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Pedestrian zone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vienna's first pedestrian zone on the Graben (1971)
Vienna's first pedestrian zone on the Graben (1971)
The pedestrian zone between the Opera Theater and the Cascade in Yerevan, Armenia
The pedestrian zone between the Opera Theater and the Cascade in Yerevan, Armenia
Sign for pedestrian street in Central Stockholm showing a father and daughter
Sign for pedestrian street in Central Stockholm showing a father and daughter

Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, and as pedestrian precincts in British English[1]) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited. Converting a street or an area to pedestrian-only use is called pedestrianisation. Pedestrianisation usually aims to provide better accessibility and mobility for pedestrians, to enhance the volume of shopping and other business activity in the area and/or to improve the attractiveness of the local environment in terms of aesthetics, air pollution, noise and crash involving motor vehicle with pedestrians.[2] However, pedestrianisation can sometimes lead to reductions in business activity, property devaluation, and displacement of economic activity to other areas. In some cases traffic in surrounding areas may increase, due to displacement rather than substitution of car traffic.[2] Nonetheless, pedestrianisation schemes are often associated with significant drops in local air and noise pollution,[2] accidents, and frequently with increased retail turnover and increased property values locally.[3] A car-free development generally implies a large scale pedestrianised area that relies on modes of transport other than the car, while pedestrian zones may vary in size from a single square to entire districts, but with highly variable degrees of dependence on cars for their broader transport links.

Pedestrian zones have a great variety of approaches to human-powered vehicles such as bicycles, inline skates, skateboards and kick scooters. Some have a total ban on anything with wheels, others ban certain categories, others segregate the human-powered wheels from foot traffic, and others still have no rules at all. Many Middle Eastern kasbahs have no wheeled traffic, but use donkey-driven or hand-driven carts for freight transport.

