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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peter Handke
Handke in 2006
Handke in 2006
Born (1942-12-06) 6 December 1942 (age 77)
Griffen, Austria
Occupation
  • Novelist
  • Playwright
EducationUniversity of Graz
Notable works
Notable awards

Signature

Peter Handke (German pronunciation: [ˈhantkə]; born 6 December 1942) is a Nobel laureate novelist, playwright, translator, poet, film director, and screenwriter from Austria. Handke was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2019.[1]

In the late 1960s, he was recognized for the play Publikumsbeschimpfung (Offending the Audience) and the novel Die Angst des Tormanns beim Elfmeter (The Goalie's Anxiety at the Penalty Kick). Prompted by his mother's suicide in 1971, he reflected her life in the novel Wunschloses Unglück (A Sorrow Beyond Dreams). Handke was a member of the Grazer Gruppe (an association of authors) and the Grazer Autorenversammlung, and co-founded the Verlag der Autoren publishing house in Frankfurt. He collaborated with director Wim Wenders, leading to screenplays such as Der Himmel über Berlin (Wings of Desire).

Handke has received other awards, including the 1973 Georg Büchner Prize, the 1987 Vilenica International Literary Prize, and the 2018 Austrian Nestroy Theatre Prize for Lifetime Achievement.

Life

Early life and family

Handke was born in Griffen, then in the German Reich's province Gau Carinthia.[2] His father, Erich Schönemann, was a bank clerk and German soldier whom Handke did not meet until adulthood. His mother Maria, a Carinthian Slovene, married Bruno Handke, a tram conductor and Wehrmacht soldier from Berlin, before Peter was born.[3] The family lived in the Soviet-occupied Pankow district of Berlin from 1944 to 1948, where Maria Handke had two more children: Peter's half-sister and half-brother. Then the family moved to his mother's home town of Griffen. Peter experienced his stepfather as more and more violent due to alcoholism.[3]

In 1954, Handke was sent to the Catholic Marianum boys' boarding school at Tanzenberg Castle in Sankt Veit an der Glan. There, he published his first writing in the school newspaper, Fackel.[3] In 1959, he moved to Klagenfurt, where he went to high school, and commenced law studies at the University of Graz in 1961.[2]

Handke's mother took her own life in 1971, reflected in his novel Wunschloses Unglück (A Sorrow Beyond Dreams).[2][4]

After leaving Graz, Handke lived in Düsseldorf, Berlin, Kronberg, Paris, the U.S. (1978 to 1979) and Salzburg (1979 to 1988).[5] Since 1990, he has resided in Chaville near Paris.[6] He is the subject of the documentary film Peter Handke: In the Woods, Might Be Late (2016), directed by Corinna Belz [de].[7] Since 2012, Handke has been a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts.[8] He is a member of the Serbian Orthodox church.[9][10]

As of early November 2019, there was an official investigation by the relevant authorities on whether Handke may have automatically lost his Austrian citizenship upon obtaining a Yugoslav passport and nationality in the late 1990s.[11]

Career

While studying, Handke established himself as a writer, linking up with the Grazer Gruppe (the Graz Authors' Assembly), an association of young writers.[5] The group published a magazine on literature, manuskripte [de], which published Handke's early works.[2] Group members included Wolfgang Bauer and Barbara Frischmuth.[12]

Handke abandoned his studies in 1965,[2] after the German publishing house Suhrkamp Verlag accepted his novel Die Hornissen [de] (The Hornets) for publication.[13] He gained international attention after an appearance at a meeting of avant-garde artists belonging to the Gruppe 47 in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1966.[14] The same year, his play Publikumsbeschimpfung (Offending the Audience) premiered at the Theater am Turm [de] in Frankfurt, directed by Claus Peymann [de].[13][14] Handke became one of the co-founders of the publishing house Verlag der Autoren [de] in 1969 with a new commercial concept, as it belonged to the authors.[15] He co-founded the Grazer Autorenversammlung in 1973[16] and was a member until 1977.[5]

