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Percy Bradshaw

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Percy Venner Bradshaw
Born(1877-11-27)27 November 1877
Died13 October 1965(1965-10-13) (aged 87)
Lewisham, London
NationalityEnglish
OccupationIllustrator, cartoonist, and teacher of illustration
Years active1892 – 1958
Notable work
The Art of the Illustrator

Percy Venner Bradshaw (27 November 1877 – 13 October 1965), who often signed PVB, was a British illustrator who also created the Press Art School, a correspondence course for drawing.

Biography

Percy Bradshaw was born in Hackney, part of London, on 27 November 1877, the son of William Bradshaw, a warehouseman, and his wife Frances Ann. He was baptised in Dover on 27 January 1878. He attended Newport Road School in Leyton where he reached fourth class. He then attended Ivydale Road School from 12 March 1888 to 30 March 1889, moving to Haberdashers' Aske' Boys School[note 1] at Hatcham.[1] He dropped out of Aske's when he was 14 years old and started working at an advertising agency. Meanwhile, he followed evening courses in art at Goldsmiths College and Birkbeck College.[2]:34

Bradshaw had his first drawing published in The Boy's Own Paper when he was 15 years old, and moved to the art department of the advertising agency. Three years later he became a full time cartoonist, with his work also appearing in magazines like Bystander (magazine), Home Chat, Sunday Companion, Tatler, The Sketch and The Windsor Magazine. He also worked for a while for the Daily Mail.[2]:34 Bradshaw so closely resembled the Prime Minister, Asquith, that people would doff their hats to him when he went for walks in the park.[3]:22

Bradshaw married Mabel Alice Bennett (6 January 1881 – 17 February 1966)[4] [5], the daughter of the late Edmund Hellyer Bennett (1841 – 1883)[6] and Mary Anne Gardner (1841 – 1904),[7] at St Peter's Church in Brockley, Lewisham on 27 July 1910. The wedding was choral, and 160 guests attended the reception at St. Peter's Hall. Among the wedding gifts was a grand piano (from the bride's sister). The couple left for a honeymoon in Switzerland.[8] By 1911 the census shows the newly-weds living at 37 Dacres Road, Forest Hill, London, where they were to remain their entire lives.[note 2]

The couple had one child, Denise M.

The Press Art School

He also wrote articles on drawing, appearing in the Daily Graphic and in The Boy's Own Paper, where his series Black and White Drawing as a Profession was so successful that he decided to create his own art correspondence course, the Press Art School, in 1905.[note 3][note 4] He remained principal of the school for more than 50 years, first from his home, later from Tudor Hall in Forest Hill, London.

The school was quite well regarded.[note 5] Not the least of the advantages that Bradshaw's school offered was that Bradshaw not only offered training, but also introduced the work of his pupils to those editors he considered most likely to use of the sketches.[10][note 6] Thus Bradshaw helped Leo Cheyney to sell drawings to The Boys' Own Paper, Bystander and other publications.[2]:47

Bradshaw though that the outbreak of the First World War doomed his school,[11] but clever advertising turned the War to his advantage, swelling the ranks of his students.[3]:23 He enrolled over 1,100 new pupils by the end of 1914, over 1,500 in 1915, and averaged over 3,000 enrollments a year for the 1916–1918.[11] By 1918 he had 22 full-time assistants and the GPO needed a special van to deliver his mail. Bradshaw once remarked that The only difficulty I had was keeping going between wars.[3]:24

Later life

During the First World War, Bradshaw was a special constable; during the second, he worked as a firewatcher. After the first war, he created hundreds of illustrated postcards for specialized companies like Raphael Tuck & Sons, worked again for an advertising agency, and for Sun Enravings from Watford. During the Second World War, he wrote articles about cartoonists for the London Opinion, and published humorous poetry.[2]:34

Bradshaw was a member of the London Sketch Club and in 1958 wrote the history of the Savage Club where he was a committee member. He died in on 13 October 1965 at Hither Green Hospital, Lewisham in London. His estate was valued at £25,000.[12] Mabel Alice survived him by less than six months, dying at Levisham Hospital, London on 17 February 1966. Her estate was valued at £26,543.[5]

The art of the illustrator

The Art of the Illustrator[13] was probably Bradshaw's most important work. It consisted of a series of portfolios based on twenty leading illustrators. Bradshaw commissioned each of them for a special illustration. Each artist was free to choose the subject, so long as the illustration was representative of the artist's normal technique and that five preliminary stages in its composition should be shown. It is not absolutely clear when the portfolios were published. The Jisc catalogue[note 7] shows them being issued from 1900 to 1920. However, notices from the press show them as just issued in June 1917.[16]. The Graphic noted that twelve of the portfolios had already been published by mid-June 1917.[17] Therefore, the dates should probably be 1917–1918. Some of the illustrations are dated 1915 and one may even be dated 1914. This makes sense as some illustrators were bound to take longer to complete their commissions and it took Bradshaw, who was dealing with a huge surge in enrolments, time to write the descriptions.

