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Orleans County, New York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Orleans County
County Courthouse in Albion
County Courthouse in Albion
Flag of Orleans County
Official seal of Orleans County
Map of New York highlighting Orleans County
Location within the U.S. state of New York
Map of the United States highlighting New York
New York's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°22′N 78°14′W / 43.37°N 78.23°W / 43.37; -78.23
Country United States
State New York
Founded1824
Named forHouse of Orléans
SeatAlbion
Largest villageAlbion
Other citiesHolley, Brockport
Area
 • Total817 sq mi (2,120 km2)
 • Land391 sq mi (1,010 km2)
 • Water426 sq mi (1,100 km2)  52%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total40,343 Decrease
 • Density103/sq mi (40/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district27th
Websiteorleanscountyny.com

Orleans County is a county in the western part of the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2020 census, the population was 40,343. The county seat is Albion.[1] The county received its name at the insistence of Nehemiah Ingersoll[2] though historians are unsure how the name was selected.[3] The two competing theories are that it was named to honor the French Royal House of Orleans or that it was to honor Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans.[3]

Located on the south shore of Lake Ontario, Orleans County since the late 20th century has been considered part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

When counties were established by the British authorities in the province of New York in 1683, the present Orleans County was part of the territory of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766, by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770, by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.

On March 12, 1772, the remaining Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the large western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, and the county included the Mohawk River valley, the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York. This western area was occupied largely by the Onondaga, Oneida and other western nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. The westernmost European settlements were in the area of Little Falls and present-day Herkimer.

During the unrest prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, feelings ran high in the Mohawk Valley, and there were local attacks by rebels against known Loyalists. Most of Tryon County's Loyalists fled to Canada before 1776, where they were later granted land by the Crown to develop what is now Ontario.

In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery. He had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. It replaced the name of the now hated colonial British governor. In 1789, Ontario County split off from Montgomery.[4] During this period, thousands of migrants settled in the western part of the state from New England and eastern New York resulting in the creation of more counties.

In 1802, Genesee County was created by splitting Ontario County.[4] Genesee County was then divided into Allegany County in 1806, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, and Niagara Counties in 1808, Ontario, Livingston, and Monroe Counties in 1821, and finally Orleans County in 1824.

When Orleans County was formed in 1824,[5] a dispute arose about naming it after President Andrew Jackson or President John Adams.[3] During and following the Napoleonic era in France, numerous French refugees came to New York, some settling in the upstate areas.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 817 square miles (2,120 km2), of which 391 square miles (1,010 km2) is land and 426 square miles (1,100 km2) (52%) is water.[6]

The high proportion of water is due to the extension of Orleans County north into Lake Ontario to the Canada–US border (a line of latitude running through the middle of the lake). The distance from the Orleans shore north to the international border is greater than the distance from the shore south to the Genesee County line, meaning the area of Orleans under water is greater than that above water.

Orleans County is in western New York State, northeast of Buffalo and west of Rochester, on the southern shore of Lake Ontario.

The Erie Canal passes (east–west) through the middle of the county. When its construction was completed in 1824, it attracted new settlers to the largely rural county. Trade and passenger traffic stimulated the development of local businesses.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

