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Pete Hoekstra
Pete Hoekstra official photo.jpg
United States Ambassador to the Netherlands
Assumed office
January 10, 2018
PresidentDonald Trump
Preceded byShawn Crowley (Acting)
Ranking Member of the House Intelligence Committee
In office
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byJane Harman
Succeeded byDutch Ruppersberger
Chair of the House Intelligence Committee
In office
September 23, 2004 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byPorter Goss
Succeeded bySilver Reyes
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 2nd district
In office
January 3, 1993 – January 3, 2011
Preceded byCarl Pursell
Succeeded byBill Huizenga
Personal details
Cornelis Pieter Hoekstra

(1953-10-30) October 30, 1953 (age 66)
Groningen, Netherlands
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Diane Johnson
EducationHope College (BA)
University of Michigan (MBA)

Cornelis Pieter "Pete" Hoekstra (/ˈhʊkstrə/; born October 30, 1953)[1][2] is a Dutch-American politician serving as the United States Ambassador to the Netherlands since January 10, 2018. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the U.S. Representative for Michigan's 2nd congressional district from 1993 to 2011.

Born in the Netherlands, Hoekstra immigrated to the United States as a child. In 1992, Hoekstra ran for the U.S. House, defeating thirteen-term incumbent Guy Vander Jagt in the Republican primary and Democratic opponent John H. Miltner in the general election. Hoekstra was the chairman of the House Intelligence Committee from 2004 to 2007. He was a candidate for governor in Michigan's 2010 gubernatorial election, but came in second to Rick Snyder in the Republican primary. Hoekstra was also a candidate for the United States Senate in 2012, losing to Democratic incumbent Debbie Stabenow in the general election.

In July 2017, Hoekstra was nominated to be United States Ambassador to the Netherlands by President Donald Trump.[3] This nomination was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on November 9, 2017,[4] and Hoekstra was sworn in as U.S. Ambassador on December 11, 2017.[5] He took office on January 10, 2018.[6]

Early life and education

Hoekstra was born Piet Cornelis Hoekstra in Groningen, Netherlands.[7] He moved to the U.S. with his parents at the age of three. Hoekstra graduated from Holland Christian High School (Holland, Michigan) in 1971.[8] He received a Bachelor of Arts in political science from Hope College in 1975 and an MBA from the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business in 1977. He then joined office furniture maker Herman Miller and remained there for 15 years, eventually becoming vice president of marketing.

U.S. House of Representatives


In 1992, Hoekstra made his first bid for public office in the 2nd District. The district, previously the 9th, had been represented for 26 years by Guy Vander Jagt, longtime chairman of the National Republican Congressional Committee.[9] Hoekstra rode his bicycle across the district, charging that Vander Jagt had served in Congress for too long. He scored a monumental upset, winning by almost six percent.[10] This primary win was tantamount to election with the 2nd district seen as the "most Republican" district in Michigan, as Republicans have held the district for all but four years since it was created in 1873. Hoekstra later defeated Democrat John H. Miltner and Libertarian Dick Jacobs in the general election, with 63% of the vote.[11] Hoekstra continued to ride his bicycle across the district every summer, and biked across the state for his gubernatorial campaign.[12]

When he was first elected, Hoekstra initially pledged to only serve six terms (12 years) in the House. He eventually broke the term limits pledge and won election to seven successive terms.[13] In 2006, Hoekstra's Leadership PAC (the Mileage Fund) raised nearly $160,000 in Political Action Contributions from contributors including the Teamsters, Michigan Credit Union League, and Little Planet Books.[14]

Hoekstra faced no significant opposition in the Republican primary or in the general election (as in his previous five reelection campaigns) and went on to secure his seventh term. Shortly after the primary, he was named chairman of the Intelligence Committee, succeeding Porter Goss, who became Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.


Hoekstra had no primary opponent. In November he was opposed by the Democratic candidate Kimon Kotos,[15] who was also his 2004 opponent. Hoekstra defeated Kotos 183,518 votes to 87,361 votes.[16]


Hoekstra ran for re-election in 2008 against Fred Johnson, associate professor of History at Hope College. He beat Johnson by 215,471 to 119,959 votes.


