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Special territories of members of the European Economic Area

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Special territories of members of the European Economic Area
Location of the European Union and the special territories
Location of the European Union and the special territories
Largest settlementsLas Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Ponta Delgada, Funchal, Cayenne, Saint-Denis, Mamoudzou, Fort-de-France, Les Abymes
Official language
Special territory
• Total
2,733,792 km2 (1,055,523 sq mi)
• Estimate
CurrencyEuro (EUR; ; OMRs, 3 OCTs[a]
and 9 special cases[b])
5 others
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)

The special territories of members of the European Economic Area (EEA) are the 32 special territories of EU member states and EFTA member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union and the European Free Trade Association.

The special territories of EU member states are categorised under three headings: nine Outermost Regions (OMR) that form part of the European Union, though they benefit from derogations from some EU laws due to their geographical remoteness from mainland Europe; thirteen Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT) that do not form part of the European Union, though they cooperate with the EU via the Overseas Countries and Territories Association; and ten special cases that form part of the European Union (with the exception of the Faroe Islands), though EU laws make ad hoc provisions. The Outermost Regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992,[1] and confirmed by the Treaty of Lisbon in 2007.[2]

The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union states that both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to the outermost regions, with possible derogations due to the particularities of these territories. The Overseas Countries and Territories are recognised by Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which allows them to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers and freedom of establishment, and invites them to join the Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) in order to improve cooperation with the European Union.[3] The status of an uninhabited territory, Clipperton, remains unclear since it is not explicitly mentioned in primary EU law and has a sui generis status at the national level.[4][d] Collectively, the special territories encompass a population of some 6.1 million people and a land area of about 2,733,792 square kilometres (1,055,500 sq mi). Around 80 percent of this area is represented by Greenland. The largest region by population, the Canary Islands, accounts for more than a third of the total population of the special territories. The smallest by land area is the island of Saba in the Caribbean (13 km2 or 5 sq mi). The French Southern and Antarctic Lands is the only special territory without a permanent population.

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  • The European Union Explained*
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Where, is the European Union? Obviously here somewhere, but much like the the European continent itself, which has an unclear boundary, the European Union also has some fuzzy edges to it. To start, the official members of the European Union are, in decreasing order of population: * Germany * France * The United Kingdom * Italy * Spain * Poland * Romania * The Kingdom of the Netherlands * Greece * Belgium * Portugal * The Czech Republic * Hungary * Sweden * Austria * Bulgaria * Denmark * Slovakia * Finland * Ireland * Croatia * Lithuania * Latvia * Slovenia * Estonia * Cyprus * Luxembourg * Malta The edges of the EU will probably continue to expand further out as there are other countries in various stages of trying to become a member. How exactly the European Union works is hideously complicated and a story for another time, but for this video you need know only three things: 1. Countries pay membership dues and 2. Vote on laws they all must follow and 3. Citizens of member countries are automatically European Union citizens as well This last means that if you're a citizen of any of these countries you are free to live and work or retire in any of the others. Which is nice especially if you think your country is too big or too small or too hot or too cold. The European Union gives you options. By the way, did you notice how all three of these statements have asterisks attached to this unhelpful footnote? Well, get used to it: Europe loves asterisks that add exceptions to complicated agreements. These three, for example, point us toward the first bit of border fuzziness with Norway, Iceland and little Liechtenstein. None of which are in the European Union but if you're a EU citizen you can live in these countries and Norwegians, Icelanders, or Liechtensteiner(in)s can can live in yours. Why? In exchange for the freedom of movement of people they have to pay membership fees to the European Union -- even though they aren't a part of it and thus don't get a say its laws that they still have to follow. This arrangement is the European Economic Area and it sounds like a terrible deal, were it not for that asterisk which grants EEA but not EU members a pass on some areas of law notably farming and fishing -- something a country like Iceland might care quite a lot about running their own way. Between the European Union and the European Economic Area the continent looks mostly covered, with the notable exception of Switzerland who remains neutral and fiercely independent, except for her participation in the Schengen Area. If you're from a country that keeps her borders extremely clean and / or well-patrolled, the Schengen Area is a bit mind-blowing because it's an agreement between countries to take a 'meh' approach to borders. In the Schengen Area international boundaries look like this: no border officers or passport checks of any kind. You can walk from Lisbon to Tallinn without identification or need to answer the question: "business or pleasure?". For Switzerland being part of Schengen but not part of the European Union means that non-swiss can check in any time they like, but they can never stay. This koombaya approach to borders isn't appreciated by everyone in the EU: most loudly, the United Kingdom and Ireland who argue that islands are different. Thus to get onto these fair isles, you'll need a passport and a good reason. Britannia's reluctance to get fully involved with the EU brings us to the next topic: money. The European Union has its own fancy currency, the Euro used by the majority, but not all of the European Union members. This economic union is called the Eurozone and to join a country must first reach certain financial goals -- and lying about reaching those goals is certainly not something anyone would do. Most of the non-Eurozone members when they meet the goals, will ditch their local currency in favor of the Euro but three of them Denmark, Sweden and, of course, the United Kingdom, have asterisks attracted to the Euro sections of the treaty giving them a permanent out-out. And weirdly, four tiny European countries Andorra, San Marino, Monaco & Vatican City have an asterisk giving them the reverse: the right print and use Euros as their money, despite not being in the European Union at all. So that's the big picture: there's the EU, which makes all the rules, the Eurozone inside it with a common currency, the European Economic Area outside of it where people can move freely and the selective Schengen, for countries who think borders just aren't worth the hassle. As you can see, there's some strange overlaps with these borders, but we're not done talking about complications by a long shot one again, because empire. So Portugal and Spain have islands from their colonial days that they've never parted with: these are the Madeira and Canary Islands are off the coast of Africa and the Azores well into the Atlantic. Because these islands are Spanish and Portuguese they're part of the European Union as well. Adding a few islands to the EU's borders isn't a big deal until you consider France: the queen of not-letting go. She still holds onto a bunch of islands in the Caribbean, Reunion off the coast of Madagascar and French Guiana in South America. As far as France is concerned, these are France too, which single handedly extends the edge-to-edge distance of the European Union across a third of Earth's circumference. Collectively, these bits of France, Spain and Portugal are called the Outermost Regions -- and they're the result of the simple answer to empire: just keep it. On the other hand, there's the United Kingdom, the master of maintaining complicated relationships with her quasi-former lands -- and she's by no means alone in this on such an empire-happy continent. The Netherlands and Denmark and France (again) all have what the European Union calls Overseas Territories: they're not part of the European Union, instead they're a bottomless well of asterisks due to their complicated relationships with both with the European Union and their associated countries which makes it hard to say anything meaningful about them as a group but... in general European Union law doesn't apply to these places, though in general the people who live there are European Union citizens because in general they have the citizenship of their associated country, so in general they can live anywhere in the EU they want but in general other European Union citizens can't freely move to these territories. Which makes these places a weird, semipermeable membrane of the European Union proper and the final part we're going to talk about in detail even though there are still many, more one-off asterisks you might stumble upon, such as: the Isle of Man or those Spanish Cities in North Africa or Gibraltar, who pretends to be part of Southwest England sometimes, or that region in Greece where it's totally legal to ban women, or Saba & friends who are part of the Netherlands and so should be part of the EU, but aren't, or the Faeroe Islands upon which while citizens of Denmark live they lose their EU citizenship, and on and on it goes. These asterisks almost never end, but this video must.