Handke's first play, Publikumsbeschimpfung (Offending the Audience), which premiered in Frankfurt in 1966 and made him well known,[14] was the first of several experimental plays without a conventional plot.[2] In his second play, Kaspar, he treated the story of Kaspar Hauser as "an allegory of conformist social pressures".[14]

Handke has written scripts for films.[5] He directed Die linkshändige Frau (The Left-Handed Woman), which was released in 1978. Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide's description of the film is that a woman demands that her husband leave and he complies. "Time passes... and the audience falls asleep." The film was nominated for the Golden Palm Award at the Cannes Film Festival in 1978 and won the Gold Award for German Arthouse Cinema in 1980. Handke also won the 1975 German Film Award in Gold for his screenplay for Falsche Bewegung (The Wrong Move). He collaborated with director Wim Wenders in writing the screenplay for the 1987 film Der Himmel über Berlin (Wings of Desire), including the poem at its opening. Since 1975, Handke has been a jury member of the European literary award Petrarca-Preis.[17]

Handke collaborated with director Wim Wenders on a film version of Die Angst des Tormanns beim Elfmeter, wrote the script for Falsche Bewegung (The Wrong Move) and co-wrote the screenplay for Der Himmel über Berlin (Wings of Desire) and Les Beaux Jours d'Aranjuez (The Beautiful Days of Aranjuez). He also directed films, including adaptations from his novels The Left-Handed Woman after Die linkshändige Frau, and The Absence after Die Abwesenheit.[2][5]

In 2019, Handke was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience."[1]

Literary reception

In 1977, reviewing A Moment of True Feeling, Stanley Kauffmann wrote that Handke “is the most important new writer on the international scene since Samuel Beckett”.[18] The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung described him as “the darling of the West German critics.”[19] Hugo Hamilton stated that, since his debut, Handke “has tested, inspired and shocked audiences”.[20] Joshua Cohen noted that Handke “commands one of the great German-language prose styles of the post-war period, a riverine rhetoric deep and swift and contrary of current”, while Gabriel Josipovici described him, “despite reservations about some of his recent work”, as one of the most significant German-language writers of the post-war era.[21][22] Karl Ove Knausgård described A Sorrow Beyond Dreams as one of the “most important books written in German in our time”.[23]

Views

In 1996, Handke's travelogue Eine winterliche Reise zu den Flüssen Donau, Save, Morawa und Drina oder Gerechtigkeit für Serbien (published in English as A Journey to the Rivers: Justice for Serbia) created controversy, as Handke portrayed Serbia as being among the victims of the Yugoslav Wars. In the same essay, Handke also criticised Western media for misrepresenting the causes and consequences of the war.[24]

Sebastian Hammelehle wrote that Handke's view of the Yugoslav Wars, which has provoked numerous controversies, was probably romanticized, but that it represented the view of a writer, not a war reporter.[25] The American translator Scott Abbott, who traveled with Handke through Yugoslavia after which numerous essays were published, stated that Handke considered Yugoslavia as the “incredible, rich multicultural state that lacked the kind of nationalisms that he saw in Germany and Austria”.[19] Abbott added that Handke viewed the disintegration of country as the disappearance of utopia.[19] Reviewing The Moravian Night, Joshua Cohen stated that Handke's Yugoslavia was not a country, but a symbol of himself, a symbol of literature or the “European Novel”.[21] Volker Hage wrote that The Moravian Night is “extremely cosmopolitan” and connected to the present, while also that the book represents the autobiographical summary of Handke's life as a writer.[26] Tanjil Rashid noted that “Handke’s novels, plays and memoirs demonstrate the evil of banality”.[23]

After his play Voyage by Dugout was staged in 1999, Handke was condemned by other writers: Susan Sontag proclaimed Handke to be "finished" in New York.[27] Salman Rushdie declared him as a candidate for "Moron of the Year" due to his "idiocies",[28][29][30] while Alain Finkielkraut said that he was an "ideological monster",[31] and Slavoj Žižek stated that his "glorification of the Serbs is cynicism".[31] When Handke was awarded the International Ibsen Award in 2014, it caused some calls for the jury to resign.[32][who?]