The portfolios were not cheap, for what they were: a set of six plates and less than thirty pages of text. A review in The Connoisseur: An Illustrated Magazine for Collectors in August 1918 gives the cost of the set of twenty portfolios as £7. 7s. (seven guineas) or £8. 8s. (eight guineas) if purchased in monthly instalments.[18] A single portfolio on its own cost 10s 6d.[17] (half a guinea).}}

Each of the twenty portfolios dealt with the personality and working methods of a leading illustrator with:

  1. a biography of the illustrator
  2. an illustration or photograph of the illustrator at work in their studio
  3. an explanation by the illustrator describing what they have done in each stage of the preparation of the illustration
  4. a plate showing an illustration typical of their work
  5. five other plates showing the work at five earlier stages of its production, from the first pencil rough to the just before the finished drawing or colour sketch.[18]

Six of the illustrators worked in watercolour, five in pen and ink, two in wash-painting, and one in body-colour. The subjects of the portfolios, and they were:[19]

Other books by Bradshaw

As with The Art of the Illustrator most of Bradshaw's other writing was either didactic, helping art students to learn new techniques and so on, or biographic, such as his Nice People to Know or the history of the Savage Club.

Books and similar publications by Bradshaw
No. Year Title Other authors/Illustrators Publisher Pages Notes
1 1913 Art training by nature's methods: preparatory course of instruction Press Art School, London 24 p., ill., 29 cm [note 28]
2 1919 Advanced Course of Instruction Press Art School, London [note 29]
3 1925 Art in advertising: a study of British and American pictorial publicity Press Art School, London xvi, 496 p., ill. (part col.), 32 x 25 cm. [note 30]
4 1929 Water Colour Painting Press Art School, London 6 parts, (4º) [note 31]
5 1936 Fashion Drawing & Designing. [By various authors.] Julia Cairns, Grace Cox Ife, Florence E. Ricketts Press Art School, London 6 parts, (4º) [note 32]
6 1941 I wish I could draw: a system of art teaching by natural methods The Studio, London 96 p : ill. (part mounted) diagrs, 26 cm. [note 33]
7 1942 They make us smile Chapman & Hall ltd, London 112 p : ill, 19 cm. [note 34]
8 1943 Marching On Bert Thomas W. H. Allen & Co, London 127 p., (8º) [note 35]
9 1943 Drawn from memory: adventures in the arts Chapman & Hall, London vii, 255, 1 p., 24 pl., ill., 22 cm. [note 36]
10 1944 Nice People to know. Chapman & Hall, London xi, 201 p., (8º) [note 37]
11 1945 I Wish I Could Paint Ernest W. Haslehust The Studio, London 96 p., (4º) [note 38]
12 1946 Line of Laughter W. H. Allen & Co, London 140 p., (8º) [note 39]
13 1946 Seen in perspective, 1895-1945: a panorama of fifty years Chapman & Hall ltd, London 219 p., ill., 23 cm. [note 40]
14 1949 The magic of line: a study of drawing through the ages Studio Publications, London 112 p., ill., 26 cm. [note 41]
15 1949 Come Sketching Sir Frank Brangwyn, Sir W. Russell Flint, Sydney R. Jones,[note 42] Francis Marshall,[note 43] Bertram Nichols,[note 44] Fred Taylor,[note 45] Charles Tunnicliffe, and Norman Wilkinson Studio Publications, London 96 p., (4º) [note 46]
16 1952 Water-colour: a truly English art Studio Publications, London 127 p., ill., 30 cm. [note 47]
17 1956 Sketching & Painting indoors. [With illustrations.] Rowland Hilder Studio Publications, London 96 p., (8º) [note 48]
18 1958 Brother savages and guests': a history of the Savage Club 1857-1957 W.H. Allen, London xiii, 162 p., 10 pl., 26 cm. [note 49]