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  • ✪ Most POWERFUL Armored Vehicles In The World!
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From a vehicle that could survive the zombie apocalypse to helping protect Russian executives from getting kidnapped here are the top 10 coolest armored vehicles you have to see!! 10.) T-98 Kombat The T-98 Kombat is driven by a 340 hp V8, giving the lightest T-98 a top speed of 111 mph, which makes this one of the fastest all-terrain armored vehicles in the world! This vehicle can also take you from 0 to over 60 mph within 10 seconds. On average, the T-98 Kombat tips the scales at over 11,000 pounds. It has a 36 gallon tank, 2.3-inch-thick bulletproof glass, and prices starting at around $138,000. The purpose of this car was to protect Russia’s wealthiest businessmen as they are often subjects of kidnapping threats. The armored body can also serve as protection from mine blasts. Even with all this protection and quick, high speed, the T-98 Kombat is simply known as a luxury vehicle. Besides being super safe, it offers all the luxuries you can imagine. Not only is the T-98 Kombat sold in the United States, Russia, and Saudi Arabia, but it can also be seen in popular culture. In the 2012 comedy, The Dictator, a gold colored version of the T-98 Kombat was used. Furthermore, the T-98 Kombat also makes appearances in Grand Theft Auto V and the 2014 action movie, The November Man. 9.) Mercedes Benz s600 Guard This vehicle is one of the newest luxury armored cars. This car gives so much protection from previous Mercedes armored vehicles that its windows, which are several times thicker than the stock double-pane glass, are so heavy that each needs its own hydraulic lift to open and close. Its top speed is 130 miles per hour, and with a seven speed automatic transmission, it can go from 0 to 60 in about 4 seconds, and holds a V12 engine with 530 hp. There are several options you can get for this vehicle, such as a heated windshield and side windows, hidden blue lights, an automatic fire-suppression system, a panic alarm, and blackout blinds. Furthermore, this guard lineup also includes a limo, which reaches a price of over a million dollars in Germany. This limo holds the best money can buy at 5.5 tons, which is about 11,000 pounds. Because of the added weight of this armored limo, the doors open and close with the assistance of an electric motor. And to top your customized order off, this limo can be fitted with sirens, flashing lights, emergency starter battery, and external communication systems. And now for number 8, but first be sure to subscribe and click the notification bell so you don’t miss out on the latest videos! If you are returning, welcome back!! 8.) Marauder The Marauder is an armored, mine-protected vehicle, which was launched during the 2007 International Defense Exhibition (IDEX) and Conference in Abu Dhabi. The Marauder has a six cylinder turbo diesel engine and can run speeds of 75mph, a maximum range of about 430 miles and weighs about 20 tons. Its windows alone are 3.5 inches thick. Furthermore, the Marauder can carry up to ten people. It is described as being one of the world’s most unstoppable vehicles and can survive a land mine explosion. In fact, the Marauder is so durable it can go through a brick wall at top speeds. The Marauder’s payload capacity can hold about 13,000 pounds and can fit various defense and weapons systems, including light and medium-caliber machine guns, cannon weapon installations, and missile launchers. There is a civilian version of the Marauder, which comes in at about $500,000. However, according to Richard Hamilton, who test drove the civilian Marauder for Top Gear in 2011, if you plan on purchasing this vehicle, be ready for some strange looks from pedestrians. I’m sure that’s why most people want it in the first place. 7.) Inkas Huron Are you worried about the zombie apocalypse?? Well not anymore! The Inkas Huron APC vehicle is known to be a zombie-proof, indestructible vehicle that can hold up to 16 people. This vehicle is designed to protect its occupants from high-power rifle fire, such as an AK-47 and hand grenade blasts. This vehicle is also equipped with gun portholes down the sides, including on the driver’s door. Under the hood of this beast is an 8.3L diesel cranking out 310 hp. This vehicle was definitely meant for a war zone, and its engine is a 10-speed automatic transmission that holds a 75 gallon fuel tank. The INKAS company, which makes this armored beast, says that the weight of the Huron varies, but usually weighs in at 33,000 pounds. The weight of the vehicle actually depends on what type of add-on you want to order! Some of these add-ons for this vehicle could embarrass the secret service, such as the roof-mounted gun turret, which can also be customized to the buyer’s needs. The top speed is 100 miles per hour making it one of the fastest all terrain vehicles in the world! It also includes a built-in compressor that will automatically re-inflate any busted tires to keep you going at its top speed. And you could be seeing one of these vehicles on the road soon. While it holds the value of being a war vehicle, police departments are also taking action to secure the Huron. In 2014, the National Police of Colombia bought four Hurons for their department. Some people are already prepared for the apocalypse! 6.) The Sentinel The Sentinel is Range Rover’s first armored vehicle. While the outside looks identical to the Range Rover Autobiography, it is actually very different. The Sentinel holds a steel-plated armored passenger cell and windows of optical-quality multi-laminated armor privacy glass. It has about a four inch opening in the driver's window for passing documents and veeeery small takeaway orders. Furthermore, the Sentinel is certified to VR8 standard against ballistic threats, which means TNT explosives and grenades. The top speed of the Range Rover’s Sentinel is 155 miles per hour. This luxury vehicle also includes a V8 engine, 340 horsepower, and can go from 0 to 60 in about 8 seconds. If you are interested in this extra protection vehicle, you can purchase the Sentinel starting at about $446,000, which can increase with customized additions, such as interior colors, a customer-configurable siren system, emergency service lights, and an external PA system. 5.) Dartz Black Shark The Dartz Black Shark is known as a “spy car.” This car is a battle-ready armored SUV built atop a Mercedes AMG GL platform, which can be fitted with a V8 or a V12 engine. It holds about 1,500 horsepower, can go from 0 to 60 between five to six seconds, and has a top speed of about 155 miles per hour. The Dartz Black Shark includes driving features like electro chromatic privacy windows and disappearing coach door-handles that come equipped with an anti-paparazzi shock-device. This basically gives a jolt to any trespassing fingers while the privacy window conceals the identity of those inside. Furthermore, the vehicle also comes equipped with a rotating bulletproof grill, and a fingerprint and retina scanner. You could also customize the vehicle with other additions like a champagne holder and a hotspot, and an Xbox One. 4.) 550-Foot Laser Yacht This 550 foot Yacht is known as the Eclipse and is said to be something that even James Bond might consider too “over the top’! Just kidding, it’s James Bond! This yacht is about as long as two football fields and has an integrated German-built missile defense system, which includes bullet proof glass and a missile detector. Furthermore, the Eclipse includes an “anti-paparazzi” shield which is said to have lasers that sweep the surroundings, detecting CCD’s. A CCD is a charge coupled device that is an integrated circuit etched onto a silicon surface forming pixels. Reportedly, once these lasers notice a CCD, they fire a bolt of light right at the camera to obliterate any photograph! The Yacht also has two swimming pools, a disco hall, and six-foot movie screens in all guest cabins, and a mini-submarine that can submerge up to 160 feet. The Yacht needs about 70 people to run it. As of Sep 2011, the yacht ran a Russian businessman $500,000. Not a bad price for a yacht worthy of James Bond! 3.) Nissan GTR Armored Police Car With the inspiration from the Nissan GT-R Premium, the Nissan GTR includes matt black wrap, aftermarket coil-over shocks, and 22 inch spiked rims. The car, which has officially been named the Police Pursuit #23 has been nicknamed “copzilla” with a twin-turbo V6 possessing over 560 horsepower. The car is also equipped with about four dozen different LED light elements, plus a loudspeaker and siren mounted on the front push bar. Furthermore, the car can reach nearly 200 miles per hour! However, you will not be seeing these dozens of flashing lights behind you soon as it was just shown at the 2017 New York Auto Show and as of right now, no police departments have bought the Copzilla for their force. 2.) Ball Tank The Ball Tank is considered to be one of the rarest and most unique fighting vehicles from World War II. Not much is known about this little unique tank as it never made a huge appearance during the war, but we do know it was invented by Nazi engineers. While no one is 100% sure of the ball tank’s purpose, it is believed to be a one man scouting vehicle. It is also reported that the Ball Tank was captured by the Soviets in 1945, when it was being sent to Japan as part of Germany’s technology sharing scheme. However, if you would like to see this rare and unique tank today, it sits in the Kubinka Museum's collection of German armored vehicles. 1.) Trasco BMW 7 Series The Trasco BMW 7 Series is not only offered with one armoring level, but a buyer is given the options of three different levels so it can protect its passengers from a variety of threats from small arms to rifle fire. The car is powered by a V12 engine with an eight speed transmission. The vehicle can go from 0 to 60 in about 4 seconds and has a top speed of about 155 mph. This luxury car has an estimated price of about $155,000. This car features upgraded tires due to the weight of the armor in this vehicle. These tires include rims with a special unique design and can be driven if the tire is punctured. This series also includes a limo, which like the car, will protect the passengers from various gunfire. You can also find comfort inside the vehicle through its relaxation features such as massage chairs and rear-seat entertainment system. Thanks for watching!! Which armored vehicle would you like to have?? Let us know in the comments below! Be sure to subscribe and see you next time!! Byeeeee!!