In 2013, Tomislav Nikolić, as the then President of Serbia, expressed gratitude saying that some people still remember those who suffered for Christianity, implying that Handke was a victim of scorn for his views, to which Handke replied with explanation, "I was not anyone's victim, the Serbian people is victim." This was said during the ceremony at which Handke received the Gold Medal of Merit of the Republic of Serbia.[33]

In 2014, Handke called for the Nobel Prize in Literature to be abolished and dubbed it a "circus".[34][35]

In February 2020, Sima Avramović, the president of the commission for decorations of the Republic of Serbia, explained that Handke, for "special merits in representing Serbia and its citizens" as he "wholeheartedly defended the Serbian truth", is being decorated with the Order of the Star of Karadjordje. The current President of Serbia, Aleksandar Vučić, presented recipients on the occasion of the Serbian Statehood Day.[36][37]

Reactions to the Nobel Prize

The decision of the Nobel Committee to award Handke a Nobel Prize in literature was denounced internationally by a variety of public and academic intellectuals, writers and journalists. Criticism focues on the writer's view on the breakup of Yugoslavia and Yugoslav Wars, which has been described as pro-Serbian, his support of the late Slobodan Milošević, and Bosnian genocide denial.[38][39][31] The high-profile figures who decried the decision of the Swedish Academy, include individuals such as: Deborah Lipstadt, Holocaust historian, who in her letter published in the New York Times wrote that the Nobel committee has awarded Handke a platform which "he does not deserve and the public does not need him to have", adding that such platform could convince some that his "false claims must have some legitimacy",[40] Jonathan Littell who said, "he might be a fantastic artist, but as a human being he is my enemy – he’s an asshole.",[39][38] Miha Mazzini who said that "some artists sold their human souls for ideologies (Hamsun and Nazism), some for hate (Celine and his rabid antisemitism), some for money and power (Kusturica) but the one that offended me the most was Handke with his naivety for the Milošević regime (...) I found him cruel and totally self-absorbed in his naivety",[39] Hari Kunzru who said that Handke is "a troubling choice for a Nobel committee" and that he is "a fine writer, who combines great insight with shocking ethical blindness",[28][39] Salman Rushdie, who also criticized Handke's support for wartime Serbia in 1999,[28][29] Slavoj Žižek,[29][31]  Aleksandar Hemon,[41] Bora Ćosić,[31] Martin Walser,[31] and others.

The award was met with negative criticism in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Croatia, and Turkey, resulting in public statements of disapproval.[8][35][42] Expressing "deep regret", the decision was condemned by PEN International,[43] PEN America,[44] PEN England and Wales,[29] PEN Norway,[45] PEN Bosnia and Herzegovina,[46] PEN Croatia.[47][29][48][35][28] A group of demonstrators protested against the writer when he arrived to receive the prize.[49] Mothers of Srebrenica protested against the award with messages to oppose the “spreading lies”, while Women – Victims of War association from Republika Srpska organized a rally in Stockholm in support of Handke, saying that they support all people “who speak accurately and correctly and who think with their head”.[50]

Support for Handke came from Jon Fosse, former recipient of the Ibsen Award, who welcomed the decision of the Swedish Academy (Nobel Committee deciding on laureates in literature) to award Handke the Nobel Prize, saying that he was a worthy recipient and deserved it.[51] The Nobel laureate Elfriede Jelinek said: “The great poet Handke has earned the Nobel prize 10 times”, while Karl Ove Knausgård reacted to the Nobel Prize for Handke: “I can’t think of a more obvious Nobel laureate than him”.[19][52] Olga Tokarczuk, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for 2018 at the same ceremony, said she was proud to be with Handke, whom she greatly values, and tо the fact that both awards go to Central Europe[53][54] Award-winning filmmakers Wim Wenders and Emir Kusturica publicly congratulated Handke and traveled to Stockholm for the award ceremony to support him.[55][56]