Hoekstra had a conservative voting record, consistent with the conservative nature of the 2nd congressional district. He opposed abortion rights, opposed expanding health care benefits for children, opposed gay adoption rights and gay marriage, and voted against paid parental leave for federal employees. However, he also opposed amending the Constitution to prohibit flag desecration.[17]

Gun laws

Hoekstra consistently opposed gun control during his tenure, earning an A rating from the National Rifle Association.[17] In 2005 he voted to prohibit product lawsuits against gun manufacturers.[17] In 1994 he voted against the Federal Assault Weapons Ban.[18]

False claims about WMDs in Iraq

Hoekstra was a proponent of the claim that the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), and held onto this belief even after no WMDs were found in the wake of the Iraq invasion.[19] In 2006, Hoekstra made headlines by announcing at a press conference in the Capitol that weapons of mass destruction had been located in Iraq in the form of 500 chemical weapons.[20] However, the weapons in question were defunct munitions, manufactured prior to the 1991 Gulf War and which had been scattered throughout Iraq.[20] The media had already reported on these munitions when Hoekstra made his announcement that the weapons had been discovered.[20] Hoekstra's insistence that the Hussein regime possessed weapons of mass destruction were disputed by both Pentagon officials, the Duelfer Report, and the intelligence community.[21][22][23]

On November 3, 2006, The New York Times reported that a website created at the request of Hoekstra and Senator Pat Roberts was found to contain detailed information that could potentially be helpful to those seeking to produce nuclear weapons. The website was shut down on November 2 following questioning by The New York Times.[24]

As of September 17, 2007, some news outlets reported that the Congressional committee Hoekstra had overseen had created "erroneous" and "misleading" reports about Iran's nuclear capabilities. "Among the committee's assertions is that Iran is producing weapons-grade uranium at its facility in the town of Natanz. The IAEA called that "incorrect", noting that weapons-grade uranium is enriched to a level of 90 percent or more. Iran has enriched uranium to 3.5 percent under IAEA monitoring." [25][26]

Operation Iraqi Freedom documents

During the 2003 invasion of Iraq, some 48,000 boxes of documents, audiotapes and videotapes were discovered by the U.S. military. In March 2006, the U.S. government, at the urging of members of Congress, made them available online at its Foreign Military Studies Office website, requesting Arabic translators around the world to help in the translation. On April 18, 2006, about a month after the first documents were made public, Congressman Pete Hoekstra, chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, issued a news release acknowledging "minimal risks," but saying the site "will enable us to better understand information such as Saddam's links to terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and violence against the Iraqi people." He added: "It will allow us to leverage the Internet to enable a mass examination as opposed to limiting it to a few exclusive elites."[27]

In early November 2006, the entire set of documents was removed. Media reports stated that the website was taken offline because of security concerns regarding the posting of sophisticated diagrams and other information regarding nuclear weapon design prior to the 1991 Persian Gulf war.

Repatriation of Yemeni captives in Guantanamo

On December 27, 2009, Hoekstra commented on reports that Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who had allegedly tried to set off a suicide bomb on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on December 25, 2009, had subsequently confessed to being trained and equipped in Yemen.[28][29] Hoekstra called for a halt to the repatriation of Yemeni captives in Guantanamo.

Tea Party Caucus

Hoekstra was a founding member of the Congressional House Tea Party Caucus in 2010.[30][31]

Committee assignments

Caucus memberships

  • Founding chairman of the Education Freedom Caucus
  • Founding chairman of the Congressional Caucus on the Netherlands

2010 gubernatorial election

In December 2008, Hoekstra said he would not seek re-election to his U.S. House seat in 2010, and instead campaign to be Michigan's governor. Hoekstra joined Mike Bouchard, the Oakland County Sheriff and former state senator, former Gateway, Inc. president Rick Snyder, State Senator Tom George and Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox as 2010 Republican gubernatorial candidates. In the primary, held on August 3, 2010, Hoekstra finished second to Snyder.[32][33][34][35][36]

Republican gubernatorial primary results 2010[37]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rick Snyder 381,327 36.4
Republican Pete Hoekstra 280,976 26.8
Republican Mike Cox 240,409 23.0
Republican Mike Bouchard 127,350 12.2
Republican Tom George 16,986 1.6
Total votes 1,044,925 100