Contents

History

The Galerie Vivienne in Paris
The Galerie Vivienne in Paris

The idea of separating pedestrians from wheeled traffic is an old one, dating back at least to the Renaissance.[4] However, the earliest modern implementation of the idea in cities seems to date from about 1800, when the first covered shopping arcade was opened in Paris.[4] Separated shopping arcades were constructed throughout Europe in the 19th century, precursors of modern shopping malls. A number of architects and city planners, including Joseph Paxton, Ebenezer Howard, and Clarence Stein, in the 19th and early 20th centuries proposed plans to separate pedestrians from traffic in various new developments.[5]

The first "pedestrianisation" of an existing street seems to have taken place "around 1929" in Essen, Germany. This was in Limbecker Straße, a very narrow shopping street that could not accommodate both vehicular and pedestrian traffic.[6] Two other German cities followed this model in the early 1930s, but the idea was not seen outside Germany.[4] Following the devastation of the Second World War a number of European cities implemented plans to pedestrianise city streets, although usually on a largely ad hoc basis, through the early 1950s, with little landscaping or planning.[4] By 1955 twenty-one German cities had closed at least one street to traffic, although only four were "true" pedestrian streets, designed for the purpose.[4] At this time pedestrianisation was not seen as a traffic restraint policy, but rather as a complement[clarification needed] to customers who would arrive by car in a city centre.[4] Pedestrianisation was also common in the United States during the 1950s and 60s as downtown businesses attempted to compete with new suburban shopping malls. However, most of these initiatives were not successful in the long term, and about 90% have been changed back to motorised areas.[7]

Definitions and types

Car free towns, cities and regions

Marktplatz in Karlsruhe, Germany, coexists with a tramline.
Marktplatz in Karlsruhe, Germany, coexists with a tramline.