Both the Swedish academy and Nobel Committee for Literature members defended their decision to award Handke the Nobel prize. Academy members Mats Malm and Eric M. Runesson wrote in the Swedish paper Dagens Nyheter that Handke had "definitely made provocative, inappropriate and unclear statements on political issues" but that they had "found nothing in what he has written that involves attacks on civil society or respect for the equal value of all people".[57] However, they quoted an article from 2006 in which Handke said the Srebrenica massacre was the worst crime against humanity in Europe since World War II.[57] Nobel for literature member Henrik Petersen described Handke as "radically unpolitical" in his writings and that this support for Serbs had been misunderstood, while Rebecka Kärde said: "When we give the award to Handke, we argue that the task of literature is other than to confirm and reproduce what society’s central view believes is morally right" adding that the author "absolutely deserves a Nobel Prize".[57][58]

All of Handke's Balkan war-related works were included in the Nobel prize bibliography selection, which was described by Gordy and Maass, among others, as "tacit endorsement of genocide denial, revisionism and ultranationalism".[59] The Nobel committee was accused of "gaslighting not just the survivors of the genocide, but also the historians, war crimes investigators, and journalists".[60][61][62] Eugen Ruge protested against media coverage of Handke, while 120 Austrian scholars and artists, including Doron Rabinovici, Julya Rabinowich, Gerhard Ruiss [de] and Klaus Kastberger [de], in an open letter criticized the “anti-Handke propaganda”, claiming that it can harm his literary autonomy.[63][64]

Awards

Works

Handke has written novels, plays, screenplays, essays and poems, often published by Suhrkamp.[13] Many works were translated to English. His works are held by the German National Library, including:[78]

  • 1966 Die Hornissen [de] (The Hornets), novel
  • 1966 Publikumsbeschimpfung und andere Sprechstücke (Offending the Audience and Other Spoken Plays), play, English version as Offending the Audience and Self-accusation
  • 1967 Kaspar, play, English version also as Kaspar and Other Plays
  • 1970 Die Angst des Tormanns beim Elfmeter (The Goalie's Anxiety at the Penalty Kick), novel and screenplay of the 1972 film The Goalkeeper's Fear of the Penalty
  • 1972 Der kurze Brief zum langen Abschied (Short Letter, Long Farewell), novel
  • 1972 Wunschloses Unglück (A Sorrow Beyond Dreams: A Life Story), semi-autobiographical story
  • 1973 Die Unvernünftigen sterben aus [de], play
  • 1975 Die Stunde der wahren Empfindung (A Moment of True Feeling), novel
  • 1977 Die linkshändige Frau (The Left-Handed Woman), screenplay after his 1976 novel
  • 1979 Langsame Heimkehr (Slow Homecoming), start of a tetralogy of stories, including Die Lehre der Sainte-Victoire (1980), Über die Dörfer and Kindergeschichte [de] (1981)
  • 1983 Der Chinese des Schmerzes [de], story
  • 1986 Die Wiederholung (Repetition), novel
  • 1987 Der Himmel über Berlin (Wings of Desire), screenplay with Wim Wenders
  • 1992 Die Stunde, da wir nichts voneinander wußten (The Hour We Knew Nothing of Each Other)
  • 1994 Mein Jahr in der Niemandsbucht. Ein Märchen aus den neuen Zeiten (My Year in the No-Man's-Bay), novel
  • 2002 Der Bildverlust oder Durch die Sierra de Gredos (Crossing the Sierra de Gredos), novel
  • 2008 Die morawische Nacht (The Moravian Night)
  • 2010 Immer noch Sturm (Storm Still), a play about the Slovenian uprising against Hitler in 1945, ISBN 978-3-518-42131-4; first performance: Salzburg Festival 2011
  • 2018 Peter Handke Bibliothek. I. Prose, Poetry, Plays (Vol. 1–9), ISBN 978-3-518-42781-1; II. Essays (Vol. 10–11), ISBN 978-3-518-42782-8; III Diaries (Vol. 13–14), ISBN 978-3-518-42783-5