Outermost Regions

The Outermost Regions (OMR) are territories forming part of a member state of the European Union but situated a significant distance from mainland Europe. Due to this situation, they have derogation from some EU policies despite being part of the European Union.

According to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, both primary and secondary European Union law applies automatically to these territories, with possible derogations to take account of their "structural social and economic situation (...) which is compounded by their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, economic dependence on a few products, the permanence and combination of which severely restrain their development".[5] All form part of the European Union customs area; however, some fall outside of the Schengen Area and the European Union Value Added Tax Area.

Seven Outermost Regions were recognised at the signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.[1] The Treaty of Lisbon included two additional territories (Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin) in 2007.[5] Saint Barthélemy changed its status from OMR to OCT with effect from 1 January 2012.[2] Mayotte, which was an OCT, joined the EU as an OMR with effect from 1 January 2014.[6]

The 9 Outermost Regions of the European Union are:[7]

Flag Coat of arms Name Loca­tion Area Pop. Capital Largest
Azores North Atlantic 2,333 km2 (901 sq mi) 245,746 Angra do Heroísmo, Horta and Ponta Delgada Ponta Delgada Portuguese  Portugal
Madeira 801 km2 (309 sq mi) 289,000 Funchal Funchal
Canary Islands 7,493 km2 (2,893 sq mi) 2,101,924 Santa Cruz de Tenerife
and Las Palmas
Las Palmas Spanish  Spain
French Guiana South America 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi) 281,612 Cayenne Cayenne French  France
Guadeloupe Caribbean 1,628 km2 (629 sq mi) 402,119 Basse-Terre Les Abymes
Martinique 1,128 km2 (436 sq mi) 385,551 Fort-de-France Fort-de-France
Saint Martin 53 km2 (20 sq mi) 36,286 Marigot Marigot
Mayotte Indian Ocean 374 km2 (144 sq mi) 256,518 Dzaoudzi (de jure),
Mamoudzou (de facto)
Réunion 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi) 865,826 Saint-Denis Saint-Denis
Total 99,855 km2 (38,554 sq mi) 4,864,582

Autonomous Regions of Portugal

Angra do Heroísmo, oldest continuously settled town in the archipelago of the Azores and UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Azores and Madeira are two groups of Portuguese islands in the Atlantic. Azores and Madeira are integral parts of the Portuguese Republic, but both have the special status as Autonomous Regions, with a degree of self-governance. Some derogations from the application of EU law apply in regards to taxation, fishing and transportation.[8][9] Their VAT is lower than the rest of Portugal, but they are not outside the EU VAT Area.

Canary Islands

The Canary Islands are a Spanish archipelago off the African coast which form one of the 17 autonomous communities of Spain–the country's principal first-level administrative division. They are outside the EU VAT Area.[10] The Canary Islands are the most populous and economically strongest territory of all the outermost regions in the European Union. The outermost regions office for support and information is located in these islands, in the city of Las Palmas on the island of Gran Canaria.

French overseas regions

French Guiana tropical forest, looking toward Cacao

French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion are five French overseas regions (which are also overseas departments) which under French law are, for the most part, treated as integral parts of the Republic. The euro is legal tender;[11] however, they are outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.[10]

Mayotte is the newest of the five overseas departments, having changed from an overseas collectivity with OCT status on 31 March 2011. It became an outermost region, and thus part of the EU, on 1 January 2014.[12]

Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint Martin is the only overseas collectivity of France with the status of being an Outermost Region of the EU.[13] As with the French overseas departments, the euro is legal tender in Saint Martin, and it is outside the Schengen Area and the EU VAT Area.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy were broken away from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,[14] European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community.[15] The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, which listed them as an outermost region.[16] However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012.

Overseas countries and territories

The overseas countries and territories (OCT) are dependent territories that have a special relationship with one of the member states of the EU. Their status is described in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and they are not part of the EU or the European Single Market. The Overseas Countries and Territories Association was created to improve economic development and cooperation between the OCTs and the EU,[17] and includes most OCTs except three territories which do not have a permanent local population.

The OCTs have been explicitly invited by the EU treaty to join the EU-OCT Association (OCTA).[3] They were listed in the Article 198 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which aside from inviting them to join OCTA, also provided them the opportunity to opt into EU provisions on the freedom of movement for workers[18] and freedom of establishment.[19] Yet, the freedom of establishment is limited by Article 203 TFEU and the respective Council Decision on OCTs. Its Article 51(1)(a) prescribes only that "the Union shall accord to natural and legal persons of the OCTs a treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment applicable to like natural and legal persons of any third country with whom the Union concludes or has concluded an economic integration agreement." Again this can be, according to Article 51(2)(b) limited. The obligations provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to treatment granted under measures providing for recognition of qualifications, licences or prudential measures in accordance with Article VII of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) or the GATS Annex on Financial Services.

The OCTs are not subject to the EU's common external customs tariffs[20] but may claim customs on goods imported from the EU on a non-discriminatory basis.[21] They are not part of the EU and the EU acquis does not apply to them, though those joining OCTA are required to respect the detailed rules and procedures outlined by this association agreement (Council Decision 2013/755/EU).[22] OCTA members are entitled to ask for EU financial support.[23]

When the Rome Treaty was signed in March 1957, a total of 15 OCTs existed: French West Africa, French Equatorial Africa, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Comoros Archipelago, French Madagascar, French Somaliland, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, French Togoland, French Cameroons, Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Somalia, Netherlands New Guinea. The list was since then revised multiple times, and comprised—as noted by the Lisbon Treaty—25 OCTs in 2007. One of the French territories subsequently switched status from OMR to OCT (Saint Barthélemy), while another French territory switched from OCT to OMR (Mayotte). As of July 2014, there are still 13 OCTs (six with France, six with the Netherlands and one with Denmark)[24] of which all have joined OCTA.

The 13 Overseas Countries and Territories of the European Union are:[25]

Flag Coat of arms Name Loca­tion Area Pop. Capital Largest settlement Official lan­guage(s) Sovereign state
Greenland North Atlantic & Arctic 2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi) 56,483 Nuuk Nuuk Greenlandic Danish Realm Kingdom of Denmark
Curaçao Caribbean 444 km2 (171 sq mi) 160,337 Willemstad Willemstad Dutch, Papiamento, English  Kingdom of the Netherlands
Aruba 179 km2 (69 sq mi) 104,822 Oranjestad Oranjestad Dutch, Papiamento, English, Spanish
Sint Maarten 37 km2 (14 sq mi) 33,609 Philipsburg Lower Prince's Quarter Dutch, English
Bonaire 294 km2 (114 sq mi) 18,905 Kralendijk Kralendijk Dutch
Sint Eustatius 21 km2 (8 sq mi) 3,193 Oranjestad Oranjestad
Saba 13 km2 (5 sq mi) 1,991 The Bottom The Bottom
French Polynesia Pacific 4,167 km2 (1,609 sq mi) 275,918 Pape'ete Fa'a'ā French  French Republic
New Caledonia 18,576 km2 (7,172 sq mi) 268,767 Nouméa Nouméa
Wallis-et-Futuna 142 km2 (55 sq mi) 11,899 Mata-Utu Mata-Utu
Saint Barthélemy Caribbean 25 km2 (10 sq mi) 9,279 Gustavia Gustavia
Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon North Atlantic 242 km2 (93 sq mi) 6,080 Saint-Pierre Saint-Pierre
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Indian Ocean & Antarctica 439,781 km2 (169,800 sq mi) 0[e] Saint-Pierre Port-aux-Français (base)
Total 2,630,007 km2 (1,015,451 sq mi) 945,893

