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# Philip W. Anderson

Philip W. Anderson
Born
Philip Warren Anderson

December 13, 1923
DiedMarch 29, 2020 (aged 96)
Alma mater
Known for
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
Institutions
Doctoral students

Philip Warren Anderson (December 13, 1923 – March 29, 2020) was an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate. Anderson made contributions to the theories of localization, antiferromagnetism, symmetry breaking (including a paper in 1962 discussing symmetry breaking in particle physics, leading to the development of the Standard Model around 10 years later), and high-temperature superconductivity, and to the philosophy of science through his writings on emergent phenomena.[3][4][5][6][7]

## Education and early life

Anderson was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, and grew up in Urbana, Illinois. He graduated from University Laboratory High School in Urbana in 1940. Afterwards, he went to Harvard University for undergraduate and graduate work, with a wartime stint at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory in between. As an undergraduate, his close associates included particle-nuclear physicist H. Pierre Noyes, philosopher and historian of science Thomas Kuhn and molecular physicist Henry Silsbee. In graduate school, he studied under John Hasbrouck van Vleck, with whom he would later receive the Nobel Prize in physics.[2][8]

## Career and research

From 1949 to 1984, Anderson was employed by Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, where he worked on a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics. During this period he developed what is now called Anderson localization (the idea that extended states can be localized by the presence of disorder in a system) and Anderson's theorem (concerning impurity scattering in superconductors); invented the Anderson Hamiltonian, which describes the site-wise interaction of electrons in a transition metal; proposed symmetry breaking within particle physics (this played a role in the development of the Standard Model and the development of the theory behind the Higgs mechanism, which in turn generates mass in some elementary particles); created the pseudospin approach to the BCS theory of superconductivity; made seminal studies of non-s-wave pairing (both symmetry-breaking and microscopic mechanism) in the superfluidity of He3, and helped found the area of spin-glasses.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15] He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1963.[16]

From 1967 to 1975, Anderson was a professor of theoretical physics at Cambridge University. In 1977 Anderson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his investigations into the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems, which allowed for the development of electronic switching and memory devices in computers. Co-researchers Sir Nevill Francis Mott and John van Vleck shared the award with him. In 1982, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. He retired from Bell Labs in 1984 and was Joseph Henry Professor Emeritus of Physics at Princeton University.[17]

Anderson's writings included Concepts in Solids, Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics and The Theory of Superconductivity in the High-Tc Cuprates. Anderson served on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound science in American government.[18]

In response to the discovery of high-temperature superconductors in 1980s, Anderson proposed Resonating valence bond (RVB) theory to explain the phenomenon. While many found the idea unconvincing, RVB theory proved instrumental in the study of spin liquids.[19]

Anderson also made conceptual contributions to the philosophy of science through his explication of emergent phenomena, which became an inspiration for the science of complex systems. In 1972 he wrote an article called "More is Different" in which he emphasized the limitations of reductionism and the existence of hierarchical levels of science, each of which requires its own fundamental principles for advancement.[20]

In 1984 he participated in the founding workshops of the Santa Fe Institute, a multidisciplinary research institute dedicated to the science of complex systems.[21] Anderson also co-chaired the institute's 1987 conference on economics with Kenneth Arrow and W. Brian Arthur, and participated in its 2007 workshop on models of emergent behavior in complex systems.[22]

A 2006 statistical analysis of scientific research papers by José Soler, comparing the number of references in a paper to the number of citations, declared Anderson to be the "most creative" amongst ten most cited physicists in the world.[23]

## Awards and honors

He was awarded the Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize in 1964, the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977, the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement in 1978,[24] and was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1980.[1] He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1982.[25]

## Personal life

Anderson was an atheist and was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.[26][27] Anderson was also interested in Japanese culture, living there for a time and becoming a 1st Dan master of the board game Go. The Nihon Ki-in awarded him a lifetime achievement award in 2007, and Anderson joked that there were only four people in Japan who could beat him.[2]

He died in Princeton, New Jersey, on March 29, 2020, at the age of 96.[28][29]

## Publications

### Books

• Anderson, Philip W. (1954). Notes on theory of magnetism. Tokyo: University of Tokyo. OCLC 782103851.
• Anderson, Philip W. (1997) [1963]. Concepts in solids: lectures on the theory of solids. Singapore River Edge, New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 9789810232313.
• Anderson, Philip W. (1997) [1984]. Basic notions of condensed matter physics. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 9780201328301.
• Anderson, Philip W.; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Pines, David, eds. (1988). The economy as an evolving complex system: the proceedings of the Evolutionary Paths of the Global Economy Workshop, held September, 1987 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Redwood City, California: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. ISBN 9780201156850.[30]
• Anderson, Philip W. (2004) [1994]. A career in theoretical physics. World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics, volume 35. Singapore Hackensack, New Jersey: World Scientific Pub. Co. ISBN 9789812567154.
• Anderson, Philip W. (1997). The theory of superconductivity in the high-TC cuprates. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691043654.
• Anderson, Philip W. (2011). More and different: notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon. Singapore Hackensack, New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 9789814350143.