Further reading

References

  1. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019". NobelPrize.org.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Peter Handke". Britannica.com.
  3. ^ a b c "Peter Handke / österreichischer Schriftsteller". munzinger.de (in German). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  4. ^ Curwen, Thomas (5 January 2003). "Choosing against life". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e Wenders, Wim. "Peter Handke". wim-wenders.com. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  6. ^ Messie und Messias / Wie wohnt eigentlich der Schriftsteller Peter Handke? Ein Hausbesuch. Süddeutsche Zeitung 8 October 2011
  7. ^ "Peter Handke – Bin im Wald. Kann sein, dass ich mich verspäte..." Filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  8. ^ a b "Outrage in Bosnia, Kosovo over Peter Handke's Nobel prize win". Al Jazeera. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  9. ^ Ian Traynor: Stand up if you support the Serbs / Austrian writer Peter Handke does, and his pro-Milosevic stance has enraged fellow artists. The Guardian, 21 April 1999
  10. ^ James Smyth: Handke in Another Tempo wordpress.com
  11. ^ "Nobel Prize Winner Handke Admits Having Yugoslav Passport". The Associated Press. AP. 8 November 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
  12. ^ Wakounig, Marija (2018). East Central Europe at a Glance: People – Cultures – Developments. Munster, Germany: LIT Verlag. p. 302. ISBN 9783643910462. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  13. ^ a b c "Peter Handke / österreichischer Schriftsteller". suhrkamp.de (in German). Suhrkamp Verlag. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d Hutchinson, Ben (23 August 2011). "Peter Handke's wilful controversies". The Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  15. ^ Martin Lüdke: 50 Jahre "Verlag der Autoren" / Mit Enthusiasmus gegründet Deutschlandfunk, 11 March 2019
  16. ^ 40 Jahre Grazer Autorenversammlung ORF 15 June 2013
  17. ^ "Petrarca Preis". www.petrarca-preis.de (in German). Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  18. ^ Kauffmann, Stanley (25 June 1977). "The Novel as Poem". Saturday Review. p. 23. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d Marshall, Alex; Schuetze, Christopher (10 December 2019). "Genius, Genocide Denier or Both?". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  20. ^ Hamilton, Hugo. "Peter Handke's gentle epic". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  21. ^ a b Cohen, Joshua (30 December 2016). "Peter Handke's Time-Traveling Tale of a Europe in Flux". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  22. ^ Josipovici, Gabriel. "Peter Handke's gentle epic". The Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  23. ^ a b Rashid, Tanjil (6 December 2016). "A Sorrow Beyond Dreams by Peter Handke — memoir, suffering and politics". Financial Times. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  24. ^ Sage, Adam (29 July 2006). "Theatre boss's dismissal splits artistic community". The Times. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017.
  25. ^ Hammelehle, Sebastian (10 October 2019). "Die besten Romane und Erzählungen des Nobelpreisträgers". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  26. ^ Hage, Volker (7 January 2008). "Der übermütige Unglücksritter". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  27. ^ Zakaria, Rafia (10 December 2019). "Peter Handke and Olga Tokarczuk: Nobel prize winners epitomize our darkest divides". CNN. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  28. ^ a b c d "Critics condemn 'shameful' Nobel for writer Handke". BBC News. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d e "Slavoj Žižek, Salman Rushdie, američki i britanski P.E.N. osudili izbor Petera Handkea, austrijski predsjednik Alexander Van der Bellen smatra da 'imamo još puno toga naučiti od Handkea'". slobodnadalmacija.hr (in Croatian). Slobodna Dalmacija. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  30. ^ Salman Rushdie (7 May 1999). "For services rendered – to the cause of folly". Balkan Witness. from The Toronto Globe and Mail. Retrieved 17 May 2020. In the battle for the hotly contested title of International Moron of the Year, two heavyweight contenders stand out. One is the Austrian writer Peter Handke, who has astonished even his work’s most fervent admirers by a series of impassioned apologias for the genocidal regime of Slobodan Milosevic, and who, during a recent visit to Belgrade, received the Order of The Serbian Knight for his propaganda services. Mr. Handke’s previous idiocies include the suggestion that Sarajevo’s Muslims regularly massacred themselves and then blamed the Serbs, and his denial of the genocide carried out by Serbs at Srebrenica. Now he likens the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s aerial bombardment to the alien invasion in the movie Mars Attacks! And then, foolishly mixing his metaphors, he compares the Serbs’ sufferings to the Holocaust.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Traynor, Ian (21 April 1999). "Stand up if you support the Serbs". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 November 2019. This writer, the Austrian, has his very personal style. The very worst crimes get mentioned rather sweetly. And so the reader completely forgets that we're dealing with crimes. The Austrian writer who visited my country found only very proud people there. They proudly put up with everything that happened to them, so much so that in their pride they didn't bother to ask why all this was happening to them.