Overseas Countries and Territories Association

The Overseas Countries and Territories Association (OCTA) is an organisation founded on 17 November 2000 and headquartered in Brussels. All OCTs have joined OCTA as of February 2020. Its purpose is to improve economic development in overseas countries and territories, as well as cooperation with the European Union. On 25 June 2008, a Cooperation Treaty between the EU and OCTA was signed in Brussels.[26] The current chairman is Louis Mapou.[27]

French overseas territories

Bora Bora, in French Polynesia

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (which also include the French Scattered Islands in the Indian Ocean, and the French claim of Adélie Land) are a disputed French Overseas Territory embodying the French claims to Antarctica but has no permanent population.[28] It has sui generis status within France.[29]

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna are overseas collectivities (formerly referred to as overseas territories) of France, while New Caledonia is a "sui generis collectivity". Saint Barthélemy[30] and Saint Pierre and Miquelon use the euro,[31] while New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna use the CFP Franc, a currency which is tied to the euro and guaranteed by France. Natives of the collectivities are European citizens owing to their French citizenship and elections to the European Parliament are held in the collectivities.

On 22 February 2007, Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin were separated from the French overseas department of Guadeloupe to form new overseas collectivities. As a consequence, their EU status was unclear for a time. While a report issued by the French parliament suggested that the islands remained within the EU as outermost regions,[14] European Commission documents listed them as being outside the European Community.[15] The legal status of the islands was clarified on the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty which listed them as outermost regions.[16] However, Saint Barthélemy ceased being an outermost region and left the EU, to become an OCT, on 1 January 2012. The change was made to facilitate trade with countries outside the EU, notably the United States,[32] and was made possible by a provision of the Lisbon Treaty which allows the European Council to change the EU status of a Danish, Dutch, or French territory on the initiative of the member state concerned.[33]

Dutch overseas territories

Willemstad, the capital city of Curaçao.

Six territories of the Netherlands—all of which are Caribbean islands—have OCT status. As such, they benefit from being able to have their own export and import policy to and from the EU, while still having access to various EU funds (such as the European Development Fund). The inhabitants of the islands are EU citizens owing to their Dutch citizenship, with the right to vote in elections to the European Parliament.[34] Initially they did not have voting rights for such elections, but the European Court of Justice granted them such rights, when they ruled their exclusion from the franchise was contrary to EU law, as all other Dutch citizens resident outside the EU did have the right to vote.[35] None of the islands use the euro as their currency. The US dollar is used on Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, while Curaçao and Sint Maarten utilize their own shared currency the Antillean guilder, and finally the currency of Aruba is the Aruban florin.[34]

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are classified as "countries" under Dutch law, and have considerable internal autonomy. In June 2008, the Dutch government published a report on the projected effect on the islands were they to join the EU as outermost regions.[36][37] It concluded that the choice would be for the islands themselves to weigh up the advantages and disadvantages of becoming part of the EU as outermost regions, and that nothing would be done absent the islands specifically requesting it.[38]

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba (collectively called Caribbean Netherlands) are "special municipalities" of the Netherlands proper. Their current OCT status, and the prospect of advancing their status to become part of the EU as new OMRs (outermost regions), was reviewed by the Dutch parliament in 2015,[39] as part of the planned review of the Dutch law (WOLBES and FINBES) concerning the quality of their recently implemented new public administration bodies.[40] In October 2015, the review concluded the present legal structures for governance and integration with European Netherlands was not working well within the framework of WolBES, but no recommendations were made in regards of whether a switch from OCT to OMR status would help improve this situation.[41][42][43][44]

The islands inherited their OCT status from the Netherlands Antilles which was dissolved in 2010. The Netherlands Antilles were initially specifically excluded from all association with the EEC by reason of a protocol attached to the Treaty of Rome, allowing the Netherlands to ratify on behalf of the Netherlands in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only, which it subsequently did.[45] Following the entry into force of the Convention on the association of the Netherlands Antilles with the European Economic Community on 1 October 1964, however, the Netherlands Antilles became OCTs.


Kulusuk, in Greenland

Greenland joined the then European Community in 1973 as a county along with Denmark, but after gaining autonomy with the introduction of home rule within the Kingdom of Denmark, Greenland voted to leave in 1982 and left in 1985, to become an OCT. The main reason for leaving is disagreements about the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) and to regain control of Greenlandic fish resources to subsequently remain outside EU waters. Greenlandic nationals (OCT-nationals) are, nonetheless, EU citizens due to Greenland's associated relationship with the EU within the meaning of EU treaties as well as holding Danish nationality.[citation needed]

The EU–Greenland relationship is a comprehensive partnership, which is complementary to the OCT association arrangements under "Council Decision 2013/755/EU"; based specifically on "Council Decision 2014/137 of 14 March 2014" (outlining the relations)[46] and the Fisheries Partnership Agreement of 30 July 2006.[47]

Special cases

While the outermost regions and the overseas countries and territories fall into structured categories to which common mechanisms apply, this is not true of all the special territories. 10 member state territories have ad hoc arrangements in their relationship with the EU. In those special cases, VAT rules do not apply and they may also be exempt from customs or excise rules.[48][49]

Flag Coat of Arms Name Area Pop. Sove­reign State Part of the EU Cus­toms Union[48] VAT rules[48] Ex­cise rules[48]
Melilla 12.3 km2 (5 sq mi) 86,384  Spain Yes No No No
Ceuta 18.5 km2 (7 sq mi) 85,144 Yes No No No
Åland 1,580 km2 (610 sq mi) 30,129  Finland Yes Yes No No
Faroe Islands 1,399 km2 (540 sq mi) 52,337  Denmark No No No No
United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus[f] 346 km2 (134 sq mi) 8,686[53]  Cyprus (de jure) Yes Yes[g] No[55] Yes[g]
Livigno 227.3 km2 (88 sq mi) 6,721  Italy Yes No No No
Campione d'Italia[h] 2.68 km2 (1 sq mi) 1,961 Yes Yes[56] No Yes[56]
Büsingen am Hochrhein 7.62 km2 (3 sq mi) 1,536  Germany Yes No No No
Heligoland 1.7 km2 (1 sq mi) 1,265 Yes No No No
Monastic community of Mount Athos 335.63 km2 (130 sq mi) 1,811  Greece Yes Yes No Yes
Total 3,930 km2 (1,517 sq mi) 303,283


Föglö islands in Åland.

Åland, an autonomous archipelago belonging to Finland, but with partial autonomy, located between Sweden and Finland, with a Swedish-speaking population, joined the EU along with Finland in 1995. The islands had a separate referendum on accession and like the Finnish mainland voted in favour.

