To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An orographic map of Eastern Siberia from 1875 by Peter Kropotkin
An orographic map of Eastern Siberia from 1875 by Peter Kropotkin

Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains,[1] and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.[2] Orography (also known as oreography, orology or oreology) falls within the broader discipline of geomorphology.[3]

Uses

Mountain ranges and elevated land masses have a major impact on global climate. For instance, the elevated areas of East Africa substantially determine the strength of the Indian monsoon.[4] In scientific models, such as general circulation models, orography defines the lower boundary of the model over land.[citation needed]

When a river's tributaries or settlements by the river are listed in 'orographic sequence', they are in order from the highest (nearest the source of the river) to the lowest or mainstem (nearest the mouth).[citation needed] This method of listing tributaries is similar to the Strahler Stream Order, where the headwater tributaries are listed as category 1.

Orographic precipitation

Orographic precipitation occurs when moist air is forced upwards by terrain.
Orographic precipitation occurs when moist air is forced upwards by terrain.

Orographic precipitation, also known as relief precipitation, is precipitation generated by a forced upward movement of air upon encountering a physiographic upland (see anabatic wind). This lifting can be caused by two mechanisms:

  1. The upward deflection of large scale horizontal flow by the orography.
  2. The anabatic or upward vertical propagation of moist air up an orographic slope caused by daytime heating of the mountain barrier surface.

Upon ascent, the air that is being lifted will expand and cool adiabatically. This adiabatic cooling of a rising moist air parcel may lower its temperature to its dew point, thus allowing for condensation of the water vapor contained within it, and hence the formation of a cloud. If enough water vapor condenses into cloud droplets, these droplets may become large enough to fall to the ground as precipitation.

Terrain-induced precipitation is a major factor for meteorologists as they forecast the local weather. Orography can play a major role in the type, amount, intensity and duration of precipitation events. Researchers have discovered that barrier width, slope steepness and updraft speed are major contributors for the optimal amount and intensity of orographic precipitation. Computer model simulations for these factors showed that narrow barriers and steeper slopes produced stronger updraft speeds which, in turn, enhanced orographic precipitation.

Orographic precipitation is well known on oceanic islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands or New Zealand, where much of the rainfall received on an island is on the windward side, and the leeward side tends to be quite dry, almost desert-like, by comparison. This phenomenon results in substantial local gradients of average rainfall, with coastal areas receiving on the order of 20 to 30 inches (510 to 760 mm) per year, and interior uplands receiving over 100 inches (2,500 mm) per year. Leeward coastal areas are especially dry—less than 20 in (510 mm) per year at Waikiki—and the tops of moderately high uplands are especially wet—about 475 in (12,100 mm) per year at Wai'ale'ale on Kaua'i.

Another well known area for orographic precipitation is the Pennines in the north of England where the west side of the Pennines receives more rain than the east because the clouds (generally arriving from the west) are forced up and over the hills and cause the rain to fall preferentially on the western slopes. This is particularly noticeable between Manchester (West) and Leeds (East) where Leeds receives less rain due to a rain shadow of 12 miles (19 km) from the Pennines.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Orography" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
  2. ^ Orography Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine (from the American Meteorological Society website)
  3. ^ "Map of the Southern Half of Eastern Siberia and Parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and Sakhalin: For a General Sketch of the Orography of Eastern Siberia". World Digital Library. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  4. ^ Srinivasan, J., Nanjundiah, Ravi S. and Chakraborty, Arindam (2005) Impact of Orography on the Simulation of Monsoon Climate in a General Circulation Model Indian Institute of Science

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 28 August 2021, at 08:31
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.