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Vegetarian-Pattern Diets
Sushi Kanagawa Japan (2013).JPG
Shrimp cocktail lemons lettuce seafood.jpg

Pizza Hot Sardines 02.jpg
Clockwise from top-left:
Japanese Sushi is often a Pescetarian-Friendly cuisine; Shrimp Cocktail, a popular seafood dish in the America’s; A Green Salad, a worldwide Vegetarian-friendly and Pescetarian-friendly dish; Pizza with sardine toppings substituting pepperoni.
A Pescetarian diet is a plant-based diet where meat consumption must be abstained from. Distinct from Vegetarianism in that fish is included, often as a staple food
Related Dietary Choices
Associated and Similar diets
[classification table]

Pescetarianism (/ˌpɛskəˈtɛəriənɪzəm/), also spelled pescatarianism,[1] is the practice of adhering to a diet that incorporates seafood while abstaining from the consumption of food made from any other animal.[2] Some people who adhere to pescetarian diets may not see fish as meat, and accordingly self-identify as vegetarians. Similarly, pescetarianism has sometimes been classified as a "vegetarian dietary pattern" by nutrition researchers.[3][4][5]

Most pescetarians are ovo-lacto vegetarians who add seafood to a diet which includes dairy and eggs, often described as "fish but no other meat". Some pescetarians may be more strict, following an otherwise vegan diet which excludes dairy, eggs or any animal products (such as rennet and gelatin)[6] other than seafood;[7][8] this is increasingly being referred to as "seaganism".[9] People following this diet pattern also wouldn’t have to worry about avoiding isinglass, unlike Vegans and some Vegetarians who find it to be inappropriate for their diets. The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led groups such as the Vegetarian Society to clarify that diets containing seafood are not vegetarian.[10]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    507 158
    5 463
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  • ✪ 5 Ways Your Body Changes When You Stop Eating Meat
  • ✪ Vegetarian, vegan, raw vegan, fruitarian, flexitarian, pescetarian: What's the difference?
  • ✪ VEGANS vs MEAT EATERS - Who Will Live Longer? Food / Diet Comparison
  • ✪ Picky Pescetarian's First Podcast
  • ✪ Why Vegan? Is Eating Animals Justified - Exeter College Speech 2018




"Pescetarian" is a neologism formed as a portmanteau of the Italian word pesce ("fish") and the English word "vegetarian".[11][12][13][14][15][16][17] The English pronunciation of both "pescetarian" and its variant pescatarian is /ˌpɛskəˈtɛəriən/, with the same /sk/ sound present in pescato (Italian: [peˈskaːto],[18][19] derived from piscatus, the perfect passive participle of the Latin verb piscor (meaning "to fish"), though not in the word pesce (Italian: [ˈpeʃʃe]). Pesce in turn derives from the Latin piscis,[14][15] which has the form pisci- when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture", "piscivore"). A piscivore, a type of carnivore, subsists on a diet primarily of fish, whereas a pescetarian eats plant derivatives as well as fish. The Merriam-Webster dictionary dates the origin of the term "pescetarian" to 1991 and defines it as "one whose diet includes fish but no other meat".[14]

Motivations and Rationale

Sustainability and Environmental Concerns

Ecological sustainability and food security are growing concerns. Some pescetarians adopt their diet because of the inefficiency of other meat sources. For an example, almost 60% of the world’s agricultural land is used for beef production, in yet beef makes up only 24% of the world's meat consumption and the accounts for less than 2% of the calories that are consumed throughout the world. [20] Most cattle, pigs, turkeys, and chickens in the United States are not free-range and most of the ruminants are not grass-fed, but are fed with grains specifically grown as their food. Therefore, the environmental impact and the amount of energy needed to feed these animals greatly exceeds its nutritional value.[21] Adopting a Pescetarian diet addresses the humanitarian concerns of considering it and unjust use of farmable land and resources to produce grain for animal feed while there's high amounts of human hunger in the world.[22]