EU law, including the fundamental four freedoms, applies to Åland.[57] However, there are some derogations due to the islands' special status. Åland is outside the VAT area[10] and is exempt from common rules in relation to turnover taxes, excise duties and indirect taxation.[58] In addition, to protect the local economy, the treaty of accession allows for a concept of hembygdsrätt/kotiseutuoikeus (regional citizenship). Consequently, there are restrictions on the holding of property and real estate, the right of establishment for business purposes and limitations on who can provide services in Åland, for people not holding this status.[59] The status may be obtained by any Finnish citizen legally resident in Åland for 5 years who can demonstrate an adequate knowledge of the Swedish language.[60]

Büsingen am Hochrhein

The German village of Büsingen am Hochrhein is an exclave entirely surrounded by Switzerland, and as such is, for practical purposes, in a customs union with the latter non-EU country.[61] The euro is legal tender, though the Swiss franc is preferred.[62] Büsingen is excluded from the EU customs union and the EU VAT area.[10] Swiss VAT generally applies.[citation needed] Büsingen was also outside of the Schengen area until Switzerland joined on 12 December 2008.[citation needed]

Campione d'Italia and Livigno

The Italian exclave village of Campione d'Italia is enclaved by Switzerland's Ticino canton as well as Lake Lugano (or Ceresio), and is a comune in the Province of Como, whilst Livigno, a small and remote mountain resort town, is a comune in the Province of Sondrio. Both comuni are part of the Lombardy region. Although part of the EU, Livigno is excluded from the customs union and VAT area, with Livigno's tax status dating back to Napoleonic times. Campione is excluded from the EU VAT area. It was excluded from the EU customs area until the end of 2019.[10][63] Shops and restaurants in Campione accept payments in both euros and Swiss francs, and prices are displayed in both euros and Swiss francs.[64]

Ceuta and Melilla

Ceuta in Spanish North Africa.

Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish cities on the North African coast. They are part of the EU but they are excluded from the common agricultural and fisheries policies.[65] They are also outside the customs union and VAT area,[10] but no customs are levied on goods exported from the Union into either Ceuta and Melilla, and certain goods originating in Ceuta and Melilla are exempt from customs charges.

While nominally part of the Schengen Area (Schengen visas are valid), Spain performs identity checks on all sea and air passengers leaving the enclaves for elsewhere in the Schengen Area.[66]

Small islands scattered along the northern coast of Africa, collectively known as plazas de soberanía are also integral parts of Spain since the 15th century, and therefore also part of the European Union.[citation needed] Their currency is the euro. They in general need permission to visit, so therefore identity is checked upon arrival.[citation needed] They are claimed by Morocco.


The internationally unrecognised Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

When the Republic of Cyprus became part of the European Union on 1 May 2004, the northern third of the island was outside of the effective control of its government due to the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, a United Nations buffer zone of varying width separated the two parts, and a further 3% of the island was taken up by UK sovereign bases (under British sovereignty since the Treaty of Establishment in 1960). Two protocols to the Treaty of Accession 2003—numbers 3 and 10, known as the "Sovereign Base Areas Protocol" and the "Cyprus Protocol" respectively – reflect this complex situation.

EU law only applies fully to the part of the island that is effectively controlled by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. EU law is suspended in the northern third of the island (the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, whose independence is recognised only by Turkey) by article 1(1) of the Cyprus Protocol.[67] If the island is reunified, the Council of the European Union will repeal the suspension by a decision. Four months after such a decision has been adopted, new elections to the European Parliament will be held on the island to elect Cypriot representatives from the whole of the island.[68]

Cypriot nationality law applies to the entire island and is accordingly available to the inhabitants of Northern Cyprus and the British sovereign base areas on the same basis as to those born in the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.[69][70] Citizens of the Republic of Cyprus living in Northern Cyprus are EU citizens and are nominally entitled to vote in elections to the European Parliament; however, elections to that Parliament are not organised in Northern Cyprus as it is governed de facto by a separate state, albeit a state recognized only by Turkey.[71]

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The United Kingdom has two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, namely Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Unlike other British overseas territories, their inhabitants (who are entitled to British Overseas Territories Citizenship) have never been entitled to British citizenship.

Prior to Cypriot accession to the EU in 2004, although the United Kingdom was an EU member at the time, EU law did not apply to the sovereign base areas.[72] This position was changed by the Cypriot accession treaty so that EU law, while still not applying in principle, applied to the extent necessary to implement a protocol attached to that treaty.[73] This protocol applied EU law relating to the Common Agricultural Policy, customs, indirect taxation, social policy and justice and home affairs to the sovereign base areas. The sovereign base areas' authorities also made provision for the unilateral application of directly applicable EU law.[74] The UK also agreed in the Protocol to keep enough control of the external (i.e. off-island and northern Cyprus) borders of the base areas to ensure that the border between the sovereign base areas and the Republic of Cyprus could remain fully open and would not have to be policed as an external EU border. Consequently, the sovereign base areas would have become a de facto part of the Schengen Area if and when Cyprus implemented it. The base areas are already de facto members of the eurozone due to their previous use of the Cypriot pound and their adoption of the euro as legal tender from 2008.[75]

Because Cypriot nationality law extends to Cypriots in the sovereign base areas, Cypriot residents, as citizens of the Republic of Cyprus, are entitled to EU citizenship. Just under half of the population of the sovereign base areas are Cypriots, the rest are British military personnel, support staff and their dependants.[76] In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960, the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes.[77]

Under a protocol to the Brexit withdrawal agreement, certain provisions of EU law on agriculture, customs, indirect taxation, social security and border control continue to apply to the sovereign base areas.[78]

United Nations buffer zone

The United Nations buffer zone between north and south Cyprus ranges in width from a few metres in central Nicosia to several kilometres in the countryside. While it is nominally under the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus, it is effectively administered by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP). The population of the zone is 8,686 (as of October 2007),[needs update] and one of the mandates of UNFICYP is "to encourage the fullest possible resumption of normal civilian activity in the buffer zone".[53] Inhabited villages located in the buffer zone are legally administered by the Republic of Cyprus but policed by UN peacekeepers.[50] Article 2.1 of the Cyprus Protocol[67] allows the European Council to determine to what extent the provisions of EU law apply in the buffer zone.[79]

Faroe Islands

Kunoy island, Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands have never been part of the EU. Danish citizens residing on the islands are not considered citizens of a member state within the meaning of the treaties or, consequently, citizens of the European Union.[80] However, Faroese people, who are Danish citizens i.e. citizens of the Danish Realm, may become EU citizens by changing their registered residence to the Danish mainland.