## References

1. ^ a b "Professor Philip Anderson ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on November 14, 2015.
2. ^ a b c "In memoriam: Philip Anderson". Santa Fe Institute. March 30, 2020.
3. ^ Horgan, J. (1994) Profile: Philip W. Anderson – Gruff Guru of Condensed Matter Physics, Scientific American 271(5), 34-35.
4. ^ Anderson, P.W. (1997). THE Theory of Superconductivity in High-${\displaystyle T_{\rm {c}}}$ Cuprates. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-04365-4.
5. ^ Anderson, P.W. (1997). Basic Notions of Condensed Matter Physics. Reading: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-32830-1.
6. ^ Anderson, P.W. (1998). Concepts in Solids: Lectures on the Theory of Solids. Singapore: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-02-3231-3.
7. ^ Bernstein, Jeremy (1987). Three degrees above zero: Bell Laboratories in the information age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-32983-5.
8. ^ "Condensed-matter physics pioneer Philip Anderson dies aged 96". Physics World. March 30, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
9. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1988). "Spin Glass I: A Scaling Law Rescued". Physics Today. 41 (1): 9–11. Bibcode:1988PhT....41a...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2811268.
10. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1988). "Spin Glass II: Is There a Phase Transition?". Physics Today. 41 (3): 9. Bibcode:1988PhT....41c...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2811336.
11. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1988). "Spin Glass III: Theory Raises its Head". Physics Today. 41 (6): 9–11. Bibcode:1988PhT....41f...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2811440.
12. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1988). "Spin Glass IV: Glimmerings of Trouble". Physics Today. 41 (9): 9–11. Bibcode:1988PhT....41i...9A. doi:10.1063/1.881135.
13. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1989). "Spin Glass V: Real Power Brought to Bear". Physics Today. 42 (7): 9–11. Bibcode:1989PhT....42g...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2811073. S2CID 122298140.
14. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1989). "Spin Glass VI: Spin Glass As Cornucopia". Physics Today. 42 (9): 9–11. Bibcode:1989PhT....42i...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2811137.
15. ^ Philip W. Anderson (1990). "Spin Glass VII: Spin Glass as Paradigm". Physics Today. 43 (3): 9–11. Bibcode:1990PhT....43c...9A. doi:10.1063/1.2810479.
16. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
17. ^ "Display Person – Physics Department, Princeton University". Princeton.edu. February 24, 2011. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
18. ^ "Board of Advisors". Scientists and Engineers for America. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
19. ^ Cho, Adrian (March 30, 2020). "Philip Anderson, legendary theorist whose ideas shaped modern physics, dies". Science. AAAS. doi:10.1126/science.abb9809. Retrieved May 25, 2020.
20. ^ Anderson, P.W. (1972). "More is Different" (PDF). Science. 177 (4047): 393–396. Bibcode:1972Sci...177..393A. doi:10.1126/science.177.4047.393. PMID 17796623.
21. ^ Pines, David (May 4, 2018). Emerging Sytheses in Science. SFI Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-947864-11-5.
22. ^ "Emergent behavior workshop bridges multiple research fields". SantaFe.edu. January 2, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
23. ^ Soler, Jose M (2006). "A Rational Indicator of Scientific Creativity". arXiv:physics/0608006.
24. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
25. ^ Clason, Lauren. "Philip W. Anderson". National Science & Technology Medals Foundation. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
26. ^ "Notable Signers". Humanism and Its Aspirations. American Humanist Association. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
27. ^ Anderson, Philip W. (2011). "Imaginary Friend, Who Art in Heaven". More and Different: Notes from a Thoughtful Curmudgeon. World Scientific. p. 177. ISBN 9789814350129. We atheists can, as he does, argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.
28. ^ Banks, Michael (March 30, 2020). "Condensed-matter physics pioneer Philip Anderson dies aged 96". PhysicsWorld.com.
29. ^ Veale, Scott (March 30, 2020). "Philip W. Anderson, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Is Dead at 96". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
30. ^ Anderson., Philip W; Arrow, Kenneth Joseph; Pines, David; Santa Fe Institute (January 1, 1988). The Economy as an Evolving Complex System: The Proceedings of the . ISBN 9780201156850. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
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