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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Panorama of the inner courtyard of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia
Panorama of the inner courtyard of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia

A panorama (formed from Greek πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, drawing, photography, film, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was originally coined in the 18th century[1] by the English (Irish descent) painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh and London. The motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama. [2]

A panoramic view is also purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview (from a distance) along and across repositories. This so-called "cognitive panorama" is a panoramic view over, and a combination of, cognitive spaces[3] used to capture the larger scale.

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Transcription

Oh. Hey! Sorry, I don’t mean to be rude. I’m just trying to figure out how far away my thumb is. How? Parallax. Centuries ago, people thought the stars were holes in a huge crystal sphere, letting through heavenly light. It wasn’t clear just how big the sphere was, but it was pretty dang big. I have some sympathy for them. By eye, and for all intents and purposes, the stars are infinitely far away. If you drive down a road you’ll see trees nearby flying past you, but distant mountains moving more slowly. The Moon is so far it doesn’t seem to move at all compared to nearby objects — and it’s easy for your brain to think it’s much closer, smaller, and actually following you, which is a bit creepy. Sometimes people even think it’s a UFO tailing them. Finding the distance to something really far away is tough. It’s not like you can you can just pace off the distance. Or can you? The ancient Greeks knew the Earth was round and there are lots of ways to figure that out. For example, ships sailing over the horizon seem to disappear from the bottom up, as you’d expect as they slip around the Earth’s curve. But how big is the Earth? Over 2000 years ago, the Greek philosopher Eratosthenes figured it out. He knew that at the summer solstice, the Sun shone directly down a well in the city of Syene at noon. He also knew that at the same time, it was not shining straight down in Alexandria, and could measure that angle. There’s a legend that he paid someone to pace off the distance between the two cities so he could find the distance between them. But more likely he just used the numbers found by earlier surveying missions. Either way, knowing the distance and the angle, and applying a little geometry, he calculated the circumference of the Earth. His result, a little over 40,000 km, is actually amazingly accurate! For the very first time, humans had determined a scale to the Universe. That first step has since led to a much, much longer journey. Once you know how big the Earth is, other distances can be found. For example, when there’s a lunar eclipse, the shadow of the Earth is cast on the Moon. You can see the curve of the Earth’s edge as the shadow moves across the Moon. Knowing how big the Earth is, and doing a little more geometry, you can figure out how far away the Moon is! Also, the phases of the Moon depend on the angles and distances between the Earth, Moon, and Sun. Using the size of the Earth as a stepping stone, Aristarchus of Samos was able to calculate the distances to the Moon and the Sun as well as their sizes. That was 2200 years ago! His numbers weren’t terribly accurate, but that’s not the important part. His methods were sound, and they were used later by great thinkers like Hipparchus and Ptolemy to get more accurate sizes and distances. They actually did pretty well, and all over a thousand years before the invention of the telescope! And I think it also says a lot that these ancient thinkers were willing to accept a solar system that was at least millions of kilometers in size. But at this point things got sticky. Planets are pretty far away and look like dots. Our methods for finding distances failed for them. For a while, at least. In the 17th century, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton laid the mathematical groundwork of planetary orbits, and that in turn made it possible, in theory, to get the distances to the planets. Ah, but there was a catch. When you do the math, you find that measuring the distances to the other planets means you need to know the distance from the Earth to the Sun accurately. For example, it was known that Jupiter was about 5 times farther from the Sun than the Earth was, but that doesn’t tell you what it is in kilometers. So how far away is the Sun? Well, they had a rough idea using the number found by the Greeks, but to be able to truly understand the solar system, they needed a much more accurate value for it. To give you an idea of how important the distance from the Earth to the Sun is, they gave it a pretty high-falutin’ name: the astronomical unit, or AU. Mind you, not “an” astronomical unit, “the” one. That’s how fundamental it is to understanding everything! A lot of methods were attempted. Sometimes Mercury and Venus transit, or cross the face of the Sun. Timing these events accurately could then be used to plug numbers into the orbital equations and get the length of an AU. Grand expeditions were sent across the globe multiple times to measure the transits, and didn’t do too badly. But our atmosphere blurs the images of the planets, putting pretty big error bars on the timing measurements. The best they could do was to say the AU was 148,510,000 km -- plus or minus 800,000 km. That’s good, but not QUITE good enough to make astronomers happy. Finally, in the 1960s, astronomers used radio telescopes to bounce radar pulses off of Venus. Since we know the speed of light extremely accurately, the amount of time it takes for the light to get to Venus and back could be measured with amazing precision. Finally, after all these centuries, the astronomical unit was nailed down. It’s now defined to be 149,597,870.7 kilometers. So there. The Earth orbits the Sun on an ellipse, so think of that as the average distance of the Earth from the Sun. Knowing this number unlocked the solar system. It’s the fundamental meterstick of astronomy, and the