2012 U.S. Senate election

Hoekstra was suggested as a possible challenger for Democratic incumbent Debbie Stabenow in the 2012 Senate election,[38] but he initially declined to run.[39] Hoekstra later changed his mind and decided to challenge Stabenow in the election.[40] On August 29, 2011, Hoekstra was endorsed by Republican Michigan Governor Rick Snyder,[41] and on September 23, 2011, Hoekstra was endorsed by 2012 Presidential candidate Michele Bachmann.[42]

Hoekstra faced Stabenow and four third-party candidates in the general election. On November 6, 2012, Hoekstra was defeated by Stabenow, receiving 38% of the vote.[43]

Michigan U.S. Senate Election 2012
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Debbie Stabenow (incumbent) 2,735,826 58.8% +1.9
Republican Pete Hoekstra 1,767,386 38.0% -3.3
Libertarian Scotty Boman 84,480 1.8% +1.1
Green Harley Mikkelson 27,890 0.6% -
Constitution Richard Matkin 26,038 0.6% +0.1
Natural Law John Litle 11,229 0.2% +0.1
Others Write-in 69 0.0% -
Majority 409,367 8.8%
Turnout 4,652,918
Democratic hold Swing 2%

Ad controversy

Hoekstra targeted Democratic incumbent Debbie Stabenow with a television ad which ran statewide during the 2012 Super Bowl.[44] The 30-second ad, created by Republican advertising consultant Fred Davis III, opened with the sound of a gong and the image of a Chinese woman (played by 2012 Miss Napa Valley Lisa Chan)[45] riding a bike alongside a rice paddy. The ad sarcastically accused Stabenow of contributing to the U.S.' spending problem, with the woman thanking "Michigan Senator Debbie Spenditnow", in broken English, implying Stabenow has earned China's gratitude for making the U.S. economy "very weak" while China's "get very good".[46]

The commercial included a link to a Hoekstra campaign website with statistics about federal spending, decorated with images of Chinese flags and currency and using a stereotypical Chinatown font.[47] In the HTML code on Hoekstra's site, the woman in the ad is identified as "yellowgirl".[48] A statement released by the Hoekstra campaign said the HTML code was mistakenly shortened from "yellowshirtgirl".[49]

Asian-American groups called the ad "very disturbing",[50] and two of Hoekstra's GOP opponents, Clark Durant and Gary Glenn, questioned whether Hoekstra was the right candidate for Republicans to support.[51] The ad was criticized by Michael Yaki, former aide to House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, a member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and U.S. Senator Dan Inouye.[52][53] James Fallows of The Atlantic called it the "most revolting ad".[54] The NAACP denounced the ad as an "unnecessary race card."[55]

The ad proved costly for Hoekstra; several polls reported him losing ground to Stabenow in a head-to-head match-up.[56][57]

Hoekstra initially stood by the ad, claiming it hit Stabenow "smack dab between the eyes" on the economy.[58] However, on February 10, 2012, Hoekstra shut down his controversial Chinese-themed website and phased in a new TV commercial in place of his original ad.[59] American Values super PAC, an Asian American group, claimed credit for the scrub shortly after the group's launch of an online viral ad condemning Hoekstra.[60]

On February 16, Chan apologized for her involvement in the ad. In a statement on her Facebook page, she said the role was "not in any way representative of who I am" and "absolutely a mistake on my part."[61]

Despite the controversy, Hoekstra won the Republican primary.[62] He lost to Stabenow in the general election.

Post-political career

In February 2011, Hoekstra joined the government relations group and Washington, D.C. law firm Dickstein Shapiro,[63] and was named a visiting distinguished fellow at the conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation, concentrating on education reform.[64] Hoekstra left Dickstein Shapiro in 2014 to join one of its rivals, Greenberg Traurig.[65]

Hoekstra joined Steven Emerson's Investigative Project on Terrorism in 2014 as a Shillman Senior Fellow, specializing in national security, international relations, global terrorism and cyber security.[66]

Hoekstra published his first book in October 2015, Architects of Disaster: The Destruction of Libya with Terri Blumenfeld. An Obama administration spokesman took issue with the book on November 11, 2015 because of Hoekstra's assertion that the removal of Libyan leader Muammar Qadaffi was a serious mistake since he had become an ally of the United States and that his downfall caused Libya to become a terrorist safe haven. White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest said: "a careful consideration of his long record would probably not conclude Col. Qadaffi was a friend and ally of the United States."[67]

