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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pallbearers carry the casket of Major Douglas A. Zembiec of the United States Marine Corps
Pallbearers carry the casket of Major Douglas A. Zembiec of the United States Marine Corps

A pallbearer is one of several participants who help carry the casket at a funeral. They may wear white gloves in order to prevent damaging the casket and to show respect to the deceased person.

Some traditions distinguish between the roles of pallbearers and casket bearer. The former is a ceremonial position, carrying a tip of the pall or a cord attached to it. The latter do the actual heavy lifting and carrying. There may otherwise be pallbearers only in the symbolic sense if the casket is on an animal or vehicle.

In Western cultures, the pallbearers are usually male family members, close friends, or colleagues of the deceased. A notable exception was the funeral of Lee Harvey Oswald, in which reporters, pressed into service to carry the coffin, outnumbered the mourners.[1] In some African cultures, pallbearers are not family members but are staffs of professional funeral agencies who are paid for their services.[2]The first duty of a pallbearer is to appear at least thirty minutes before the funeral begins as the funeral director can then provide directions. Secondly, they will also be notified on where they are able to sit during the funeral service and during then the casket would be carried. Thirdly, pallbearers are carrying the casket to one’s final resting area after the funeral. Depending on the tradition, pallbearers would either carry the coffin on their shoulders or by their waist.

At times additional pallbearers, known as honorary pallbearers, walk either behind or directly in front of the casket in a showcase of supplemental distinction towards the deceased. This type of pallbearer is most often a gentleman in the profession of the deceased who has achieved significant merit within their position.[3]

Etymology

Pallbearers at a dignitary's burial in Kenya
Pallbearers at a dignitary's burial in Kenya

A pall is a heavy cloth that is draped over a coffin.[4][5] Thus the term pallbearer is used to signify someone who "bears" the coffin which the pall covers. In roman times, a soldier wore a cape or cloak called the pallium. Fast forwarding to medieval times and pallium was shorten to pall. Christians would use a pall to cover their love ones when burying them.

Buddhist Culture

In Buddhist cultural traditions of grieving, often requires pallbearers to consume a vegetarian diet which excludes garlic, onions, leek and chives.[6] They tend to also abstain from alcohol for at least 49 days after passing.[7] This is thought to be the maximum duration likely between death and rebirth.[8] Hence, acts might be performed frequently during this duration in order to produce merit for the dead.[9] Thus, this leads up to the ‘ending’ ritual on the last day.[10] In every tradition of Buddhism, there seem to be spiritualist who communicates with the dead at the request of the pallbearer.[11] Usually, the primary reason is to make sure that there has been sufficient merit produced by the deceased’s family to prevent an unwanted rebirth.[12]

British culture

The arrangement for Princess Louise’s funeral during 1768, held the first announcement that females were to be utilised as contributors of the pall at the funeral. [13] Garter King of Arms then promptly notified the Lord Chamberlain that ladies had only gone into a funeral process by mourning or attendants under the chief mourners.[14] To hold the ends of the pall draped over casket or to transport the coffin was a tremendous honour.[15] The ability of pallbearers to come towards royalty which only few were allowed to, be it whether the King is alive or dead.[16]

Method of carrying

Pallbearers in the US and Canada most commonly carry a casket by the handles, and at around waist height.[17] In the United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland, and most countries in Asia, the coffin is often carried on the shoulders.[18][citation needed] Some traditions distinguish the role of pallbearers. It could be selected by the deceases’ close family member. There are typically 6 to 8 pallbearers, it is dependent on the size and weight of the coffin. The role of a pallbearer was often used by males. Pallbearers could be either male or female. The former is a ceremonial position, who carries the tip of the pall or attached to it. The latter does the actual lifting and carrying. In other cultures, pallbearers may only be in the symbolic sense where the casket is on an animal or vehicle. There are notable exceptions. For example, in some Asian cultures, pallbearers are not to be members of the family but outsiders. However, there is no standard methods for North American methods. In Ghana, pallbearers are doing intrinsic coffin-carrying dances while try to up lift the mood at the funerals. Relatives are increasingly paying more for services to send their loved ones off in a grand style.