Faculty

Faculty (consulting staff) of the Press Art School included[2]:34

Alumni

Students of the Press Art School included[2]:34

Notes

  1. ^ Confusingly, there were two Schools with the same name and the same origin. Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School at Elstree, which is a public school, generally known as Haberdashers and Haberdashers' Aske' Boys School at Hatcham, generally knowns as Aske's which became first a grammar school and then a comprehensive school. It is now an Academy
  2. ^ Dacres Road was partially renumbered between the 1958 and 1959 electoral registers, so that their address of 37 Dacres Road became 97 Dacres Road.
  3. ^ The London Daily News of Saturday, 25 February 1905 contained a small advertisement announcing that The Press Art School gives thorough course of instruction, by correspondence, in all branches of magazine and newspaper illustration.[9]
  4. ^ His first pupil was Leo Cheney, (1878 – 1928), a bank clerk from Accrington, Lancashire who became a successful sports, joke, and political cartoonist, caricaturist, and illustrator. Cheney later joined the staff of the Press Art School. He is probably best known for the iconic Johnny Walker illustration.[2]:46-47
  5. ^ Pearson's Weekly described the Press Art School as one of the best art schools giving instructions by correspondence, and notes that several of that papers' own staff artists have trained at the school.[10]
  6. ^ Pearson's Weekly considered that these introductions alone were worth the small cost of the courses.[10]
  7. ^ The Jisc Library Hub Discover brings together the catalogues of 165 Major UK and Irish libraries. Additional libraries are being added all the time, and the catalogue collates national, university, and research libraries.[14][15]
  8. ^ The coloured illustration shows a caricatured man in top hat and tails in front of a chorous line of dancing women. The preparatory drawing shows how Bateman begins with the head of his subject and works from there.[20]
  9. ^ The pen and ink illustration shows a disgruntled older gentleman escorting a young lady past admiring young men[21]
  10. ^ The black and white illustration shows a horseman dismounting at a campsite while a man and a woman are cooking,[22]
  11. ^ The coloured illustration shows one naked and one half-naked young woman picking front on a sea shore.[23]
  12. ^ The coloured illustration shows three different views of a standing man on the north African coast. However the five preliminary drawing show an entirely different interior view with one standing and one seated men.[24]
  13. ^ The black and white illustration shows a wounded soldier and a friend playing draughts while a nurse looks on.[27]
  14. ^ This black and white illustration shows a German cavalryman in combat with an infantryman at a street barricade.[28]
  15. ^ The pen and ink drawing shows what appears to be a German cavalry man with a ragged, blindfolded woman riding pillion on a mountain road. It was reproduced by permission of Punch and was probably a political reference to the First World War. The extraneous sketches in the preparatory work suggest that this was from his sketch-book, rather than being specially prepared.[29]
  16. ^ This sepia-wash illustration shows two standing, almost-naked, young women. [30]
  17. ^ The black and white illustration shows an African couple with a baby in European dress.[32]
  18. ^ The illustration shows a disgruntled traveller accompanied by his wife and child[33]
  19. ^ The coloured illustration shows a fantasy feast with naked cherubs[34]
  20. ^ The coloured illustration apparently shows a young chick being threatened by a mouse against a river background. It is dated 1915.[35]
  21. ^ The pen and ink illustration shows two women with a girl and a bed under a tree in a park. The way in which Shepperson builds up his illustration from sketches of different elements is clearly shown.[36]
  22. ^ The pen and ink illustration shows an artist in the clutter of his studio glumly looking on as a naked model admires herself in a hand mirror.[37]
  23. ^ The black and white illustration shows an army officer being inspected by his son and daughters, presumably as he bids his family farewell.[38]
  24. ^ This black and white illustration shows one soldier giving a cigarette to another.[39]
  25. ^ The black and white illustration shows a wounded soldier and a friend playing draughts while a nurse looks on.[40]
  26. ^ The black and white illustration shows two fashion models as the detail of the clothing is built up.[43]
  27. ^ The coloured illustration shows a young boy and girl seated among a patch of flowers. It is dated 1914 or possibly 1916.[44]
  28. ^ The introductory course for the Press Art School