The Faroe Islands are not part of the Schengen Area, and Schengen visas are not valid. However, the islands are part of the Nordic Passport Union and the Schengen Agreement provides that travellers passing between the islands and the Schengen Area are not to be treated as passing the external frontier of the Area.[81] This means that there is no formal passport control, but an identity check at check-in for air or boat travel to the islands where Nordic citizens on intra-Nordic travel need no passport, only showing the ticket plus identity card.[82]



Heligoland is an archipelago of Germany situated in the North Sea 70 km (43 mi) off the German north-western coast. It is part of the EU, but is excluded from the customs union and the VAT area.[10]

Monastic community of Mount Athos

Monastic community of Mount Athos is an autonomous monastic region of Greece. Greece's EU accession treaty provides that Mount Athos maintains its centuries-old special legal status,[83] guaranteed by article 105 of the Greek Constitution. It is part of the customs union but outside the VAT area.[10] Notwithstanding that a special permit is required to enter the peninsula and that there is a prohibition on the admittance of women, it is part of the Schengen Area.[84] The monastery has certain rights to house monks from countries outside the EU. A declaration attached to Greece's accession treaty to the Schengen Agreement states that Mount Athos's "special status" should be taken into account in the application of the Schengen rules.[85]

Areas of extraterritoriality

The Saimaa Canal and Värska–Ulitina road are two of several distinct travel arrangements that exist or existed because of changes in borders over the course of the 20th century, where transport routes and installations ended up on the wrong side of the border. Some have become superfluous thanks to the Schengen Agreement. These listed examples pass the external EU border.

Saimaa Canal

Finland leases the 19.6 kilometres (12.2 mi)-long Russian part of the Saimaa Canal from Russia and is granted extraterritoriality rights.[86] The area is not part of the EU, it is a special part of Russia. Under the treaty signed by Finnish and Russian governments, Russian law is in force with a few exceptions concerning maritime rules and the employment of canal staff which fall under Finnish jurisdiction. There are also special rules concerning vessels travelling to Finland via the canal. Russian visas are not required for just passing through the canal, but a passport is needed and it is checked at the border.[86] Euros are accepted for the canal fees. Prior to the 50-year lease renewal coming into effect in February 2012, the Maly Vysotsky Island had also been leased and managed by Finland. Since then it has been fully managed by Russian authorities, and is no longer part of the concession territory.

Värska–Ulitina road

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot.[87] This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permissible to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.


Some roads, railways and tram lines of the system in Basel, along the border of Switzerland allow transit between two Swiss places through neighbouring countries without customs controls (and before 2008 passport controls), or between the border and international airports. See Privileged transit traffic#Switzerland.

Non-EU countries and territories with partial EU integration

Special territories of some other European countries are strongly connected to the European Union. These are as follows:


Special territories of EU member states

This table summarises the various components of EU laws applied in the special territories of EU member states.

Member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM EU citizen­ship EU elections Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Euro­zone
 Cyprus, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Set to implement later[i] Yes Yes Yes Yes
United Nations UN Buffer Zone With exemptions ? Yes No No No Yes[j] With exemptions[k] Yes
 Northern Cyprus Suspended No Cypriot citizens[l] No No No No[93] No[94] TRY
 Denmark, except: Yes[m] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes DKK (ERM II)
 Greenland Minimal (OCT)[24] No[95] Yes No No No No[93] Partial[96] DKK (ERM II)
 Faroe Islands No No[97] No No No No No[93] Minimal (FTA)[98][99] DKK (ERM II)
 Finland, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Åland Islands With exemptions Yes[100] Yes Yes Yes Low-rate VAT Yes[93] With exemptions Yes
 France, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 French Guiana With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] VAT free Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Guadeloupe With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] Low-rate VAT Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Martinique With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] Low-rate VAT Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Réunion With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] Low-rate VAT Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Mayotte With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] VAT free Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Saint Martin With exemptions (OMR)[101] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] Low-rate VAT Yes[93] Yes Yes[103]
 Saint Barthélemy Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] No No Partial[96] Yes[103]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] No No[93] Partial[96] Yes[103]
 Wallis and Futuna Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] No No[93] Partial[96] XPF, pegged to EUR
 French Polynesia Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] No No[93] Partial[96] XPF, pegged to EUR
 New Caledonia Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes Yes[n] No[102] No No[93] Partial[96] XPF, pegged to EUR
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands Minimal (OCT)[24] Yes Yes No[o] No[102] No No[93] Partial[96] Yes[104]
 Clipperton Island ? Yes[105] Yes[104] No[o] No[102] ? ? ? Yes[104]
 Germany, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Büsingen am Hochrhein Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[p] Low-rate VAT No[93] Yes Yes
 Heligoland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes VAT free No[93] Yes Yes
 Greece, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Agio Oros Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes VAT free[10] Yes[93] Yes Yes
 Italy, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Livigno Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes VAT free No[93] Yes Yes
 Campione d'Italia Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[p] Low-rate VAT Yes[63] Yes Yes
 Netherlands, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
   Bonaire Minimal (OCT)[24] No[q] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] USD[107]
 Saba Minimal (OCT)[24] No[q] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] USD[107]
 Sint Eustatius Minimal (OCT)[24] No[q] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] USD[107]
 Curaçao Minimal (OCT)[24] No[108] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] ANG[r]
 Sint Maarten Minimal (OCT)[24] No[108] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] ANG[r]
 Aruba Minimal (OCT)[24] ?[97][109] Yes Yes No[102] No No[106] Partial[96] AWG
 Portugal, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Azores Yes (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes Local rate Yes Yes Yes
 Madeira Yes (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes Local rate Yes Yes Yes
 Spain, except: Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
 Canary Islands With exemptions (OMR) Yes Yes Yes Yes VAT free Yes Yes Yes
 Ceuta With exemptions Yes Yes Yes Partial[s] VAT free No Yes Yes
 Melilla With exemptions Yes Yes Yes Partial[s] VAT free No Yes Yes
Member states and territories Application of EU law EURATOM EU citizen­ship EU elections Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Euro­zone
Legend for the "Application of EU law" column:   Full. Part of the EU.[111]Minimal or none. Not part of the EU territory.

Special territories of other European states

Special territories of EFTA states and some other European countries also have a special status in regard to EU laws applied.[98]

Countries and territories Application of EU law EURATOM Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Adoption of euro
 Norway, except: Partial No Yes No No With exemptions, in EEA[112] NOK
Svalbard Partial No No[113] VAT free[88] No No[112][114] NOK
Jan Mayen Partial No Yes[113][115] VAT free[88] No Like rest of Norway[112] NOK
Bouvet Island No No No No No No NOK
Peter I Island No No No No No No NOK
Queen Maud Land No No No No No No NOK
 Switzerland, except: Partial Associated state Yes Swiss–Liechtenstein VAT area Swiss–Liechtenstein customs territory With exemptions, not in EEA[116] CHF
Samnaun and Val Sampuoir Partial Associated state Yes VAT free[90] Swiss–Liechtenstein customs territory With exemptions, not in EEA[116] CHF
Basel Badischer Bahnhof platforms Partial Associated state Yes Yes[90] Yes Yes[116] CHF
 United Kingdom, except: Partial[t] Associated state CTA Goods only, de facto Goods only, de facto Goods only, de facto GBP
United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia Partial[78] Associated state Set to implement later[i] Yes[78] Yes[78] Partial[u] Yes[118]
Gibraltar Gibraltar Partial Associated state Set to implement later[119] No Set to implement later[119] Partial GIP
Guernsey Guernsey Partial Associated state CTA No No No GGP
Jersey Jersey Partial Associated state CTA No No No JEP
Isle of Man Isle of Man Partial Associated state CTA No No No IMP
Other British Overseas Territories No Associated state No No No No Various currencies
Countries and territories Application of EU law EURATOM Schengen area EU VAT area EU customs territory EU single market Adoption of euro

Former special territories

Many currently independent states or parts of such were previously territories of the following EU members since the latter joined the EU or, previously the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC):

  • Belgium (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation until 1962)
  • France (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation)
  • Italy (with Italian Somaliland, from ECSC formation until 1960)
  • The Netherlands (with multiple territories, from ECSC formation)
  • Portugal (with multiple territories, from 1986 enlargement until 2002)
  • United Kingdom (with multiple territories, from 1973 enlargement)

Most of these territories seceded before the implementation of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 and the following years, meaning that cooperation like the EU citizenship, the VAT union or the Eurozone did not exist, so it made less difference to be a special territory then.

