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Permanent residency in Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Permanent residency in Canada is a status granting someone who is not a Canadian citizen the right to live and work in Canada without any time limit on their stay.[1] To become a permanent resident a foreign national must apply to Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC), formerly known as Citizenship and Immigration Canada, under one of several programs.

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  • ✪ Canada permanent residence through Express Entry
  • ✪ Canada PR (Must Know Before Apply For Permanent Residency)


I got my Canadian Permanent Residence in four months without any help of an immigration lawyer, and I want to share with you seven tips, how I did it. Hey! My name is Olar. I was born in Estonia, living in Canada, and my Permanent Residence was through Common-Law Sponsorship. Yours might be a little bit different, but these tips can still be helpful. Before we start, please keep in mind that these tips are based on my experience. As every one of us if different, so are our applications and the requirements for them. I'm not an immigration lawyer, and you are a smart, capable human being. Use this video as an introduction, and then go out and look up for yourself, and confirm, all the bureaucratic details that you have to do to get the Permanent Residence. Your best friend will be the immigration section of Canada's website. There, you can look up the specific requirements for your country, and it's all nicely explained how you can go about collecting them. In my case, I looked up the requirements for Estonia, as I am from Estonia. Then, join the facebook group of your countryfolk in Canada. Mine was called "Eestlased Kanadas" what means, "Estonians in Canada". It will be a time and money saver, since many people in the group have already applied for their Permanent Residence in their past, and they have gotten it. They can help you out with specific questions you have. Thanks to that group, I saved money and a full day's trip to the capitol, because it wasn't really necessary, but I thought it was. Also helpful, is to read through the Canada Visa forum. You can find all types of questions and answers there, dating back years. Do the Outland Sponsorship, aka Family Class, even if you are already in Canada. There may be some who are telling you that time-wise there is not such a big difference, but they are lying. There is a huge difference time-wise! You ask me how much time? My partner and I did Outland Sponsorship; it took us four months to get approved. Around the same time, a fellow Estonian started her Inland Sponsorship, and it took her over ten months to get approved. That's a huge time difference. And please keep in mind, that in both our cases our documents were correct. If you do Inland, you will be competing with hundreds of thousands other citizens of other countries, who are applying to the Canadian government about something to do with immigration. Outland applications, on the other hand, are processed outside of Canada, in the area where you are from. So what do you think? How many other people are applying for a Canadian Permanent Residence from the same place as you? Probably not so many, compared with Inland, and wherever you are in the world, you can use a courier to get the documents delivered to you. The goal with Outland Sponsorship is "to bring families together", so the process is naturally speeded up on the governmental level. Another benefit of Outland Sponsorship is that during the processing time, you and your sponsor can come and leave Canada as you wish. But if you are already in Canada, you will not be able to get a work permit. You will get the work permit after your application has been approved. Inland Sponsorship is opposite, you and your sponsor cannot leave Canada while it's processed, but you can apply for a work permit. However, there are horror stories where some people had to wait for the Inland Sponsorship more than two and a half years! So choose wisely. In addition to the official documents from your country, like your birth certificate or your medical papers, you have to prove two main things in your application: that you and your partner, who also is your sponsor, are in a mutual relationship, AND that you support each other financially. Unfortunately, living together doesn't automatically mean that you are in a Common-Law relationship. Common-Law means that you are connected with each other financially (as well). However, in our example, we didn't have any joint bank accounts. So what we ended up doing, was that we both printed out our bank statements, and then we highlighted the areas where one of us paid for the utilities and rent, and the other one paid for traveling tickets and other necessities. And it worked. Make sure that your documents are organized. Currently, Canada has created a new system for the Permanent Residence. Exactly what you need to send and what you don't need to send is described there in detail. When we did it, we did it according to the older application. All my official documents, all her official documents, and then the Proof of our relationship, all the papers combined, were more than 500 pages! Then with us, there were probably hundreds of other people who sent in their applications at the same time. That's a lot of piles of papers! Keep in mind that at the end of the day, whoever is going to look over your application is a human, like you and me. They don't know you. They don't know your story. And they're going to be frustrated if they have to look over piles and piles of paper that are not organized. Make their day better, so they can process your application faster. Originally, the government requested Letters of Support with verified signatures from at least two family members, or friends. Letters of Support means that the writer confirms that your relationship is real and they have seen it. Their signature can be verified by a lawyer for a little fee. Now, the lawyer doesn't confirm the content of the text, but that the person who signs it actually exists, and is not made up. Why is that so important? Like with online shopping, you are more likely to buy something that has been rated highly, than something that hasn't been rated at all. Same is in this case. The more people you have who can confirm your relationship, the more convinced the authorities are that it is actually real. In the end, we sent 12 Letters of Support with verified signatures from our friends in Canada, Estonia, Austria and the Netherlands. Now, I'm not saying here that you should go and spend a lot of money to get the signatures verified, but, that being said, we believe that this over-the-top action helped convince the authorities, and took away any doubt that our relationship wasn't real. Keep an open mind. Like, what do I mean by that? Now, hold on, I will explain. One of the things I read from the forums, was the people who were applying from Austria or Germany had their landlord's signature verified. As we had lived in Austria, but neither of us was there anymore, it would be a huge hassle to get the landlord's signature verified, and sent to us in Estonia or in Canada. But, as we were officially registered in Austria, instead, I contacted the Austrian Embassy, and got them to write a statement where they confirmed that we lived together in those addresses in Austria for that period of time. With that, the landlord's signature wasn't really necessary because we already confirmed, on the governmental level, that we lived in those addresses together. And as the paper was given by the Embassy, its signature was already verified on the international scale. That's what I meant, to keep an open mind. Keep in mind, that Canada has one of the slowest bureaucracies. Or at least that is my experience. That means, make sure that all your documents are out on the first go. Triple check every paper for the required signature and the check mark, and make sure that all the necessary documents are included. There is a legend, that if Canada asks you for additional documents, or that you made a mistake and they give you two months to fix it: even if you correct everything and send it out on the same day, they are still going to look at it after the wait period of two months is over. Triple check your application! Check down in the description for extra links and the terms I used in this video. If you already applied for a Permanent Residence, let me know in the comments what type it was and how long it took you. If you didn't like the video, give thumbs down. If you found the video helpful, give me a thumbs up! And if you like my weird Estonian accent, subscribe, as more content is coming! And that's it. See you later!