  29. ^ Advanced instruction by post in magazine, book and newspaper illustration. In the introduction, Bradshaw said: the career of the average professional painter is nowadays almost a hopeless one for the man who has no private means.
  30. ^ The Bystander described it as a handsomely produced volume which ranges over the whole field of advertising, from the angle of art, in a most interesting way and deals in turn with the great advertising agencies and the work of individual artists being profusedly illustrated with example from the brushes of the leading advertising artists of the day . . . [45] Bradshaw promoted the book by speaking on the topic through the country.[46]
  31. ^ In six parts by different water-colourists with prefaces by Bradshaw.
  32. ^ In six parts. Presumably, this follows the usual pattern of fashion artists presenting their work with prefaces by Bradshaw.
  33. ^ Demonstration lessons in drawing. No. 31 in the How to Do It series by The Studio.
  34. ^ Pen-pictures of humorous artists. With illustrations.
  35. ^ Poetry by Bradshaw with illustrations by Punch cartoonist Bert Thomas.
  36. ^ Bradshaw's autobiography.
  37. ^ Illustrated with photographs. Twenty light pen-portraits with and appreciations of a mixed bag of celebrities including; Field-Marshal Bernard Montgomery, A. P. Herbert, Benno Moiseiwitsch, Mark Hambourg, Noël Coward, Lord Woolton, Dame Lilian Braithwaite, Tommy Handley, Sir Frank Brangwyn, Dame Laura Knight, Sir Norman Birkett, and Norman Allin.[47]
  38. ^ Demonstration lessons in Water-Colour. No. 36 in the How to Do It series by The Studio.
  39. ^ Features 100 cartoons and drawings by 21 humorous artists reprinted from London Opinion, mostly drawn during the Second World War.
  40. ^ A review of the last fifty years. The Aberdeen Press and Journal described it as: both readable and informative. It is, in fact, for many us valuable record of the major events, the fashions and the changes that have shaped our lives.[48]
  41. ^ The Western Morning News stated that the book proved to be as exciting as its title suggests and that the well illustrated text took the reader on journey through the ages—from the cave drawings of Altamira to the work of Degas.[49]
  42. ^ Sydney Robert Jones (27 February 1881 – 7 September 1966.)[50]:193 [51] Studied art at the Birmingham School of Art.[52] Most famous for his illustrated travel books, and especially for his surveys of old manor houses. cottages etc.
  43. ^ William Francis Marshall (1909-1980) studied at the Slade School and became an illustrator in black and white and watercolour.[31]:312 He started his career in advertising illustration, and began to illustrated for Vogue in 1928. He painted covers for a wide range of romantic fiction, including novels by Barbara Cartland. He wrote numerous books on illustration including: Magazine Illustration, Fashion Drawing, Sketching the Ballet and Drawing the Female Figure.[53]
  44. ^ Bertram Nicholls (26 September 1883 – 23 December 1974)[54][55] was an English landscape painter and teacher who trained not only with individual painters but also at the Slade School, Madrid, Italy, and France. He was a prolific exhibitor, exhibiting at the Fine Art Society 264 times,[52]:375
  45. ^ Fred Taylor (22 March 1875 – 1963), watercolourist and poster artist. Studied at the Academie Julian in Paris, in Goldsmiths College School (where he got a gold medal for posters), and in Italy.[56] Probably did his best work on posters,[31]:30 of which he produced hundreds, many showing tourist attractions, for the railways and several steamship companies.[56]
  46. ^ Edited by Bradshaw. The other artists contributed advice as well as examples from their own sketch books.[57]
  47. ^ Discusses both techniques and the artist's lives. Many Artists represented including John Sell Cotman, Peter De Wint, John Constable, David Cox, J. M. W. Turner, W. Russell Flint, Lamorna Birch, Frank Brangwyn, Laura Knight and Alfred Munnings.[58]
  48. ^ No. 67 in the How to Do It series by The Studio.
  49. ^ The book got somewhat mixed reviews. The Sketch noted that the book . . . naturally proves to be full of good stories.[59] However, The Stage complaining that for the price (1£ 10s.) and occasion one would have expected a book more attractive both in content and format, and that Bradshaw's prose was somewhat flat and pedestrian even if he had succeeded in gathering a large mass of interesting and entertaining facts.[60]
  50. ^ Born in Birmingham and won a prize from the Royal Drawing Society at the age of nine. Most famous as the illustrator of the Gambols cartoon strip on which he collaborated with his wife Doris.[2]:5
  51. ^ Born in Burley-in-Wharfedale, York- shire, and won a scholarship to Leeds Grammar School. Studied Cartooning wit the Press Art School. He won a scholarship at the Royal COllege of Art, but when he moved to London to take it up found that he could not pay his way and began working feelance.[2]:138