A car-free zone is different from a typical pedestrian zone, in that it implies a development largely predicated on modes of transport other than the car. A pedestrian zone may be much more limited in scope, for example a single square or street being for pedestrians, but largely serviced by cars.

Examples

A number of towns and cities in Europe have never allowed motor vehicles. archetypal examples are:

  • Venice, which occupies many islands in a lagoon, divided by and accessed from canals. The city has been car-free for more than three decades. Motor traffic stops at the car park at the head of the viaduct from the mainland, and water transport or walking takes over from there. However, motor vehicles are allowed on the nearby Lido.
  • Zermatt in the Swiss Alps, which most visitors reach by a cog railway

Other examples are:

To assist with transport from the car parks in at the edge of car-free cities, there are often bus stations, bicycle sharing stations, and the like.

Car-free development

The term car-free development implies a physical change: either new building or changes to an existing built area.

Melia et al. (2010)[8] define car-free developments as residential or mixed use developments which:

  • Normally provide a traffic-free immediate environment, and
  • Offer no parking or limited parking separated from the residence, and
  • Are designed to enable residents to live without owning a car.

This definition (which they distinguish from the more common "low car development") is based mainly on experience in North West Europe, where the movement for car-free development began. Within this definition, three types are identified:

  • Vauban model
  • Limited Access model
  • Pedestrianised centres with residential population
Knez Mihailova pedestrian zone at night with New Year decoration in Belgrade, Serbia
Knez Mihailova pedestrian zone at night with New Year decoration in Belgrade, Serbia

Limited Access type

The more common form of carfree development involves some sort of physical barrier, which prevents motor vehicles from penetrating into a car-free interior. Melia et al.[8] describe this as the "Limited Access" type. In some cases, such as Stellwerk 60 in Cologne, there is a removable barrier, controlled by a residents' organisation. In others such as Waterwijk (Amsterdam), vehicular access is only available from the exterior.[clarification needed]

Pedestrianised centres

The city centre of Jyväskylä in Finland is pedestrianised.
The city centre of Jyväskylä in Finland is pedestrianised.

Whereas the first two models apply to newly-built car-free developments, most pedestrianised city, town and district centres have been retro-fitted. Pedestrianised centres may be considered car-free developments where they include a significant number of residents, mostly without cars, due to new residential development within them, or because they already included dwellings when they were pedestrianised. The largest example in Europe is Groningen, with a city centre population of 16,500.[9]

Characteristics and benefits of carfree developments

Several studies have been carried out on European carfree developments. The most comprehensive was conducted in 2000 by Jan Scheurer.[10] Other more recent studies have been made of specific car-free areas such as Vienna's Floridsdorf car-free development.[11]

Characteristics of car-free developments:

  • Very low levels of car use, resulting in much less traffic on surrounding roads
  • High rates of walking and cycling
  • More independent movement and active play for children
  • Less land taken by parking and roads, so more available for green or social space

The main benefits found for car-free developments:

The main problems related to parking management. Where parking is not controlled in the surrounding area, this often results in complaints from neighbours about overspill parking.

Problems caused by pedestrianisation

There were calls for traffic to be reinstated in Trafalgar Square, London, after pedestrianisation caused noise nuisance for visitors to the National Gallery. The director of the gallery is reported to have blamed pedestrianization for the "trashing of a civic space".[12]

Local shopkeepers may be critical of the effect of pedestrianization on their businesses. Reduced through traffic can lead to fewer customers using local businesses, depending on the environment and the area's dependence on the through traffic.[13] Done properly, pedestrianization can increase local business sales.

Europe

Promenade in Bielsko-Biała, Poland
Promenade in Bielsko-Biała, Poland

The first purpose-built pedestrian street in Europe is the Lijnbaan in Rotterdam, opened in 1953. The first pedestrianised shopping centre in the United Kingdom was in Stevenage in 1959.

A large number of European towns and cities have made part of their centres car-free since the early 1960s. These are often accompanied by car parks on the edge of the pedestrianised zone, and, in the larger cases, park and ride schemes. Central Copenhagen is one of the largest and oldest: it was converted from car traffic into a pedestrian zone in 1962 as an experiment, and is centered on Strøget, which is not a single street but a series of interconnected avenues which create a very large pedestrian zone, although it is crossed in places by streets with vehicular traffic. Most of these zones allow delivery trucks to service the businesses there during the early morning, and street-cleaning vehicles will usually go through these streets after most shops have closed for the night.