Benefits of permanent residence

A permanent resident holds many of the same rights and responsibilities as a Canadian citizen, including the right to live, work (subject to some restrictions), and study in any province or territory of Canada. Permanent residents participate in many of the same social benefits that Canadian citizens receive, including becoming contributing members of the Canada Pension Plan and receiving coverage by their province or territory's universal health care system. All permanent residents may avail themselves of the rights, freedoms, and protections of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, other than those exclusively granted to citizens.

Permanent residents may apply for Canadian citizenship after living in Canada for a certain amount of time. Currently, a person must have been living in Canada as a permanent resident for three years (1095 days) out of the five years preceding their application (with up to one year of the time before becoming a permanent resident included).[2] They also have the right to sponsor relatives for permanent residence, subject to fulfilling residence criteria and assurance of support requirements.


Permanent residents do not have the right to vote in elections in Canada nor can they run for elected office in any level of government. Several municipal governments in Canada – including Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, and Calgary – have proposed giving permanent residents the right to vote in municipal elections but that would require approval from their respective provincial governments.[3] For national security reasons, permanent residents also cannot hold jobs in both the public or private sectors that require a high-level security clearance.

As non-citizens, permanent residents must use the passport of their current nationality in combination with a permanent resident card for international travel because they cannot be issued Canadian passports. Some countries will grant visa-free entry to Canadian permanent residents even if their current nationality would not typically qualify. To re-enter Canada on a commercial carrier (flight, bus, etc) a permanent resident must present either their permanent resident card or a Permanent Resident Travel Document issued by a Canadian diplomatic office.