  32. ^ Krever at juryen går av, Klassekampen
  33. ^ "Nikolić odlikovao Petera Handkea". www.rts.rs (in Serbian). 8 April 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  34. ^ Mitchell, Charlotte (10 October 2019). "Olga Tokarczuk and Peter Handke win Nobel literature prizes". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  35. ^ a b c "Peter Handke: Critics hit out at Nobel Prize award". BBC. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
  36. ^ "Vučić dodijelio Handkeu Orden Karađorđeve zvijezde". Al Jazeera Balkans (in Serbo-Croatian). 15 February 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  37. ^ "Vučić odlikovao Zemana i Handkea". Radio Slobodna Evropa (in Serbo-Croatian). 15 April 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  38. ^ a b Ben Hutchinson (18 October 2019). "Peter Handke: entering the curious canon – Literature". TLS. Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  39. ^ a b c d Cain, Sian (10 October 2019). "'A troubling choice': authors criticise Peter Handke's controversial Nobel win". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  40. ^ Deborah E. Lipstadt (18 October 2019). "Opinion – Peter Handke, an Undeserving Nobel Laureate". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 October 2019. Retrieved 20 May 2020. Dissenting, Mr. Stephens contends that art and politics are separate realms. Decry the artist’s politics but treasure his artistry. Mr. Stephens ignores the immense platform or megaphone the Nobel committee has awarded Mr. Handke. There will be those who will be convinced that his false claims must have some legitimacy, simply because he is a Nobel winner.
  41. ^ Hemon, Aleksandar (15 October 2019). "Opinion – 'The Bob Dylan of Genocide Apologists'". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2020. Perhaps the esteemed Nobel Committee is so invested in the preservation of Western civilization that to it a page of Mr. Handke is worth a thousand Muslim lives. Or it could be that in the rarefied chambers in Stockholm, Mr. Handke’s anxious goalie is far more real than a woman from Srebrenica whose family was eradicated in the massacre. The choice of Mr. Handke implies a concept of literature safe from the infelicities of history and actualities of human life and death. War and genocide, Milosevic and Srebrenica, the value of the writer’s words and actions at this moment in history, might be of interest to the unsophisticated plebs once subjected to murder and displacement, but not to those who can appreciate “linguistic ingenuity” that “has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.” For them, genocide comes and goes, but literature is forever.
  42. ^ "Kosovo to boycott Nobel ceremony over Handke's literature prize". Al Jazeera. 8 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  43. ^ "Choice to award Peter Handke Nobel Prize is regrettable and distressing to victims". pen-international.org. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  44. ^ "Statement: Deep Regret Over the Choice of Peter Handke for the 2019 Nobel Prize in Literature". PEN America. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  45. ^ William Nygaard: – En lettelse om han sa fra seg prisen, Dagbladet, 19 September 2014
  46. ^ "P.E.N. Centar u BiH o dodjeli Nobelove nagrade za književnost Peteru Handkeu". P.E.N. (in Bosnian). 11 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  47. ^ "Croatian P.E.N.: Awarding Nobel Prize to Handke Contrary to Prize's Original Idea". total-croatia-news.com. 15 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  48. ^ "ŠEF HRVATSKOG PEN CENTRA O NOBELU ZA HANDKEA 'On je govorio da Dubrovčani glume da ih se ubija, nije imao trunka empatije, stao je uz zločince' – Jutarnji List". www.jutarnji.hr (in Croatian). 17 October 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  49. ^ "Raste mot Ibsenpris-vinner". NRK.
  50. ^ "Bosnians Protest in Stockholm as Handke Receives Nobel Prize". Balkan Insight. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  51. ^ "Raste mot Ibsenpris-vinner". nrk.no (in Norwegian). Norsk Rikskringkasting. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
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