These were:

The United Kingdom left the EU in 2020. When it was a member, some of its Crown Dependencies and Overseas Territories were partially integrated with the EU.

  • Gibraltar was part of the EU and partially inside its single market.
  • Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man were not part of the EU, but were in its customs union and enjoyed free trade.
  • Akrotiri and Dhekelia continue to have partial integration with Cyprus, an EU member state, even after the UK is no longer an EU member.
  • Other territories which were Overseas Territories that year had OCT status.

Additionally in Europe there were special territories in the past that had different status than their "mainland", because of various reasons, but now are part of a member state. Some of these territories were as follows:

  • The Austrian areas of Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz formerly enjoyed a special legal status. The two areas have road access only to Germany, and not directly to other parts of Austria. They were in customs and currency union with Germany and there were no border controls between Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz, respectively, and Germany. When Austria entered the EU (and its customs union) in 1995, the customs union became defunct. The entry into force of the Schengen Agreement for Austria (1997) and the introduction of the euro (2002) caused Kleinwalsertal and Jungholz to lose their remaining legal privileges. It is now legally treated in the same manner as the rest of Austria.
  • Saar (merged with the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 January 1957), was fully part of the Community as French-administered European territory[130]
  • West Berlin (merged with the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990), was subject to the full application of the treaties[w]
  • German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was until 1972 on paper a part of one Germany and the European Community, since West Germany, the NATO countries and the European Community did not recognize the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) until 1972. East Germany did not recognize any membership of the EC. The West German government treated trade with East Germany as inter-German trade and not subject to the EC trade tariffs.
Sermiligaaq, Greenland

The following areas are still special member state territories, but have changed their status. See their entries in the article for details.

See also


  1. ^ Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Barthélemy and the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  2. ^ Åland, Ceuta, Melilla, Heligoland, Livigno and Mount Athos; de jure in Büsingen am Hochrhein and Campione d'Italia*, as well as in the UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus
    * Although most people pay with Swiss Francs in those 2 enclaves, only the euro has legal tender
  3. ^ The Faroese króna is not a separate currency, but a local issue of the Danish krone
  4. ^ The Clipperton Island is a private property of the French State. The Scattered Islands were regarded as "residual territories of the Republic" until 2007. They are now a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
  5. ^ 150 non-permanent in winter, 310 in summer (research and military personnel)
  6. ^ Villages in the buffer zone are legally administered by the Republic of Cyprus.[50] The application of EU acquis communautaire is suspended in territories where the Republic of Cyprus does not exercise effective control.[51] Northern Cyprus is a de facto state that is partially dependent on Turkey.[52]
  7. ^ a b With exceptions[54]
  8. ^ Including the Italian national waters of Lake Lugano.
  9. ^ a b Akrotiri and Dhekelia, and Cyprus should implement together the Schengen area.[117]
  10. ^ Exceptions may be in place for Turkish goods and services destined for Pyla.
  11. ^ Due to the military nature of zone, the UN requires permits for some economic activity to ensure that the fundamental nature of the area as a buffer zone is not compromised.[92]
  12. ^ Cypriot nationality law extends to Northern Cyprus, meaning citizens of the Republic of Cyprus residing in Northern Cyprus are entitled to EU citizenship.
  13. ^ Opt-outs in force for some treaty provisions and legislations
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Part of the former Outre-Mer electoral constituency, now part of the single national constituency.
  15. ^ a b No permanent population; not part of any of the eight former European Parliament electoral constituencies of France.
  16. ^ a b Participating together with Switzerland
  17. ^ a b c Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius: Inherited status as non-member from the Netherlands Antilles.
  18. ^ a b The Netherlands Antillean guilder was supposed to be replaced by the Caribbean guilder as early as 2012, but introduction is still expected in 2024.
  19. ^ a b The full Schengen acquis applies to all Spanish territories, but there are border checks on departure from Ceuta and Melilla to Spain or other Schengen countries, because of specific arrangements for visa exemptions for Moroccan nationals resident in the provinces of Tetuan and Nador.[66][110]
  20. ^ The Northern Ireland Protocol applies EU law only to the extent necessary to prevent a customs border between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland
  21. ^ In a declaration attached to the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960, the British government undertook not to allow new settlement of people in the sovereign base areas other than for temporary purposes, meaning at present, free movement of people is limited.
  22. ^ When Portugal became a Community member in 1986 East Timor was considered a non-self-governing-territory under Portuguese administration by the United Nations despite Indonesian occupation of East Timor between 1975 and 1999. None of the EC laws were ever in force, but EURATOM and ECSC preferences were to apply if not for the Indonesian occupation. The de jure Portuguese administration formally ceased on 20 May 2002 when Portugal recognised East Timor's independence.
  23. ^ Until the unification of Germany in 1990 the de jure status of West Berlin was that of French, UK and US occupied zones with West German civilian administration. The treaties applied fully during 1952–1990 given the Federal German and French treaty responsibilities European Coal and Steel Community Treaty, Art.79, and during 1973–1990 given the British treaty responsibilities.[131][clarification needed] For the 1979, 1984 and 1989 European Parliaments, three MEPs were appointed on the nomination of the Berlin House of Representatives rather than being directly elected. From 3 October 1990 West Berlin was fully integrated in Berlin in the Federal Republic of Germany, along with the former East Germany.