scale we use to measure everything. Having this number meant we could predict the motions of the planets, moons, comets, and asteroids. Plus, it meant we could launch our probes into space and explore these strange new worlds for ourselves, see them up close, and truly understand the nature of the solar system. And it’s even better than that. Knowing the Astronomical Unit meant unlocking the stars. We have two eyes, and this gives us binocular vision. When you look at a nearby object, your left eye sees it at a slightly different angle than your right eye. Your brain puts these two images together, compares them, does the geometry, and gives you a sense of distance to that object. And you thought your teacher lied when she said math was useful in everyday life. We call this ability depth perception. You can see it for yourself by doing the thumb thing: as you blink one eye and then the other, your thumb appears to shift position relative to more distant objects. That shift is called parallax. The amount of shift depends on how far apart your eyes are, and how far away the object is. If you know the distance between your eyes — we’ll call this the baseline — then you can apply some trigonometry and figure out how far away the object is. If the object is nearby, it shifts a lot; if it’s farther away, it shift less. It works pretty well, but it does put a limit on how far away we can reasonably sense distance with just our eyes. Stars are a bit beyond that limit. If we want to measure their distance using parallax, we need a lot bigger baseline than the few centimeters between our eyes. Once astronomers figured out that the Earth went around the Sun rather than vice-versa, they realized that the Earth’s orbit made a huge baseline. If we observe a star when the Earth is at one spot, then wait six months for the Earth to go around the Sun to the opposite side of its orbit and observe the star again, then in principle we can determine the distance to the star, assuming we know the size of the Earth’s orbit. That’s why knowing the length of the astronomical unit is so important! The diameter of Earth’s orbit is about 300 million kilometers, which makes for a tremendous baseline. Hurray! Except, oops. When stars were observed, no parallax was seen. Was heliocentrism wrong? Pfft, no. It’s just that stars are really and truly far away, much farther than even the size of Earth’s orbit. The first star to have its parallax successfully measured was in 1838. The star was 61 Cygni, a bit of a dim bulb. But it was bright enough and close enough for astronomers to measure its shift in apparent position as the Earth orbited the Sun. 61 Cygni is about 720,000 astronomical units away. That’s a soul-crushing distance; well over 100 trillion kilometers! In fact, that’s so far that even the Earth’s orbit is too small to be a convenient unit. Astronomers came up with another one: The light year. That’s the distance light travels in a year. Light’s pretty fast, and covers about 10 trillion kilometers in a year. It’s a huge distance, but it makes the numbers easier on our poor ape brains. That makes 61 Cygni a much more palatable 11.4 light years away. Astronomers also use another unit called a parsec. It’s based on the angle a star shifts over the course of a year; a star one parsec away will have a parallax shift of one arcsecond—1/3600th of a degree. That distance turns out to be about 3.26 light years. As a unit of distance it’s convenient for astronomers, but it’s a terrible one if you’re doing the Kessel Run. Sorry, Han. The nearest star to the sun we know of, Proxima Centauri, is about 4.2 light years away. The farthest stars you can see with the naked eye are over a thousand light years distant, but the vast majority are within 100 light years. Space-based satellites are used now to accurately find the distance to hundreds of thousands of stars. Still, this method only works for relatively nearby stars, ones that are less than about 1000 light years away. But once we know those distances, we can use that information on more distant stars. How? Well, like gravity, the strength of light falls off with the square of the distance. If you have two stars that are the same intrinsic brightness—giving off the same amount of energy—and one is twice as far as the other, it will be ¼ as bright. Make it ten times farther away, it’ll be 1/100th as bright. So if you know how far away the nearer one is by measuring its parallax, you just have to compare its brightness to one farther away to get its distance. You have to make sure they’re the same kind of star; some are more luminous than others. But thanks to spectroscopy, we can do just that. A star’s distance is the key to nearly everything about it. Once we know how far it is, and we can measure its apparent brightness, we can figure out how luminous it is, how much light it’s actually giving off, and its spectrum tells us its temperature. With those in hand we can determine its mass and even its diameter. Once we figured out how far away stars are, we started to grasp their true physical nature. This led to even more methods of finding distances. The light given off by dying stars, exploding stars, stars that literally pulse, get brighter and dimmer over time. All of these and more can be used to figure out how many trillions of kilometers of space lie between us and them. And we see stars in other galaxies, which means we can use them to determine the actual size and scale of the Universe itself. And all of this started when some ancient Greeks were curious about how big the Earth was. Curiosity can take us a great, great distance. Today you learned that ancient Greeks were able to find the size of the Earth, and from that the distance to and the sizes of the Moon and Sun. Once the Earth/Sun distance was found, parallax was used to find the distance to nearby stars, and that was bootstrapped using brightness to determine the distances to much farther stars. Crash Course Astronomy is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Head over to their YouTube channel to catch even more awesome videos. This episode was written by me, Phil Plait. The script was edited by Blake de Pastino, and our consultant is Dr. Michelle Thaller. It was directed by Nicholas Jenkins, edited by Nicole Sweeney, the sound designer is Michael Aranda, and the graphics team is Thought Café.