In an interview with NPR's Robert Siegel on December 10, 2014, Hoekstra said he disagreed with the recently released Senate Intelligence Committee report on CIA torture.[68]

CNN's KFile reported that Hoekstra in 2016 accused Huma Abedin of ties with the Muslim Brotherhood. A 2016 Washington Post fact-checker gave that claim "four Pinocchios".[69] CNN also stated that Hoekstra was a frequent guest on a talk show hosted by Frank Gaffney, an anti-Muslim conspiracy theorist based in Washington.[70]

On March 11, 2017, Hoekstra said that Chelsea Manning, Edward Snowden, and other leakers of government materials, having illegally released classified information, were traitors and should have taken their evidence to the intelligence committees of the U.S. Congress for proper investigations.[71]

U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands

On July 24, 2017, President Donald Trump nominated Hoekstra to be United States Ambassador to the Netherlands.[72] He was confirmed by the Senate on November 9 via voice vote[73][74] and sworn-in by Vice President Mike Pence on December 11, 2017.[5] He took office on January 10, 2018.[6]

Anti-Muslim comments

Later that December, NOS U.S. correspondent Wouter Zwart questioned Hoekstra about inaccurate claims that he had made in November 2015 at a panel titled "Muslim Migration into Europe: Eurabia come True?" hosted by the David Horowitz Freedom Center[75] that the Netherlands had "no-go zones" and that politicians and cars are being set on fire in the Netherlands due to radical Islam.[76][77][78][79] Hoekstra told Zwart that he had never said such things, saying, "we would call it fake news. I never said that."[76] Zwart then played the clip in which he made those remarks for his viewers. Later in the interview, Hoekstra denied that he denied it, saying "I didn't call it 'fake news'. I didn't use those words today."[80] On December 23, Hoekstra issued an apology on Twitter, writing that he "made certain remarks in 2015 and regret[ted] the exchange during the Nieuwsuur interview".[81]

On January 10, 2018, during his press conference after presenting his credentials to King Willem-Alexander, Hoekstra said that he did not want to revisit the comments made in 2015. Despite repeated questions from Dutch reporters regarding these comments, Hoekstra refused to talk about these statements and refused to answer further questions.[82][83][84][85]

On January 11, 2018, Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Steve Goldstein said that in 2015, Hoekstra "made comments that should not have been made",[86] that "the State Department does not agree with those statements" and "that is not the language we would use."[86] He added that the "comments were wrong and don't reflect the U.S. view of the Netherlands".[86] One day later, in an interview with Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf, Hoekstra finally retracted his statement about the presence of "no-go zones" in the Netherlands where cars and politicians are being set on fire, saying: "Looking back, I'm dismayed that I said it. It was an incorrect statement. It was just wrong."[87][88] He further claimed that he could not recall how he got to the statement or what it was based on, saying: "I've mixed up countries. I was wrong, and I don't know how that could have happened. I do know: it was wrong."[89]

Interference in local politics

In September 2020, a group of Dutch officials demanded answers from Hoekstra in response to reports that he had hosted a fund-raising event at the U.S. embassy for the far-right Dutch political party Forum for Democracy, a potential violation of international law.[90] This is not the first time Hoekstra has been associated with the far-right party. In May 2020, Hoekstra was interviewed by the leader of the party's video channel and he was also a guest speaker at the party's conference November 2019.[91]