Germany

A number of German islands ban or strictly limit the private use of motor vehicles. Heligoland, Hiddensee, and all but two of the East Frisian islands are car-free; Borkum and Norderney have car-free zones and strictly limit automobile use during the summer season and in certain areas, also forbidding travel at night. Some areas provide exceptions for police and emergency vehicles; Heligoland also bans bicycles.

In the early 1980s, the Alternative Liste für Demokratie und Umweltschutz (which later became part of Alliance 90/The Greens) unsuccessfully campaigned to make West Berlin a car-free zone.

North America

In North America, where a more commonly used term is pedestrian mall, such areas are still in their infancy. Few cities have pedestrian zones, but some have pedestrianized single streets. Some cities have transit malls. Many pedestrian streets are surfaced with cobblestones, or pavement bricks, thus discouraging any kind of wheeled traffic, including wheelchairs. They are rarely completely free of motor vehicles. Often, all of the cross streets are open to motorized traffic, which thus intrudes on the pedestrian flow at every street corner. In a few pedestrian streets with no cross street cars or trucks, deliveries are made by trucks by night.

Canada

Some Canadian examples are the Sparks Street Mall area of Ottawa, the Distillery District in Toronto, Scarth Street Mall in Regina, Stephen Avenue Mall in Calgary (with certain areas open to parking for permit holders) and part of Prince Arthur Street and the Gay Village in Montreal. Algonquin and Ward's Islands, parts of the Toronto Islands group, are also car-free zones for all 700 residents. Since summer 2004, Toronto has also been experimenting with "Pedestrian Sundays"[3] in its busy Kensington Market. Granville Mall in Halifax, Nova Scotia was a run-down section of buildings on Granville Street built in the 1840s that was restored in the late 1970s. The area was then closed off to vehicles.

United States

Cyclists enjoy the carfree highway (M-185) on Mackinac Island.
Cyclists enjoy the carfree highway (M-185) on Mackinac Island.

In the United States, these zones are commonly called pedestrian malls or pedestrian streets. Pedestrian zones are rare in the United States, although some cities have created single pedestrian streets.

Mackinac Island, between the upper and lower peninsulas of Michigan, banned horseless carriages in 1896, making it auto-free. The original ban still stands, except for emergency vehicles.[14] Travel on the island is largely by foot, bicycle, or horse-drawn carriage. An 8-mile (13 km) road, M-185 rings the island, and numerous roads cover the interior. M-185 is the only highway in the United States without motorized vehicles. In 1959, Kalamazoo was the first American city to implement a "pedestrian mall" in its downtown core.[15] This became a popular method for downtowns to compete with the growing suburban shopping malls of the time. In the 1960s and 70s over 200 towns in the United States adopted this approach.[15] The idea of exclusive pedestrian zones lost popularity through the 1980s and into the 1990s.

Downtown Crossing in Boston is a shopping district which prohibits automobiles during daytime hours. Both the main thoroughfare of Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, and Memorial Drive, a busy road in Cambridge, MA are closed to car traffic each Sunday during the summer to allow pedestrians, bikers, skateboarders and roller/inlineskaters an opportunity to use the road.

A number of streets and malls in New York City are now pedestrian-only, including 6​12 Avenue, Fulton Street, parts of Broadway, and a block of 25th Street.[16]

Fire Island in Suffolk County, New York is pedestrianised east of the Fire Island Lighthouse and west of Smith Point County Park (with the exception of emergency vehicles).

Supai, Arizona, located within the Havasupai Indian Reservation is entirely car-free, the only community in the United States where mail is still carried out by mule. Supai is located eight miles from the nearest road, and is accessible only by foot, horse/mule, or helicopter.

State Street in Madison, Wisconsin is the largest pedestrian mall in Wisconsin and connects the University of Wisconsin to Capitol Square in Downtown Madison. The street houses some of Madison's oldest buildings and stores, as well as theaters such as the Orpheum and the Overture Center for the Arts.

A portion of Third Street in Santa Monica, California was converted into a pedestrian mall in the 1960s to become what is now the Third Street Promenade, a very popular shopping district located just a few blocks from the beach and Santa Monica Pier.