  1. ^ a b The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 (Treaty on European Union): Declaration on the outermost regions of the Community
  2. ^ a b AFP (29 October 2010). "La collectivité de Saint-Barthélémy obtient un nouveau statut européen". Ministère de l'Outre-Mer (in French). Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  3. ^ a b Council Decision of 27 November 2001 on the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Community ("Overseas Association Decision") (2001/822/EC).
  4. ^ Murray, Fiona (2012). The European Union and Member State Territories: A New Legal Framework Under the EU Treaties. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 172. ISBN 978-90-6704-826-2.
  5. ^ a b Article 349 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  6. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013". 17 December 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  7. ^ "Regional policy & outermost regions". Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  8. ^ "Case search – Competition – European Commission". Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  9. ^ "Case search – Competition – European Commission". Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11 December 2006, p. 1)
  11. ^ Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302, 19 October 1992, pp. 1–50)
  12. ^ "Council Directive 2013/61/EU of December 2013". 17 December 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  13. ^ Outermost regions, Fact Sheets on the European Union, European Parliament. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  14. ^ a b Rapport d'information nombre 329 (2004–2005) de MM. Jean-Jacques Hyest, Christian Cointat et Simon Sutour, fait au nom de la commission des lois, déposé le 10 mai 2005. (in French)
  15. ^ a b "Guidelines on Trading with the European Community (EC)" (PDF). January 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  16. ^ a b See Articles 349 and 355 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
  17. ^ "OCTA Presentation". Retrieved 12 March 2018.
  18. ^ Article 202 [ex Article 186)]
  19. ^ Article 199(5) [ex Article 183(5)]
  20. ^ Article 200(1) [ex Article 184(1)]
  21. ^ Article 200(3) and 200(5) [ex Article 184(3) and (5)]
  22. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2013/755/EU of 25 November 2013: On the association of the overseas countries and territories with the European Union ('Overseas Association Decision')". Official Journal of the European Union. 19 December 2013.
  23. ^ "EU relations with Overseas Countries and Territories". European Commission. 4 June 2014.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs)". EU Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  25. ^ "Overseas Countries and Territories". Trade Helpdesk. 8 December 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  26. ^ Future relations between the EU and the Overseas Countries and Territories (PDF). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. 25 May 2008. p. 17.
  27. ^ "About the Overseas Countries and Territories Association". Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  28. ^ "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". The Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  29. ^ Art. 9, Loi n° 55-1052 du 6 août 1955 modifiée portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton. Décret du 31 janvier 2008 relatif à l'administration de l'île de Clipperton.
  30. ^ Council Decision of 12 July 2011 on the signing and conclusion of the Monetary Agreement between the European Union and the French Republic on keeping the euro in Saint-Barthélemy following the amendment of its status with regard to the European Union (OJ L 189, 20 July 2011, pp. 1–2).
  31. ^ Council Decision 1999/95/EC of 31 December 1998 concerning the monetary arrangements in the French territorial communities of Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon and Mayotte (OJ L 30, 4 February 1999, pp. 29–30).
  32. ^ AFP (29 October 2010). "La collectivité de Saint-Barthélémy obtient un nouveau statut européen". Ministère de l'Outre-Mer (in French). Retrieved 8 April 2011.
  33. ^ See Article 355(6) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The relevant decision of the European Council was made on 29 October 2010 [1].
  34. ^ a b "The Kingdom of the Netherlands: One Kingdom – Four Countries; European and Caribbean)". Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. April 2015.
  35. ^ Judgments of the Court in Cases C-145/04 and C-300/04: Kingdom of Spain v United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and M.G. Eman and O.B. Sevinger v College van burgemeester en wethouders van Den Haag [2]
  36. ^ "Schurende rechtsordes: Over juridische implicaties van de UPG-status voor de eilandgebieden van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen)" (PDF) (in Dutch). 19 June 2008.
  37. ^ "Economische gevolgen van de status van ultraperifeer gebied voor de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba / SEOR" (PDF) (in Dutch). 19 June 2008.
  38. ^ "Tweede Kamer, vergaderjaar 2008–2009, 31700 IV, nr. 3: Brief van de staatssecretaris van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties met het kabinetsstandpunt over de rapporten over de UPG status voor de eilandgebieden van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba" (PDF) (in Dutch). 21 October 2008.
  39. ^ "Kamerstuk 31954 nr.7: Regels met betrekking tot de openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba (Wet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba)" (in Dutch). 14 October 2009.
  40. ^ "Kamerstuk 31954+31958 D: BRIEF VAN DE MINISTER VAN BINNENLANDSE ZAKEN EN KONINKRIJKSRELATIES" (in Dutch). 9 March 2012.
  41. ^ Pro Facto – Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (August 2015). "Vijf jaar Caribisch Nederland: De werking van wetgeving" (PDF) (in Dutch).
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  45. ^ Treaty Establishing the EEC – Protocol on the Application of the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community to the non-European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands The High Contracting Parties Anxious, at the time of signature of the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community, to define the scope of the provisions of Article 227 of this Treaty in respect of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Have agreed upon the following provisions, which shall be annexed to this Treaty: The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, by reason of the constitutional structure of the Kingdom resulting from the Statute of 29 December 1954, shall, by way of derogation from Article 227, be entitled to ratify the Treaty on behalf of the Kingdom in Europe and Netherlands New Guinea only. Done at Rome this twenty-fifth day of March in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven. Treaty establishing the EEC
  46. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION 2014/137/EU of 14 March 2014: On relations between the European Union on the one hand, and Greenland and the Kingdom of Denmark on the other". Official Journal of the European Union. 15 March 2014.
  47. ^ "Protocol: Setting out the fishing opportunities and financial contribution provided for in the Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Community (1) on the one hand, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Rule Government of Greenland (2), on the other hand". Official Journal of the European Union. 23 October 2012.
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  54. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 of 29 April 2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol No 10 of the Act of Accession, 30 April 2004
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  56. ^ a b "EUR-Lex – 32019R0474 – EN – EUR-Lex". Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  57. ^ "Live and work on Åland". Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  58. ^ Article 2 of Protocol 2 (on the Åland Islands) of the Finnish accession treaty (OJ C 241, 29 August 1994) [3]
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  60. ^ "Åland and EU". Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  61. ^ Treaty of 23 November 1964 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Swiss Confederation on the inclusion of the municipality of Büsingen am Hochrhein in the customs territory of the Swiss Confederation, as referred to in Article 3(1) of Council Regulation 2913/92/EEC of 12 October 1992 establishing the Community Customs Code (as amended) (OJ L 302, 19 October 1992, pp. 1–50) [5].
  62. ^ From click Touristik and Hotel + Gasthäuser and find that every hotel and restaurant quote prices in SFr only.
  63. ^ a b Regulation (EU) 2019/474 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 March 2019 amending Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 laying down the Union Customs Code, 25 March 2019, retrieved 13 January 2020
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  65. ^ Act concerning the conditions of accession of the Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic and the adjustments to the Treaties. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  66. ^ a b Declaration No. 1. on Ceuta and Melilla attached to the Final Act of the Accession Treaty of the Kingdom of Spain to the Schengen Agreement (OJ L 239, 22.9.2000, p. 69)
  67. ^ a b Protocol 10 to the Treaty of Accession 2003 (OJ L 236, 23 September 2003, p. 955).