See also


  1. ^ INTERVIEW | Pete Hoekstra baalt van valse start: "Wie wil er nu zo beginnen?" on YouTube.
  2. ^ "'Stadjer' Pete Hoekstra bevestigd als nieuwe Amerikaanse ambassadeur" ['Stadjer' Pete Hoekstra confirmed as new American ambassador] (in Dutch). November 11, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2018.
  3. ^ Todd Spangler (July 24, 2017). "President Donald Trump nominates U.S. Rep. Pete Hoekstra to be Dutch ambassador". The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  4. ^ "PN831 — Peter Hoekstra — Department of State". U.S. Congress. November 9, 2017. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
  5. ^ a b "Ambassador-designate Peter Hoekstra sworn in by Vice President Mike Pence". U.S. Mission Netherlands. December 12, 2017. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Nieuwe VS-ambassadeur treedt op 10 januari aan" [New US ambassador takes office on January 10] (in Dutch). Algemeen Dagblad. January 3, 2018. Retrieved January 10, 2018.
  7. ^ "US Embassy The Hague on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved March 31, 2018.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Lea Donosky (September 25, 1985). "Gop's 'West Point' Trains Guns On '86".
  10. ^ "MI District 02 – R Primary". August 4, 1992.
  11. ^ "MI District 2". Retrieved March 21, 2013.
  12. ^ "Home". Hoekstra for Governor. Archived from the original on August 22, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  13. ^ Lupo, Lee (December 15, 2008). "Hoekstra won't seek another term; considers run for governor". MLive. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  14. ^ "Peter Hoekstra: Campaign Finance/Money – Summary – Congressman 2006". OpenSecrets. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  15. ^ "Kotos for Congress, Michigan District 2". Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  16. ^ "2006 Official Michigan General Election Results – 2nd District Representative in Congress 2 Year Term (1) Position". Michigan Department of State. May 10, 2007. Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  17. ^ a b c "Peter Hoekstra on the Issues". Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  18. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System". Vote Smart. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  19. ^ Shane, Scott (June 23, 2006). "For Diehards, Search for Iraq's W.M.D. Isn't Over". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  20. ^ a b c "Rep. Pete Hoekstra Details His Breakthrough WMD Report". Fox News. June 23, 2006. Archived from the original on July 1, 2006.
  21. ^ "Report sparks debate over Iraq arsenal". The Seattle Times. June 23, 2006. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012.
  22. ^ The Situation Room, CNN. June 21, 2006. Transcript available.
  23. ^ The Washington Post: Lawmakers Cite Weapons Found in Iraq. June 22, 2006.
  24. ^ Broad, William J. (November 3, 2006). "U.S. Web Archive Is Said to Reveal a Nuclear Primer". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  25. ^ "US Iran report branded dishonest". BBC News. September 14, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  26. ^ "IAEA: Iran Nuclear Report 'Outrageous'". CBS News. September 14, 2006.
  27. ^ William J. Broad (November 3, 2006). "U.S. Web Archive Is Said to Reveal a Nuclear Primer". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  28. ^ "Following Path of Least Resistance, Terrorists Turn Yemen Into Poor Man's Afghanistan". Fox News. December 27, 2009. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. 'They should stay there. They should not go back to Yemen,' Hoekstra said. 'If they go back to Yemen, we will very soon find them back on the battlefield going after Americans and other western interests.'
  29. ^ Josh Gerstein (December 27, 2009). "Bomb plot complicates Gitmo plan". Politico. Archived from the original on December 31, 2009. 'Yesterday just highlights the fact that sending this many people back—or any people back—to Yemen right now is a really bad idea,' said Rep. Pete Hoekstra (R-Mich.), the ranking Republican on the House Intelligence Committee. 'It's just dumb….If you made a list of what the three dumbest countries would be to send people back to, Yemen would be on all the lists.'
  30. ^ "Rep. Pete Hoekstra joins Michele Bachmann in House Tea Party Caucus". Associated Press. July 20, 2010.
  31. ^ "Michigan News – Hoekstra Joins Bachmann In House Tea Party Caucus". KTRK-TV. July 21, 2010.
  32. ^ "Hoekstra slams Right to Life for snub, wants its director ousted | | Detroit Free Press". August 13, 2010. Archived from the original on August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  33. ^ "Election 2010: Michigan Republican Primary for Governor – Rasmussen Reports". Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  34. ^ "MI Gov Poll: Dillon, Hoekstra Lead Primary Fields". Time. Archived from the original on June 5, 2010.
  35. ^ "2010 Michigan Governor Race". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  36. ^ "Snyder wins in Michigan, Moran in Kansas; Rep. Kilpatrick loses primary". The Washington Post.