Pescetarians motivated by the diet’s greater sustainability often prefer to eat wild-caught fish, as opposed to farm-raised carnivorous fish that require food input of other fish. It’s also popular to use guides such as Monterey Bay Aquarium's Seafood Watch, which has been recommended by environmental agencies, in order to determine the sustainability of their seafood sources and avoid species currently considered to be over fished.[23] Though many people motivated by environmentalism will avoid farm-raised fish entirely, there are some very environment-conscious Pescetarians who do purchase and consume selectively chosen farmed fish, however. It’s common for these Pescetarians to use sources like Food & Water Watch‘s National Smart Seafood Guide in order to select farmed fish that are not only healthy and farmed without contaminants, but are also not considered to be overfished, and are species farmed in low- or no-output recirculating systems. For example, based on these qualifications, the Food & Water Watch considers USA farmed shrimp, USA farmed tilapia, USA farmed catfish, and the large majority of bivalve mollusks sold on the market to be great farmed options.[24][25]

Similarly, people may adopt a Pescetarian diet out of desire to lower their diet’s carbon footprint. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; raising livestock contributes 14.5% of all human-made carbon emissions worldwide. The by far biggest culprit is the raising of cattle, who’s beef production accounts for 41% of the sector’s overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Pork was the second highest contributing meat at 9%.[26] Reports from the Environmental Working Group showed that wild caught fish released significantly less green house gasses than any other animal. Sheep, cattle (and dairy cheese), pigs, certain farm-raised fish, turkey and chicken all released more GHG than wild-caught fish and seafood, which had an emission amount more similar to that of bird eggs and potatoes.[27] Appropriately, a 2014 UK study on the dietary carbon footprint of people who followed different diet patterns found that adult Pescetarian women cause 46% less greenhouse gas emissions than women who ate meat regularly. Pescetarian men cause 51% less greenhouse gas emissions than their meat-eater counterparts. This was very similar to the reduced carbon footprint of Vegetarian groups. Vegetarian women had a 50% lower carbon footprint than meat-eaters, for the men it was 54% less. [28]

Personal Ethics and Animal Welfare

Some Pescetarians regard their diets as ideal, but some may regard their diet as a transition to vegetarianism. Others consider it to be an ethical compromise (ethical pescetarianism),[29] often as a practical necessity to obtain nutrients absent or not easily found in plants.[30] Furthermore, pescetarianism may be perceived as more ethical because fish, along with certain other animals such as insects, may not associate pain and fear as more complex animals like mammals do.[31][32] Researchers have found that, unlike mammals, fish do not have the neuro-physiological capacity for a conscious awareness of pain. Fish do not possess a neocortex, which is the first indicator of doubt regarding whether they have pain awareness. That is, certain nerve fibres in mammals (known as c-nociceptors) involved in the sensation of intense experiences of pain are not present in primitive cartilaginous fish. Some cartilagenous fish do contain traces, such as sharks and rays, but there is an incomplete development of these fibres.

To further test this, researchers administered powerful painkillers like morphine to fish; they were found to be either totally ineffective or only partially effective in doses so high that they would result in death from overdose. In this respect, although fish do show instinctive reactions to injuries and other interventions, the physiological prerequisites for the conscious experience of pain is not present. This, in combination with the pharmacological data, has supported the notion that fish do not feel pain in human, mammalian or biological terms.[31][32] However, this theory is disputed.

