury, F.B, Ross, C.W. Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1992
  • Taiz, L., Zieger, E. Plant Physiology (5th ed.), Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer, 2010.

Fungal physiology

  • Griffin, D.H. Fungal Physiology, Second Edition. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1994.

Protistan physiology

  • Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012.
  • Levandowski, M., Hutner, S.H. (eds). Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed.
  • Laybourn-Parry J. A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; 1984.

Algal physiology

  • Lobban, C.S., Harrison, P.J. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Stewart, W. D. P. (ed.). Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1974.

Bacterial physiology

  • El-Sharoud, W. (ed.). Bacterial Physiology: A Molecular Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.
  • Kim, B.H., Gadd, M.G. Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P. Microbial Physiology, 4th ed. Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York, NY, 2002.
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