Loss of status

A permanent resident must live in Canada for two years out of every five, or risk losing that status. Time spent travelling with a Canadian spouse, on a business trip for a Canadian business, or working for a federal or provincial government office abroad can be included in the calculation.

Permanent residents also risk loss for serious crimes (those that may be punished by more than 10 years in Canada or actually being imprisoned for more than 6 months in Canada), being a security risk or associated with organized crime.

Failing to meet the residency or admissibility requirements above results in loss of permanent residence status when the finding becomes final without appeal, if the finding is made outside Canada, and upon the person being issued a departure order from Canada, if the finding is made inside Canada.

A person automatically loses permanent residence status upon becoming a Canadian citizen.

A permanent resident may also voluntarily renounce their status if the person possesses a citizenship or right of abode in another country. A person who gives up their status inside Canada must depart the country or apply for a temporary resident visa.

A permanent resident does not lose their status if their permanent resident card expires.

Permanent resident card

The Department of Citizenship and Immigration began issuing the permanent resident card, commonly known as a "PR card", to all new Canadian permanent residents in 2002 as part of security improvements following the September 11 attacks. All existing permanent residents were given the option of applying for a permanent resident card at a cost of $50, though possessing a card is not mandatory except in the case of international travel.[4] From December 31, 2003, every permanent resident must be able to present his or her permanent resident card upon boarding a commercial carrier (aircraft, train or bus) in order to travel to Canada. As the permanent resident card may be issued only in Canada, those permanent residents who are outside Canada and without a permanent resident card may apply for a single-use Permanent Resident Travel Document from the nearest Canadian diplomatic office.

The permanent resident card expires every five years, and then may be renewed by making application and proving that the applicant has been physically present in Canada for the requisite time period, or has otherwise satisfied the residency requirements. Although an individual may meet the residency requirements by living outside of Canada with a Canadian citizen spouse, or working outside Canada for a Canadian business, the Permanent Resident Card cannot be renewed without being present in Canada and having a Canadian address.

While the PR card was introduced to facilitate ease of travel for permanent residents, it can also be used as a convenient method of proving status to government authorities, employers and schools.

History – landed immigrant

The term "landed immigrant" (French: immigrant reçu) is an old classification for a person who has been admitted to Canada as a non-Canadian citizen permanent resident. The current official classification for such a person is simply "permanent resident". The term "Landed immigrant" has been in use for so long that it is still (15 years later) part of the Canadian vocabulary and still appears in some government publications and forms.

To become a landed immigrant from outside Canada, one had to legally enter Canada, or "land", at one of the designated ports of entry. Upon entry the immigrant's passport was to be stamped with the words "Immigrant Landed". Once the immigrant had landed, an IMM 1000 form (Record of Landing or Confirmation of Permanent Residence) was to be given to provide an official record of landed status.

Becoming a permanent resident

A person can become a Permanent Resident either by applying outside Canada or inside Canada. While the "Application Status" web application on the IRCC website reflects this by showing different processing times, the differences and consequences for the applicant are not clearly identified.

  • An application by a temporary resident, applying as a "Spouse or Common-law partner in Canada", "Live-in caregiver", "protected person" or "permit holder", from within Canada is referred to as a "Within Canada" (or "inland") application.
  • All other applications are "Outside Canada" (or "outland") applications processed by visa offices outside Canada.

Within Canada or inland applications

Only the following applications listed in Section 72(2) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations[5] may be made from within Canada and they are processed at a CPC in Canada:

  • Spouse or common-law partner in Canada class
  • Live-in caregiver class (repealed)
  • Protected temporary residents class

On humanitarian and compassionate grounds,[6][7] the requirement to apply from outside Canada may be waived for other applications.