Lincoln Road in Miami Beach, which had previously been a shopping street with traffic, was converted into a pedestrian only street in 1960. The designer was Morris Lapidus. Lincoln Road Mall is now one of the main attractions in Miami Beach.

Mexico

Playa del Carmen has a pedestrian mall, Quinta Avenida, ("Fifth Avenue") that stretches 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) and receives 4 million visitors annually with hundreds of shops and restaurants.

South America

Argentina

Argentina's big cities; Córdoba, Mendoza and Rosario have lively pedestrianised street centers (Spanish: peatonales) combined with town squares and parks which are crowded with people walking at every hour of the day and night. Most (if not all) of Argentina's cities are human-scale and pedestrian-friendly, although vehicle traffic may be hectic in some areas.

In Buenos Aires, some stretches of Calle Florida have been pedestrianised since 1913,[17] which makes it one of the oldest car-free thoroughfares in the world today. Pedestrianised Florida, Lavalle and other streets contribute to a vibrant shopping and restaurant scene where street performers and tango dancers abound, streets are crossed with vehicular traffic at chamfered corners.

Brazil

Paquetá Island in Rio de Janeiro is auto-free. The only cars allowed on the island are police and ambulance vehicles. In Rio de Janeiro, the roads beside the beaches are auto-free on Sundays and holidays.

Tumbacuatro Street in Santa Marta.
Tumbacuatro Street in Santa Marta.

Downtown Rio de Janeiro, Ouvidor Street, over almost its entire length, has been continually a pedestrian space since the mid-nineteenth century when not even carts or carriages were allowed. And the Saara District, also downtown, consists of some dozen or more blocks of colonial streets, off limits to cars, and crowded with daytime shoppers. Likewise, many of the city's hillside favelas are effectively pedestrian zones as the streets are too narrow and/or steep for automobiles.

Eixo Rodoviário, in Brasília, which is 13 kilometers long and 30 meters wide and is an arterial road connecting the center of that city from both southward and northward wings of Brasília's Plano Piloto, perpendicular to the well known Eixo Monumental (Monumental Axis in English), is auto-free on Sundays and holidays.

Rua XV de Novembro (15 November Street) in Curitiba is one of the first major pedestrian streets in Brazil.

Chile

Chile has many large pedestrian streets. An example is Paseo Ahumada in Santiago and Calle Valparaíso in Viña del Mar.

Colombia

During his 1998–2001 term, the former Bogotá mayor, U.S.-born Enrique Peñalosa, created several pedestrian streets, plazas and bike paths integrated with a new bus rapid transit system.

The historic center of Cartagena closes some streets to cars during certain hours.

Santa Marta also has permanent pedestrian zones in the historic center around the Cathedral Basílica of Santa Marta.

Peru

Jirón de La Unión in Lima is a traditional pedestrian street located in the Historic Centre of Lima, part of the capital of Peru.

In the city of Arequipa, Mercaderes is also a considerably large pedestrian street.[18] Also, recently three of the four streets surrounding the city`s main square or "Plaza de Armas" were also made pedestrian.[19]

Asia

Total bans

Vehicles have been banned in the town of Matheran, in Maharashtra, India since the time it was discovered in 1854.[20]

Mainland China

Nanjing Road in Shanghai is perhaps the most well-known pedestrian zone in mainland China. Wangfujing is a famous tourist and retail oriented pedestrian zone in Beijing. Chunxilu in Chengdu is the most well known in western China. Dongmen is the busiest business zone in Shenzhen. Zhongyang Street is a historical large pedestrian street in Harbin.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, since 2000, the government has been implementing full-time or part-time pedestrian streets in a number of areas, including Causeway Bay, Central, Wan Chai, Mong Kok, and Tsim Sha Tsui.[21] The most popular pedestrian street is Sai Yeung Choi Street. It was converted into a pedestrian street in 2003. From December 2008 to May 2009, there were three acid attacks during which corrosive liquids were placed in plastic bottles and thrown from the roof of apartments down onto the street.

India

In India, a citizens’ initiative in Goa state, has made 18 June Road, Panjim’s main shopping boulevard a Non-Motorised Zone [22](NoMoZo). The road is converted into a NoMoZo for half a day on one Sunday every month.