  68. ^ "COUNCIL DECISION of 10 June 2004 concerning the representation of the people of Cyprus in the European Parliament in case of a settlement of the Cyprus problem (2004/511/EC)".
  69. ^ Skoutaris, Nikos. "On Citizenship and Donkeys in Cyprus". Citizenship in Southern Europe. CITSEE. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  70. ^ law of the Republic of Cyprus, Source: Cyprus Ministry of Justice compilation and translation (updated to June 2000).
  71. ^ Agency, Central Intelligence (2 June 2020). The CIA World Factbook 2020–2021. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-5107-5826-1.
  72. ^ See Article 299(6)(b) of the Consolidated Treaty establishing the European Community as amended by the Nice Treaty. [6]
  73. ^ Protocol 3 to the Treaty of Accession 2003 (OJ L 236, 23 September 2003, p. 955).
  74. ^ "First Report on the implementation of the provisions of Protocol No 3 to the 2003 Act of Accession on the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus". Brussels: European Commission. 19 April 2010.
  75. ^ R H Lacey, Administrator (7 August 2007). "EURO ORDINANCE 2007 An Ordinance to provide for the adoption of the euro as legal tender in the Sovereign Base Areas and for related matters" (PDF). Government of the United Kingdom.
  76. ^ "Akrotiri". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2013. approximately 15,700 live on the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia including 7,700 Cypriots, 3,600 Service and UK-based contract personnel, and 4,400 dependents
  77. ^ "Declaration by Her Majesty's Government Regarding the Administration of the Sovereign Base Areas" (PDF). Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus. 1960. p. 111. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  78. ^ a b c d e Protocol relating to the Sovereign Base Areas of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Cyprus, Agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community, EUR-Lex, 12 November 2019.
  79. ^ Council Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 of 29 April 2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol No 10 of the Act of Accession. Council Regulation (EC) No 293/2005 of 17 February 2005 amending Regulation (EC) No 866/2004 on a regime under Article 2 of Protocol 10 to the Act of Accession as regards agriculture and facilities for persons crossing the line.
  80. ^ See Article 4 of the Faroe Islands Protocol, 355(5)(a) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and Article of the Treaty on European Union (as amended).
  81. ^ "Spørgsmål og svar". (in Danish). Danish Parliament. Archived from the original on 12 February 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  82. ^ "Pas". (in Danish). Atlantic Airways. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
  83. ^ "Monks see Schengen as Devil's work". British Broadcasting Corporation. 26 October 1997. Retrieved 14 October 2007.
  84. ^ The Greek accession treaty does not specifically exclude Mount Athos from the Convention's territorial scope.
  85. ^ Joint Declaration No. 5 attached to the Final Act of the accession treaty.
  86. ^ a b "The Saimaa Canal – Finnish Transport Agency".
  87. ^ Watch map services, especially Google Streetview, on 57°54′21″N 27°42′48″E / 57.90577°N 27.71323°E / 57.90577; 27.71323
  88. ^ a b c VAT act of 19 June 2009 no. 58, Norwegian Tax Administration, updated May 2014.
  89. ^ Immigrants warmly welcomed, Al Jazeera, 4 July 2006.
  90. ^ a b c Federal Act on Value Added Tax, Federal law of the Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  91. ^ Brandtjen, Roland (May 2022). "The impact of Brexit on the identity of small British-European nations". Small States & Territories Journal. 5 (1): 13–30.
  92. ^ "- UNFICYP Buffer Zone permits". Archived from the original on 21 October 2014.
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Information for Businesses/01 Customs and fiscal territories/index.jsp The customs and fiscal territories of the European Community".
  94. ^ "0466en01.pdf Direct Trade Regulation proposal, not yet implemented".
  95. ^ "Procedure File: 2006/2012(INI) – Legislative Observatory – European Parliament".
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "2002325EN.003301.html Treaty Establishing the European Community, part four".
  97. ^ a b "EURATOM Treaty Art.198d".
  98. ^ a b List of free trade agreements
  99. ^ "Agreement between the European Community, of the one part, and the Government of Denmark and the Home Government of the Faroe Islands".
  100. ^ Lauri Hannikainen; Frank Horn (1997). Autonomy and Demilitarisation in International Law: The Åland Islands in a Changing Europe. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-90-411-0271-3.
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  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Schengen Borders Code Article (21)
  103. ^ a b c "summaries/economic and monetary affairs/institutional and economic framework/l25042 en.htm Agreements concerning the French territorial communities".
  104. ^ a b c Art. 1-1-6°, Loi n°55-1052 du 6 août 1955 portant statut des Terres australes et antarctiques françaises et de l'île de Clipperton.
  105. ^ Article 108 of the Euratom Treaty
  106. ^ a b c d e f "customs/common/glossary/customs/index en.htm Customs territory of the Community". Archived from the original on 14 February 2007.
  107. ^ a b c Article 16 of the law on the monetary system BES Dutch: Wet geldstelsel BES stipulates the use of the Netherlands Antillean guilder as official tender until the official introduction of the US Dollar, probably on 1 January 2011.
  108. ^ a b "Rijkswet aanpassing rijkswetten, nr. 3 MEMORIE VAN TOELICHTING" (in Dutch). Retrieved 6 November 2010. (...) van het Verdrag tot oprichting van de Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie (Euratom) (Tr. 1957, 92). Dit verdrag geldt niet voor Curaçao en Sint Maarten.
  109. ^ See the PRO PRI.htm Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands. The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
  110. ^ "Declaration on the towns of Ceuta and Melilla regarding Schengen".
  111. ^ Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union § Article 355
  112. ^ a b c European Economic Area agreement
  113. ^ a b Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis – Final Act, EUR-Lex, 10 July 1999.
  114. ^ Agreement on the European Economic Area – Protocol 40 on Svalbard and Declaration for activation of Protocol 40 exclusion.
  115. ^ The Schengen Area (Council of the European Union, 2015)
  116. ^ a b c Through multiple sectoral agreements
  117. ^ "Foreign Minister says Cyprus not to join Schengen before 2010". Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Berlin. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
  118. ^ By the third protocol to the Cyprus adhesion Treaty to EU and British local ordinance (see [7]).
  119. ^ a b Deal between Spain and UK plans to eliminate Gibraltar border checkpoint
  120. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951)". CVCE.EU by UNI.LU. 11 September 2015.
  121. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Annex IV: Overseas countries and territories
  122. ^ Up to 1 September 1962 no Community treaty applied there, besides ECSC preferences. Between that date and 16 July 1976 Suriname had OCT status.
  123. ^ "The provisions of Part Four of the Treaty were applied to Surinam, by virtue of a Supplementary Act of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (page29) to complete its instrument of ratification, from 1 September 1962 to 16 July 1976.", in: – Treaty establishing the European Community (consolidated version) – Text of the Treaty
  124. ^ See the Protocol on the application of the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community to the non European parts of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Act ratifying the EAEC Treaty in the Netherlands. The protocol on non-application of EURATOM by derogation was abrogated by Article 8 (III) of the Treaty of Amsterdam, which entered into force in 1999, but there is no evidence that the EURATOM treaty was ever extended to other countries within the Kingdom (now: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten, formerly: the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname).
  125. ^ European Economic Community Treaty, Art 227
  126. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "EUR-Lex – 11972B024 – EN".
  127. ^ a b According to Art.227 (EEC) and Art.198 (EURATOM) these Treaties shall not apply to those overseas countries and territories having special relations with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which are not listed in Annex IV to the EEC Treaty. Zimbabwe and Hong Kong are not listed in the annex.
  128. ^ New Hebrides had ECSC preferences and EURATOM application 1952–1973 stemming from the French administration in the territory, from 1973 to 1980 from both the French and British administrations, no EEC law applied 1958–1973, EEC OCT status 1973–1980
  129. ^ Art.198 of the EURATOM Treaty states that the treaty applies to non-European territories under jurisdiction of Member States. So far there is no reference for Macau exclusion, thus considering it included between 1986 and 1999.
  130. ^ "Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (Paris, 18 April 1951)". 11 September 2015.
  131. ^ "EUR-Lex – 11972B/AFI/DCL/06 – EN". Official Journal L 073, 27 March 1972, p. 0195.

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