  37. ^ "Michigan Primary results". 2010 Unofficial Michigan Primary Election Results. August 4, 2010. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
  38. ^ Cranson, Jeff (January 28, 2011). "Michigan poll: Pete Hoekstra tops in GOP Senate candidates, Mitt Romney for president, and 2-1 support for Detroit-Windsor bridge". The Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  39. ^ Toeplitz, Shira (April 15, 2011). "Ex-Rep. Pete Hoekstra Won't Challenge Stabenow". Roll Call. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
  40. ^ Steinhauser, Paul (July 20, 2011). "Did the GOP get the candidate it wanted in Michigan?". CNN. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  41. ^ Michigan Gov. Snyder Endorses Hoekstra Archived December 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ "Bachmann endorses Hoekstra to run against Stabenow for U.S. Senate". The Washington Independent. September 23, 2011. Archived from the original on January 3, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  43. ^ Johnson, Ruth (November 26, 2012). "Summary Totals: United States Senator 6 Year Term (1) Position". MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF STATE. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012.
  44. ^ "Hoekstra's controversial Super Bowl ad". Politico. February 6, 2012.
  45. ^ Huffman, Jennifer (February 16, 2012). "Miss Napa Valley caught in Super Bowl ad debacle". The Napa Valley Register. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
  46. ^ "With videos: Pete Hoekstra Super Bowl ad slammed". Detroit Free Press. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012.
  47. ^ Ad Draws Protests for Portrayal of Asians (New York Times)
  48. ^ Fallows, James (February 6, 2012). "This Is So Classy: 'Yellow Girl'". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  49. ^ Catanese, David (February 7, 2012). "Hoekstra team: 'Yellow Girl' a web typo". Politico.
  50. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 17, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  51. ^ "Black ministers join critics who say Hoekstra's broken English ad is racially insensitive". Associated Press. February 6, 2012. Archived from the original on February 18, 2012.
  52. ^ Civil Rights Commissioner Calls Hoekstra Super Bowl Ad ‘Blatantly Racist’
  53. ^ Inouye on Hoekstra: ‘His racist thoughts are not welcome in the United States Senate’ (Washington Post, July 2, 2012)
  54. ^ Super Bowl Special! My Nominee for Most Revolting Ad (The Atlantic)
  55. ^ "Pete Hoekstra's Super Bowl Ad is a Super Flop (NAACP release)". PR Newswire. February 6, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012.
  56. ^ "Stabenow Leads By Double Digits in Michigan Senate Race" (PDF). Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  57. ^ "Complete February 22nd 2012 Michigan NBC News-Marist Poll Tables". February 22, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
  58. ^ Catanese, David. 'It hits Debbie smack dab between the eyes'. The Politico, February 6, 2012.
  59. ^ |newswell|text|FRONTPAGE|s Hoekstra backs off Super Bowl ad (Detroit News, February 10, 2012)[dead link]
  60. ^ "Pete Hoekstra Scrubs Racially Tinged Super Bowl Ad From Internet" February 22, 2012 ABC News
  61. ^ Stableford, Dylan. Actress in controversial ad for Pete Hoekstra’s Senate campaign is ‘deeply sorry’. Yahoo! News, February 16, 2012.
  62. ^ Michigan U.S. Senate seat: Pete Hoekstra wins Republican primary; Stabenow up next
  63. ^ Cranson, Jeff (February 1, 2011). "Former U.S. Rep. Pete Hoekstra named senior adviser at Washington law and lobbying firm". The Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  64. ^ "Heritage Foundation Names Former Rep. Pete Hoekstra as Visiting Distinguished Fellow" (Press release). The Heritage Foundation. February 22, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011. Former U.S. Rep. Pete Hoekstra of Michigan has been named a visiting distinguished fellow at The Heritage Foundation. He will concentrate on education reform for the prominent think tank.
  65. ^ Tau, Byron.13 K Streeters cross the street Politico, July 9, 2014.
  66. ^ PR NewsWire January 14, 2014.
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External links

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Carl Pursell
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Michigan's 2nd congressional district

Succeeded by
Bill Huizenga
Preceded by
Porter Goss
Chair of House Intelligence Committee
Succeeded by
Silver Reyes
Preceded by
Jane Harman
Ranking Member of House Intelligence Committee
Succeeded by
Dutch Ruppersberger
Party political offices
Preceded by
Mike Bouchard
Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Michigan
(Class 1)

Succeeded by
John James
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Shawn Crowley
United States Ambassador to the Netherlands
This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 18:28
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