In Pune, Maharashtra, similar efforts have been made to convert M.G. Road (a.k.a. Main Street) into an open-air mall. The project in questioned aimed to create a so-called "Walking Plaza".[23]

Japan

Pedestrian zones in Japan are called hokōsha tengoku (歩行者天国, literally "pedestrian heaven"). Clis Road, in Sendai, Japan, is a covered pedestrian mall, as is Hondōri in Hiroshima. Several major streets in Tokyo are closed to vehicles during weekends. One particular temporary hokōsha tengoku in Akihabara was cancelled after the Akihabara massacre in which a man rammed a truck into the pedestrian traffic and subsequently stabbed more than 12 people.

Korea

Insadong in Seoul, South Korea has a large pedestrian zone (Insadong-gil) during certain hours.

Also in South Korea, in 2013, in the Haenggun-dong neighbourhood of Suwon, streets were closed to cars as a month-long car-free experiment while the city hosted the EcoMobility World Festival. Instead of cars, residents used non-motorized vehicles provided by the festival organizers.[24] The experiment was not unopposed; however, on balance it was considered a success. Following the festival, the city embarked on discussions about adopting the practice on a permanent basis.[25]

Taiwan

Ximending in Taipei, Taiwan is a neighborhood and shopping district in the Wanhua District of Taipei, Taiwan. It was the first pedestrian zone in Taiwan. The district is very popular in Taiwan.

Thailand

In Thailand, some small streets (Soi) in Bangkok are designed to be all-time closed traffic, the city's famous shopping streets of Sampheng Lane in Chinatown and Wang Lang Market nearby to Siriraj Hospital, are the most popular for both local and tourists shopping streets. Additionally the city has built long skywalk systems. Walking Street, Pattaya is also closed to traffic. Night markets are routinely closed to auto traffic.

Vietnam

Huế in Vietnam has made 3 roads into pedestrians-only on weekend nights.[26] Also, Hanoi has opened an Old Quarter Walking Street on weekend nights.[27]

Africa

North Africa contains some of the largest auto-free areas in the world. Fes-al-Bali, a medina of Fes, Morocco, with its population of 156,000, may be the world's largest contiguous completely carfree area, and the medinas of Cairo, Tunis, Casablanca, Meknes, Essaouira, and Tangier are quite extensive.

Australia

In Australia, as in the US, these zones are commonly called pedestrian malls and in most cases comprise only one street. Most pedestrian streets were created in the late 1970s and 1980s, the first being City Walk, Garema Place in Canberra in 1971. Of 58 pedestrian streets created in Australia in the last quarter of the 20th century, 48 remain today, ten having re-introduced car access between 1990 and 2004.[28] All capital cities in Australia have at least one pedestrian street of which most central are: Pitt Street Mall and Martin Place in Sydney, Bourke Street Mall in Melbourne, Queen Street Mall and Brunswick Street Mall in Brisbane, Rundle Mall in Adelaide, Hay Street and Murray Street Malls in Perth, Elizabeth Street Mall in Hobart, City Walk in Canberra, and Smith Street in Darwin. Many other mid-sized and regional Australian cities also feature pedestrian malls, examples include Langtree Avenue Mildura, Cavill Avenue Gold Coast, Bridge Street Ballarat, Nicholas Street Ipswich, Hargreaves Street Bendigo, Maude Street Shepparton and Little Mallop Street Geelong.

Martin Place, Sydney, Australia

Empircial studies by Jan Gehl indicate an increase of pedestrian traffic as result of public domain improvements in the centres of Melbourne with 39% increase between 1994-2004[29] and Perth with 13% increase between 1993-2009.[30]

Most intensive pedestrian traffic flows on a summer weekday have been recorded in Bourke Street Mall Melbourne with 81,000 pedestrians (2004),[29] Rundle Mall Adelaide with 61,360 pedestrians (2002), Pitt Street Mall Sydney with 58,140 (2007) and Murray Street Mall Perth with 48,350 pedestrians (2009).[30]

Rottnest Island off Perth is car free, only allowing vehicles for essential services. Bicycles are the main form of transport on the island; they can be hired or brought over on the ferry.