References

  1. ^ London Metropolitan Archives (2010). "Admission and Discharge Register for Boys: Ivydale Road School, Southwark. Reference: LCC/EO/DIV07/IVY/AD/001". Admission and Discharge Register for Boys. Provo, Utah: Ancestry.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Bryant, Mark (2018). "Bradshaw, Percy Venner". The Dictionary of 20th-century British Cartoonists and Caricaturists. London: Routledge. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-315-20279-2. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  3. ^ a b c Felmingham, Micheal (1988-05-12). The Illustrated Gift Book, 1880-1930: with a checklist of 2500 titles. Scholar Press. ISBN 978-0859676922.
  4. ^ National Archives (1939-09-29). 1939 Register; Reference: RG 101/401A: E.D. AORT. Kew: National Archives.
  5. ^ a b "Wills and Probates 1858-1996: Pages for Bradshaw and the year of death 1966". Find a Will Service. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ "Brurial Registry Scan: Bennett, Edmund Hellyer, 25 September 1883". Deceased Online. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ "Wills and Probates 1858-1996: Pages for Bennett and the year of death 1904". Find a Will Service. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. ^ "Marriages". Kentish Mercury (Friday 12 August 1910): 5. 1910-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Small ad: Art: The Press Art School". London Daily News (Saturday 25 February 1905): 2. 1905-02-25. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-22 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  10. ^ a b c "The Last Page". Pearson's Weekly (Thursday 06 January 1910): 24. 1910-01-06. Retrieved 2020-08-22 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. ^ a b "Books of the day". Illustrated London News (Saturday 23 October 1943): 23. 1943-10-23. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-22 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  12. ^ "Wills and Probates 1858-1996: Pages for Bradshaw and the year of death 1966". Find a Will Service. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  13. ^ Bradshaw, Percy Venner (1933). The Art of the Illustrator: 20 individual portfolios, published from 1915 to 1918. London: Press Art Scjpp.
  14. ^ "Libraries on Discover: Contributing libraries list". Library Hub Discover. 2020-07-25. Archived from the original on 2020-01-18. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  15. ^ "About Library Hub Discover". Library Hub Discover. Archived from the original on 2020-03-03. Retrieved 2020-07-25. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  16. ^ "New Notes of the Week from Far and Near". The Sphere (Saturday 02 June 1917): 24. 1917-06-02. Archived from the original on 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-08-12 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  17. ^ a b "The education of the illustrator". The Graphic (Saturday 09 June 1917): 28. 1917-06-09. Retrieved 2020-08-12 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  18. ^ a b "The Connisseur Bookself". The Connoisseur: An Illustrated Magazine for Collectors. 51 (204): 223. 1918-08-01. Retrieved 2020-08-12 – via The Internet Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  19. ^ "How a Graphic artist works". Graphic (Saturday 17 August 1918): 23. 1918-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-20 – via The British Newspaper Archive. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  20. ^ "H M Bateman: H. M. Bateman and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  21. ^ "Charles Edmund Brock: Charles E Brock and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  22. ^ "Cyrus Cuneo: Cyrus Cuneo and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  23. ^ "William Russell Flint: William Russell Flint and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  24. ^ "Dudley Hardy: Dudley Hardy and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  25. ^ "William Hatherell (1855-1928)". Illustration Art Gallery. 2010-02-13. Archived from the original on 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2020-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  26. ^ A. & C. Black Ltd. (1967). Who Was Who: Volume II 1916-1928: A Companion to Who's Who Containing the Biographies of Those Who Died During the Period 1916-1928. Vol 2: 1916-1928 (4th ed.). London: Adam and Charles Black. p. 475. Retrieved 2020-08-12 – via The Internet Archive. |volume= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  27. ^ "William Hatherell: William Hatherell and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  28. ^ "Matania Ephemera: F. Matania and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-26. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  29. ^ "Bernard Partridge: Bernard Partridge and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  30. ^ "Spencer Pryse: Spencer Pryse and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  31. ^ a b c Horne, Alan (1994). The Dictionary of 20th Century British Book Illustrators. Woodbridge: Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 1-85149-108-2.
  32. ^ "Warwick Reynolds: Warwick Reynolds and his work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  33. ^ "Frank Reynolds: Frank Reynolds and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  34. ^ "William Heath Robinson: William Heath Robinson and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  35. ^ "Harry Rountree: Harry Rountree and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  36. ^ "Claude Shepperson: Claude Shepperson and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  37. ^ "Edmund J Sullivan: Edmund J Sullivan and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  38. ^ "Balliol Salmon: Balliol Salmon and His Work: The Art of the Illustrator (Limited Edition Prints)". Illustration Art Gallery with The Book Palace. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2020-08-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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