British countryside and carriages

Further, chief mourners and attendants such as pallbearers and canopy usually wore mourning gowns with hoods.[19] The act of putting on of particular mourning clothing, along with offering food, and burial banquet were ancient practices preserved by European Renaissance burial traditions that lasted till the 19th century.[20] Another way to indulge in funeral ceremonies included objects such as golden palls, royal horses, and expensive wax tapers.[21] The funeral van with the coffin-bearers holding the corners of the pall follows, with the pallbearers beneath the pall actually supporting the casket.[22] In the 19th century, white was worn in the British countryside for mourning.[23] For example, the village of Piddington had a set of similar white gowns for pallbearers which remained in the church.[24] If a funeral occurs, pallbearers could come from the fields and swap them with their work clothes.[25] Carriages were built specially made for pallbearers so that 6 people can proceed comfortably or two closed carriages would be used.[26] The 2 leading pallbearers, funeral director and clergyman, would be in the first carriage.[27] The rest of the pallbearers would take the second carriage.[28] Honorary pallbearers are arranged in a similar manner following the active pallbearers.[29] Pallbearers’ carriages would leave a specific place at a certain time in case those who wish to ride to the church or house could meet at that area. [30]

Death in a fraternity or other societies

If the dead was a member of a frat or other societies, the family could likely select that entire group.[31] At Masonic funerals, pallbearers are usually selected from that order.[32] If there are more than one organisation, it is possible that some would be chosen from each of these societies.[33] The leaders of each society should be informed of the plan, in order to properly appoint their members.[34] There is a tradition in a couple of places where trained pallbearers were chosen by funeral directors.[35] When this happens, pallbearers acknowledge their duties and position, and are not required to go into details on the subject during that time.[36] If the church path is narrow and the turns are sharp which may be hard to go past with pallbearers, a coffin carriage might be used.[37] Otherwise the coffin can be lifted to the alter and placed down by the pallbearers.[38] Unless the state of the street is that the coffin cannot be removed from the hearse standing near the curbing, it would not be backed up at either the church or house. Allocated seating for the pallbearers is usually at the left front pews, once the coffin is placed then pallbearers may sit, and funeral director sits directly behind the coffin.[39] Thus, this shows how societies are impacted by a death of a member and how pallbearers function in short turns.

See also

References

  1. ^ Cochran, Mike (21 November 2013). "How I Became Lee Harvey Oswald's Pallbearer". The Denver Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  2. ^ Lansah, Sulley. "Ghana's Dancing Pallbearers Bring Funeral Joy". BBC News. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  3. ^ Taylor, Dorthy; Jacobsen, Linda (1969). Planning and Financing a Funeral (PDF). Texas A&M University, Agricultural Extension Service.
  4. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pall" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ "Making Funeral Preparations: A Guide for Preparing Death and the Funeral Liturgy" (PDF). Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2014. The coffin may be covered with a pall, recalling the white garment given in Baptism, the robe of Christ's righteousness that clothes us. The pall also reminds us that in death and before God all people are equal, regardless of whether the coffin is simple or elaborate. The white color of the pall is a reminder of Easter and Christ's victory over death.
  6. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  7. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  8. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  9. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  10. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  11. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  12. ^ Parkes, Colin Murray; Laungani, Pittu; Young, Bill, eds. (2015). Signing into eresources, The University of Sydney Library. doi:10.4324/9781315721088. ISBN 9781315721088.
  13. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=PC&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=scopus2-s2.0-85068077361. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=PC&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=scopus2-s2.0-85068077361. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=PC&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=scopus2-s2.0-85068077361. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=PC&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=scopus2-s2.0-85068077361. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  17. ^ "Funeral Held for Canadian Soldier Killed in Afghanistan". The Telegram. 25 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  18. ^ FuneralFriend (26 July 2012). "What Is a Pallbearer". Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  19. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  22. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  24. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. ^ sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com https://sydney.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?&context=L&vid=61USYD_INST:sydney&search_scope=MyInst_and_CI&tab=Everything&docid=alma991031463271405106. Retrieved 31 May 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  27. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  28. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  29. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  30. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  31. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  32. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  33. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  34. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  35. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  36. ^ Hohenschuh, W. P.; Sharer, John H. (1900). The modern funeral: its management: a treatise on the management of funerals: with suggestions for the guidance of funeral directors. Chicago: Trade Periodical Co.
  37. ^ Bullock, Steven C.; McIntyre, Sheila (2012). "The Handsome Tokens of a Funeral: Glove-Giving and the Large Funeral in Eighteenth-Century New England". The William and Mary Quarterly. 69 (2): 305–346. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305.
  38. ^ Bullock, Steven C.; McIntyre, Sheila (2012). "The Handsome Tokens of a Funeral: Glove-Giving and the Large Funeral in Eighteenth-Century New England". The William and Mary Quarterly. 69 (2): 305–346. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305.
  39. ^ Bullock, Steven C.; McIntyre, Sheila (2012). "The Handsome Tokens of a Funeral: Glove-Giving and the Large Funeral in Eighteenth-Century New England". The William and Mary Quarterly. 69 (2): 305–346. doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305. ISSN 0043-5597. JSTOR 10.5309/willmaryquar.69.2.0305.
This page was last edited on 22 August 2020, at 22:24
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