Contents

History

The device of the panorama existed in painting, particularly in murals, as early as 20 A.D., in those found in Pompeii,[4] as a means of generating an immersive 'panoptic' experience of a vista.

"Vue circulaire des montagnes qu‘on decouvre du sommet du Glacier de Buet", from Horace-Benedict de Saussure, Voyage dans les Alpes, précédés d'un essai sur l'histoire naturelle des environs de Geneve. Neuchatel, l779-96, pl. 8.
"Vue circulaire des montagnes qu‘on decouvre du sommet du Glacier de Buet", from Horace-Benedict de Saussure, Voyage dans les Alpes, précédés d'un essai sur l'histoire naturelle des environs de Geneve. Neuchatel, l779-96, pl. 8.

Cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed [5] to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction.

This novel perspective was quickly conveyed to America by Benjamin Franklin who was present for the first manned balloon flight by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783, and by American born physician, John Jeffries who had joined French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard on flights over England and the first aerial crossing of the English Channel in 1785.[6]

As popular spectacle

In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a very popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views[7] and historical events. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment. The panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 11, 1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle, referring to this visual spectacle.[8] Barker created a painting, shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, giving viewers a vantage point encompassing the entire circle of the horizon, rendering the original scene with high fidelity. The inaugural exhibition, a "View of Edinburgh", was first shown in that city in 1788, then transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863.

A panorama of London by Robert Barker, 1792

Inventor Sir Francis Ronalds developed a machine to remove errors in perspective that were created when a sequence of planar sketches was combined into a cylinder. It also projected the cylindrical drawing onto the wall of the rotunda at much larger scale to enable its accurate painting. The apparatus was exhibited at the Royal Polytechnic Institution in the early 1840s.[9]

Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape. The Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881.[10] The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters.[11] In the same year of 1881, the Dutch marine painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag created and established the Panorama Mesdag of The Hague, Netherlands, a cylindrical painting more than 14 metres high and roughly 40 meters in diameter (120 meters in circumference). In the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference (13 x 109 metres).[12] Also on a gigantic scale, and still extant, is the Racławice Panorama (1893) located in Wrocław, Poland, which measures 15 x 120 metres.[13]

In addition to these historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times; prominent among these is the Velaslavasay Panorama in Los Angeles, California (2004).

Photographs

Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image.[14] In the late 19th century, flexible film enabled the construction of panoramic cameras using curved film holders and clockwork drives to rotate the lens in an arc and thus scan an image encompassing almost 180 degrees.[citation needed]

360 degree panorama picture of the center courtyard of the Sony Center at the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin. This picture was calculated from 126 individual photos using autostitch

Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images. A popular design is the "oatmeal box", a vertical cylindrical container in which the pinhole is made in one side and the film or photographic paper is wrapped around the inside wall opposite, and extending almost right to the edge of, the pinhole. This generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view.[15]

Popular in the 1970s and 1980s, but now superseded by digital presentation software, Multi-image[16] (also known as multi-image slide presentations, slide shows or diaporamas) 35mm slide projections onto one or more screens characteristically lent themselves to the wide screen panorama. They could run autonomously with silent synchronization pulses to control projector advance and fades, recorded beside an audio voice-over or music track. Precisely overlapping slides placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks would merge seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. Cutting and dissolving between sequential images generated animation effects in the panorama format.

A 270 degree panorama stitched "in-camera". Many modern digital cameras can automatically stitch a sequence of images shot while the camera is rotated.

VR photographs

Digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as image stitching. Such stitched images may even be fashioned into forms of virtual reality movies, using technologies such as Apple Inc.'s QuickTime VR, Flash, Java, or even JavaScript. A rotating line camera such as the Panoscan allows the capture of high resolution panoramic images and eliminates the need for image stitching, but immersive "spherical" panorama movies (that incorporate a full 180° vertical viewing angle as well as 360° around) must be made by stitching multiple images. Stitching images together can be used to create extremely high resolution gigapixel panoramic images.

Panoramic view of the antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array under the clear sky over the Chajnantor Plateau, in the Chilean Andes.[17]

Motion picture

On rare occasions, 360° panoramic movies have been constructed for specially designed display spaces—typically at theme parks, world's fairs, and museums. Starting in 1955, Disney has created 360° theaters for its parks[18] and the Swiss Transport Museum in Lucerne, Switzerland, features a theatre that is a large cylindrical space with an arrangement of screens whose bottom is several metres above the floor. Panoramic systems that are less than 360° around also exist. For example, Cinerama used a curved screen and IMAX Dome / OMNIMAX movies are projected on a dome above the spectators.