Processing is as follows:

  • During Stage 1 processing, the CPC verifies whether the minimum requirements to apply are met. For Spousal applications, this means verifying eligibility of sponsor and whether the relationship is genuine.
Stage 1 in a "Within Canada" application leads to an "Approval in Principle" once the application is reviewed.
Approval in Principle takes approximately 15 to 25 months but actual processing times may vary from time to time and by case complexity.
  • Stage 2 is a background check, including criminality, security, health and other requirements to determine if the applicant is allowed to be in Canada. Applicants must submit a police record and undergo a medical examination.

During processing,

  • The applicant may apply for Provincial health care, before or after "Approval in Principle" depending on the province of residence. In Quebec, a Quebec Selection Certificate may also be required.
  • As of December 2014, during a trial period that was extended until December 2016, "Within Canada" applicants can receive a work permit within 4 months after submitting the application if they have temporary resident status and there are no inadmissibility issues.[8]
  • Applicants without valid status can obtain a work permit after receiving "Approval in Principle".

After processing, the applicant becomes a permanent resident after completing a final interview at a local IRCC office where a Confirmation of Permanent Residence will be issued.

Outside Canada or outland applications

Express Entry

In January 2015 the Government of Canada opened a new system for managing economic applications for permanent residence.[9] This system is called Express Entry. It replaced previous programs for almost all economic immigrants (whereby applicants were granted residency on a 'first come, first served' basis) and used a merit-based points system to prioritize those most likely to succeed economically in Canada. [10]

The 1200-point Comprehensive Ranking System (CRS) estimates one’s immigration eligibility according to: marriage or common-law status, age, education, language proficiency, work experience, skill transferability, and other additional points. [11]

IRCC conducts periodic Express Entry draws, approximately every two weeks, with a minimum score, which means that all candidates with more than the minimum score receive an Invitation to Apply (ITA). This invitation allows candidates to apply for permanent residence[12].

General Facts

All applications that are not "Within Canada" applications are processed outside Canada at a visa office, usually the Embassy or Consulate of Canada in or responsible for the country of nationality of the applicant or alternatively in the country where the applicant was lawfully admitted to for at least 1 year. All Express Entry applications are "Outside Canada" applications. Usually Stage 1 processing is done in Canada and then the application is sent to the visa office for Stage 2 and finalization.

  • It will not lead to an "Approval in Principle" as the applicant is assumed to not move until the process is complete and the person has the "Confirmation of Permanent Residence" ("COPR") (and visa, if applicable) in hand.
  • An "Outside Canada" application is primarily for those who are outside Canada when they make their application.
  • After obtaining the COPR, the applicant has to fly to Canada or arrive at a land or sea border to become a permanent resident.
  • Anybody currently residing in Canada may also apply for an "Outside Canada" category in which case the application will be processed as if the person resides outside Canada. However, to become a permanent resident the applicant, after obtaining a COPR, either must leave Canada and re-enter to complete the process or, as of 2008, may attend at a local IRCC office.
  • An applicant may enter the country as a visitor and be entered on a "Visitor Record" but will not become eligible for social assistance, a SIN number, a health card or a driver's licence (except in Ontario and Nova Scotia where anyone regardless of status can obtain a driver's licence) until the entire process is complete.
  • "Outside Canada" applicants do not receive a work permit during application processing.
  • Processing times vary between visa offices but are on average less than those of "Within Canada" applications.
  • These applications also include a background check, including criminal and medical examinations.

Processing times

Processing times are published weekly on the IRCC website[13]

See also


  1. ^ Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. "Understand permanent resident status". Government of Canada. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Vomiero, Jessica (April 21, 2018). "Cities across Canada want to let non-Canadians vote in municipal elections". Global News. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  4. ^ "Permanent Resident Card". 2010-04-27. Retrieved 2011-03-04.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Canada, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship. "How Express Entry works -". Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  10. ^ Moving2Canada Express Entry guide January 30, 2016
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ "What is Express Entry? Guides, Tips, and more | Just For Canada". Just For Canada. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  13. ^

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 8 April 2019, at 18:27
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