In Melbourne's north-eastern suburbs, there have been many proposals to make the Doncaster Hill development area a pedestrian zone. If the proposals are passed, the zone could be one of the largest in the world, by area.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, it is becoming more common to use public transportation against cars, such as in Queenstown, a prominent pedestrianised area including multiple lanes and streets inside the main blocks. Queenstown Lakes District Council and affiliated groups including Destination Queenstown and Downtown Queenstown propose adding another stretch into a car free zone. This is continuing with large grassed settings along the full pedestrianised promenade. Auckland is also starting to pedestrianise malls and streets.[citation needed]

See also

Sign indicating the end of a small car-free zone in central Ripon in the United Kingdom.
Sign indicating the end of a small car-free zone in central Ripon in the United Kingdom.

References

  1. ^ "Pedestrian precinct - Definition, meaning & more - Collins Dictionary". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b c Chiquetto, Sergio (1997). "The Environmental Impacts from the Implementation of a Pedestrianization Scheme". 2 (2): 133–146. doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(96)00016-8. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  3. ^ Castillo-Manzano, José; Lourdes Lopez-Valpuesta; Juan P. Asencio-Flores (2014). "Extending pedestrianization processes outside the old city center; conflict and benefits in the case of the city of Seville". Habitat International. 44: 194–201.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Hall, Peter; Hass-Klau, Carmen (1985). Can Rail Save the City? The impacts of rapid transit and pedestrianisation on British and German cities. Aldershot: Gower Publishing. p. 83. ISBN 0566009471.
  5. ^ Hall, Peter; Hass-Klau, Carmen (1985). Can Rail Save the City? The impacts of rapid transit and pedestrianisation on British and German cities. Aldershot: Gower Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 0566009471.
  6. ^ https://www1.wdr.de/mediathek/video/sendungen/lokalzeit-ruhr/video-aelteste-fussgaengerzone-deutschlands-wird--und-befindet-sich-in-essen-100.html
  7. ^ Judge, Cole. "The Experiment of  American Pedestrian Malls: Trends Analysis, Necessary Indicators for Success and Recommendations for Fresno's Fulton Mall" (PDF). Fresno Future. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
  8. ^ a b "WTPP Index  - Main Index". Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  9. ^ [1] Gemeente Groningen, (2008) Statistisch Jaarboek.
  10. ^ Scheurer, J. (2001) Urban Ecology, Innovations in Housing Policy and the Future of Cities: Towards Sustainability in Neighbourhood CommunitiesThesis (PhD), Murdoch University Institute of Sustainable Transport.
  11. ^ Ornetzeder, M., Hertwich, E.G., Hubacek, K., Korytarova, K. and Haas, W. (2008) The environmental effect of car-free housing: A case in Vienna. Ecological Economics 65 (3), 516-530.
  12. ^ "Trafalgar Square is being trashed, says gallery chief". London Evening Standard. ES London. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
  13. ^ "'They're going to ruin us with the pedestrianization'". WalesOnline. Media Wales. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2010-05-17.
  14. ^ Mackinac Island Tourism Bureau website Archived March 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b Robertson, Kent (1990). "The Status of Pedestrian Malls in American Downtowns". Urban Affairs Quarterly. 26 (2): 250–273.
  16. ^ Public Plazas
  17. ^ (in Spanish) Calle Florida History: www.buenosaires.com Archived 2011-07-08 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "Calle Mercaderes - Arequipa, Región Arequipa - Opiniones y fotos - TripAdvisor". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  19. ^ "Arequipa: Hoy la plaza de armas es solo para los peatones". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  20. ^ Dey, J (19 May 1999). "MMRDA questions council's new designs on Matheran". Mumbai: The Indian Express. Express News. Retrieved Aug 12, 2014.
  21. ^ Hong Kong Transport Department Website, Transport Department
  22. ^ Down To Earth: Walk this way
  23. ^ "MG Road walking plaza will be back - The Times of India". Retrieved 23 July 2016.
  24. ^ Strother, Jason (30 September 2013). "Locals applaud car-free month in Korean city". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  25. ^ "Report presents legacy of car-free neighborhood". EcoMobility world Festival 2013. ICLEI. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  26. ^ http://tuoitrenews.vn/news/lifestyle/20171001/vietnams-hue-city-formally-opens-3-walking-streets/41823.html
  27. ^ http://silkpathhotel.com/hanoi-walking-street/
  28. ^ IRIS: Australian Outdoor Pedestrian Mall Survey 2006 [2], retrieved 2009-10-02
  29. ^ a b Melbourne 'Places for People' Archived 2011-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ a b City of Perth - Public Spaces Public Life Archived 2009-09-19 at the Wayback Machine
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