Non-photographic representations

Panoramic representation can be generated from digital elevation models such as SRTM. In these diagrams, a panorama from any given point[19] can be generated and imaged from the data.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ A Review of ‘The Panoramic River,’ at the Hudson River Museum - NYTimes.com
  2. ^ "Motion picture - Expressive elements of motion pictures". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  3. ^ For more see the International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics.
  4. ^ Grau, Oliver; Custance, Gloria (2003), Virtual art : from illusion to immersion ([Rev. and expanded ed.] ed.), MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-07241-0
  5. ^ as argued in Oettermann, Stephan, The Panorama: History of a Mass Medium. trans. Deborah Lucas Schneider (New York: Zone Books, 1997)
  6. ^ John Jeffries. Two Voyages of Dr Jeffries with Mons. Blanchard (London. 1786: reprint, New York: [Aeronautical Archive of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences and the Works Projects Administration]. 1941 ), 17, 20.
  7. ^ The USA Library of Congress holds 1,172 images of panoramic maps of American towns and cities [1] and the British Library has panoramas of UK cities and towns, and of many in its colonies [2]
  8. ^ This reference, the earliest found so far, is suggested by Scott Wilcox in 'Erfindung und Entwicklung des Panoramas in Grossbritannien', Sehsucht. Das Panorama als Massenunterhaltung des 19 Jahrhunderts, edited by Marie-Louise von Plessen, Ulrich Giersch. Basel and Frankfurt am Main: Stroemfeld/Roter Stern, 1993, p. 35 (note 11)
  9. ^ Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4.
  10. ^ The Bourbaki Panorama, which shows the plight of the French Troops of General Bourbaki in 1871 during the Franco-Prussian War, is the subject of Jeff Wall's 1993 photograph Restoration. Wall constructed a fictitious scene in which actual conservators were posed as if they were in the process of restoring the painting which was not in fact undergoing restoration at the time. (Mieszkowski, Jan (2012), Watching war, Stanford, California Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-8240-1 p.91)
  11. ^ Bernard Comment (2004),Panorama, Reaktion Books, page 214
  12. ^ Marty Olmstead (2002), Hidden Georgia, Ulysses Press, page 204
  13. ^ Jan Stanisław Kopczewski (1976), Kosciuszko and Pulaski, Interpress, page 220
  14. ^ for example, the Cincinnati Panorama (1848), a daguerreotype by Charles Fontayne and William S. Porter. 6½ x 68 inches (15.24 by 21.59 cm). Held at the Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County. http://www.ohiomemory.org/cdm/ref/collection/p267401coll36/id/4168
  15. ^ Eric Renner (2008). Pinhole photography from historic technique to digital application (4th ed). Amsterdam Focal Press pps. 129-140
  16. ^ Kenny, Michael F.; Schmitt, Raymond F. (1983). Images, Images, Images: The Book of Programmed Multi-Image Production. New York: Eastman Kodak. ISBN 978-0-87985-327-3.
  17. ^ "ALMA Panoramic View with Carina Nebula". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  18. ^ Joshua C. Shaffer (2010), Discovering the Magic Kingdom: An Unofficial Disneyland Vacation Guide, AuthorHouse, page 200 ISBN 1452063125
  19. ^ McAdoo, B. G., Richardson, N., & Borrero, J. (2007). Inundation distances and run‐up measurements from ASTER, QuickBird and SRTM data, Aceh coast, Indonesia. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 28(13-14), 2961-2975.
  20. ^ Fedorov, R., Fraternali, P., & Tagliasacchi, M. (2014, November). Mountain peak identification in visual content based on coarse digital elevation models. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Workshop on Multimedia Analysis for Ecological Data (pp. 7-11). ACM.

Further reading

  • Altick, Richard (1978). The Shows of London. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674807316, 9780674807310
  • Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Panorama" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  • Garrison, Laurie et al., editors (2013). Panoramas, 1787–1900 Texts and contexts Five volumes, 2,000pp. Pickering and Chatto. ISBN 978-1848930155
  • Marsh, John L. "Drama and Spectacle by the Yard: The Panorama in America." Journal of Popular Culture 10, no. 3 (1976): 581-589.
  • Oettermann, Stephan (1997). The Panorama: History of a mass medium. MIT Press. ISBN 0942299833, 9780942299830
  • Oleksijczuk, Denise (2011). The First Panoramas: Visions of British Imperialism. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4861-0, ISBN 978-0-8166-4860-3

External links

This page was last edited on 25 February 2019, at 21:43
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