It’s to be noted that some people hold varying opinions based on the species of fish. For example, many people, including some vegans, who question the ethics of the consumption of most fish and shellfish, argue that people who select a diet based on compassion towards animals shouldn’t extrapolate and immediately advocate against the consumption of some bivalve mollusks. One rational used is that sea creatures like mussels and oysters, are filter-feeding sessile organisms. Sessile bivalves can open and close their shells but this is more similar plants who close in the presence of noxious stimuli— and plants don’t feel pain. These bivalves cannot escape pain, cannot differentiate between “good” and “bad” stimuli and there is no evolutionary reason for them to adapt feel pain. Another argument used for the consumption of oysters and similar mollusks is that even though there is some evidence that bivalves have opioids and opioid receptors, there isn’t any firm evidence that bivalves have the genes that code for these receptors and it seems that opiates are being used to signal the immune system not to regulate pain. [33] According to a 2011 study, the bivalve nervous system includes two pairs of nerve cords and three pairs of ganglia. However there was no obvious cephalization found and the nervous system appeared extremely simple. The researchers mentioned to their knowledge their are no credible published descriptions of behavioral or neurophysiological responses to tissue injury in bivalves either. In layman’s, they have nothing similar to a brain to even have consciousness and their nervous system is so simple that they most likely do not have the physiological necessities consistent with the ability to feel and perceive pain.[34] Which has been used as a rational to not focus on these creatures in the advocacy of animal welfare and focus on the animals who are truly suffering.

The view that oysters are acceptable to eat, even by strict ethical criteria, has notably been propounded in the seminal 1975 text Animal Liberation, by philosopher Peter Singer. However, subsequent editions have reversed this position (advocating against eating oysters). Singer has stated that he has "gone back and forth on this over the years", and as of 2010 states that "while you could give them the benefit of the doubt, you could also say that unless some new evidence of a capacity for pain emerges, the doubt is so slight that there is no good reason for avoiding eating sustainably produced oysters".[35]

Health considerations

One commonly cited reason for the adoption of pescetarianism is health,[36] based on the proven findings that red meat is detrimental to health in many cases due to non-lean red meats containing high amounts of saturated fats,[37][38] choline, and carnitine.[39] Eating certain kinds of fish raises HDL levels,[40][41] and some fish are a convenient source of omega-3 fatty acids,[42] as well as possessing numerous health benefits in one food variety.[43] The Oxford Vegetarian Study found that meat-eaters had unfavorable total cholesterol levels over 5.2mmol/L, in the "borderline high" range. Pescetarians, Vegetarians, and Vegans enjoyed the benefit of having lower total cholesterol levels well in the range defined as "desirable", as well as lower LDL levels. Along with Vegetarians, the Pescetarian group had favorably higher HDL levels. Pescetarians had the highest levels of the two. Vegans, however didn't have improved HDL levels compared to the meat-eaters. When all-cause mortality, ischaemic heart disease mortality, and cancer mortality were assessed, Pescetarians, Vegetarians, and Vegans together had reduced mortality rates when compared to meat-eaters. It's noted that this benefit was restricted to the individuals who never smoked and that the subject's longevity may be in part attributable to being more health conscious than the meat-eaters. [44] A 1999 meta-analysis of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in Western countries found that, when compared to regular meat-eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat-eaters, 26% lower in vegans, and 34% lower in pescetarians and ovo-lacto vegetarians.[45] In 2013, an Adventist Health study found that pescetarians have the lowest mortality rate when compared to meat-eaters, semi-vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and Vegans.[46] The 2016 ‘’Oxford vegetarian study’’ and the ‘’European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition’’ found that when compared to regular meat eaters, low-meat eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans- Pescetarians had the lowest mortality from all malignant cancers combined, both before and after adjusting for different variables. Pescetarian reduced mortality was most notable for colorectal cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and system diseases.[47] When adjusted for specific variables, Pescetarians also seemed to have the lowest all-cause mortality rate by a modest amount. [48] When compared to regular meat-eaters specifically, low-meat consumption and vegetarianism provided intermediate benefits in lowered malignant cancer mortality. Vegans were the only group studied who had a higher malignant cancer mortality and all-cause mortality than regular meat eaters. Researchers note the seemingly increased mortality for Vegans is likely too slight to be considered statistically significant or to make conclusions from, however. [49] Concerns have been raised about consuming some fish varieties containing toxins such as mercury and PCBs,[50] though it is possible to select fish that contain little or no mercury and moderate the consumption of mercury-containing fish.[51][52]

Abstinence in religion


In both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition, pescetarianism is referred to as a form of abstinence. During fast periods, Eastern Orthodox and Catholics often abstain from meat, dairy, and fish; on certain days, fish is allowed while meat and dairy remain forbidden.[53] In the Roman Church, the black fast was a period during which only fish and vegetables were eaten; since the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, Fridays during Lent remain pescetarian. This practice also extends to some Lutheran and Reformed traditions.


Pescetarianism (provided the fish is ruled kosher) conforms to Jewish dietary laws, as kosher fish is "pareve"—neither "milk" nor "meat". In some Sephardic Jewish homes, fish is never served alongside milk products. All non-bony fish seafood is non-kosher.[54] In essence, aquatic animals such as mammals like dolphins and whales are not kosher, nor are cartilaginous fish such as sharks and rays, since they all have dermal denticles and not bony-fish scales. The definition of a fish in Judaism is broader (sea-life) than the scientific classification of "fish". In 2015, a member of the Liberal Judaism synagogue in Manchester founded The Pescetarian Society.[55]


By tradition, most Hindu Brahmin communities follow a strict lacto-vegetarian diet. However, there are a number of Brahmin sub-groups that allow the consumption of fish. These include the Goud Saraswat Brahmin community from coastal south-western India.[56] This community regards seafood in general as vegetables from the sea, and refrain from eating any land-based animals. Other Hindu Brahmin communities who consume seafood in great quantity are the Maithili Brahmin and the Bengali Brahmin.[57] The latter also eat meat on special occasions. Among the northeast Indian Hindus of Assam, Manipur, and Tripura, it is common for pescetarians to include poultry in their diets.[citation needed]


Eating of fish is permitted in Islam without need for the usual slaughter procedure required for meat.

Comparisons to other diets

Japanese Sushi is a very pescetarian-friendly cuisine offered by many cultures
Japanese Sushi is a very pescetarian-friendly cuisine offered by many cultures

Pescetarianism is similar to many traditional diets emphasizing fish as well as fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, legumes, bread, etc. Many coastal populations tend to eat this way; pescetarian diets often share similarities with the Mediterranean diet, but also can also be very similar to a traditional Japanese diet.[58] Regular fish consumption and decreased red meat consumption have both been recommended as healthful habits to adopt [59] and pescetarians with a plant-based diet are commonly viewed as “very health conscious” individuals.[60] [61] The dietary habits of typical western pescetarians have been observed to share some similarities with that of lacto-ovo vegetarian’s and vegan’s dietary habits. Studies on eating habits have shown that when compared to omnivorous-eaters, all three of these groups consumed more: fruit, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, mixed grains, nuts, seeds, liquid fats, plant milk, and water. Conversely, they all consumed less or no: eggs, animal milk, cheese, butter, dairy desserts, other desserts, snack foods, refined grains, salad dressings, fried potatoes (e.g. french fries), solid fats, coffee, soda, and alcohol. Pescetarians eat more fatty fish than omnivorous-eaters, but eat other fish slightly less. When including fish in the definition of “meat”, pescetarians eat less meat than omnivorous-eaters overall. Pescetarians seem to consume herbal teas and coconut milk significantly more than any other group.[62] Due to their many similarities, pescetarians are sometimes described as vegetarian or pesco-vegetarian, but vegetarians commonly do not consider the pescetarian diet to be vegetarian. The Vegetarian Society, whose members historically did not object to the consumption of eggs, milk, or fish,[63] now does not consider pescetarianism to be a vegetarian diet.[10] Despite this, definitions of "vegetarian" in mainstream dictionaries sometimes include fish in the diet.[64] The Pescetarian Society evolved separately from The Vegetarian Society to better represent the lifestyle and interests of pescetarians.[55]

List of notable pescetarians

See also


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