National protected area

State protected areas

Government and politics

United States presidential election results for Orleans County, New York[7]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 12,126 66.80% 5,587 30.78% 441 2.43%
2016 10,936 66.76% 4,470 27.29% 974 5.95%
2012 8,594 58.44% 5,787 39.35% 325 2.21%
2008 9,708 58.54% 6,614 39.88% 262 1.58%
2004 10,317 62.24% 5,959 35.95% 301 1.82%
2000 9,202 58.08% 5,991 37.81% 651 4.11%
1996 6,865 44.96% 6,233 40.82% 2,170 14.21%
1992 7,468 44.57% 4,927 29.41% 4,359 26.02%
1988 9,028 59.97% 5,913 39.28% 114 0.76%
1984 10,543 70.17% 4,429 29.48% 52 0.35%
1980 7,536 51.58% 5,767 39.47% 1,308 8.95%
1976 8,994 59.87% 5,927 39.45% 102 0.68%
1972 10,938 71.35% 4,371 28.51% 20 0.13%
1968 8,509 60.67% 4,786 34.13% 729 5.20%
1964 5,567 37.37% 9,304 62.46% 25 0.17%
1960 10,344 65.20% 5,515 34.76% 5 0.03%
1956 11,895 77.45% 3,464 22.55% 0 0.00%
1952 11,686 74.97% 3,893 24.98% 8 0.05%
1948 9,566 69.15% 4,009 28.98% 259 1.87%
1944 9,998 71.28% 4,006 28.56% 22 0.16%
1940 10,958 70.61% 4,525 29.16% 36 0.23%
1936 10,569 70.49% 4,016 26.78% 409 2.73%
1932 9,735 67.98% 4,303 30.05% 283 1.98%
1928 9,828 68.77% 3,792 26.53% 672 4.70%
1924 8,543 71.91% 2,320 19.53% 1,017 8.56%
1920 8,305 72.79% 2,266 19.86% 839 7.35%
1916 4,903 64.41% 2,529 33.22% 180 2.36%
1912 2,983 41.36% 2,448 33.94% 1,781 24.69%
1908 4,885 62.31% 2,590 33.04% 365 4.66%
1904 5,027 63.49% 2,502 31.60% 389 4.91%
1900 4,667 59.14% 2,851 36.13% 373 4.73%
1896 4,664 58.97% 2,993 37.84% 252 3.19%
1892 4,013 52.29% 3,065 39.94% 596 7.77%
1888 4,277 51.98% 3,214 39.06% 737 8.96%
1884 3,997 52.31% 2,907 38.04% 737 9.65%


Starting in 1824, the county government was run by a board of supervisors, consisting of elected supervisors from each township in Orleans County. This geographic representation meant that the residents of more urbanized areas were underrepresented on the board.

In 1980, the state and county established a seven-member elected legislature to replace the board of supervisors. Representatives are elected from single-member districts roughly equal in population. It is headed by a chairman.

Orleans County is heavily Republican. It has voted Republican in every presidential election since the party's founding in 1856, except for one, 1964. It also voted Whig in every election from 1828 until 1852.

County government

Orleans County legislature

Office District Area of the county Officeholder Party Residence
County Legislator District 1 Barre, Clarendon, Shelby William H. Eick Republican Medina
County Legislator - Chairwoman District 2 Ridgeway, Yates Lynne M. Johnson Republican Lyndonville
County Legislator - Minority Leader District 3 Albion, Gaines Fred Miller Democratic Albion
County Legislator District 4 Carlton, Kendall, Murray, Sweden Kenneth DeRoller Republican Kendall
County Legislator At Large All Merle L. "Skip" Draper Republican Shelby
County Legislator - Vice Chairman At Large All Don Allport Republican Albion
County Legislator At Large All E. John DeFilipps Republican Holley

Orleans County elected officials

Office Officeholder Party
County Judge Sanford A. Church Republican
District Attorney Joseph V. Cardone Republican
County Clerk Karen A. Lake-Maynard Republican
County Treasurer Kimberly C. L. DeFrank Republican
Chief Coroner Scott M. Schmidt Republican
Coroner Rocco L. Sidari Republican
Coroner Charles M. Smith Republican

State and federal government

Office District Officeholder Party First took office Residence
Congressman New York's 27th congressional district Chris Jacobs Republican 2020 Buffalo, Erie County
State Senator 62nd State Senate District Rob Ortt Republican 2015 North Tonawanda, Niagara County
State Assemblyman 139th State Assembly District Stephen M. Hawley Republican 2006 Batavia, Genesee County

Orleans County is part of:

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
183017,732
184025,12741.7%
185028,50113.4%
186028,7170.8%
187027,689−3.6%
188030,1288.8%
189030,8032.2%
190030,164−2.1%
191032,0006.1%
192028,619−10.6%
193028,7950.6%
194027,760−3.6%
195029,8327.5%
196034,15914.5%
197037,3059.2%
198038,4963.2%
199041,8468.7%
200044,1715.6%
201042,883−2.9%
202040,343−5.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010-2013[12]

As of the census[13] of 2010,[14] there were 42,883 people, 16,119 households, and 10,872 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile (44/km2). There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile (17/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 89.8% White, 5.9% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. 4.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to Census 2000, 20.3% were of German, 18.3% English, 10.8% Italian, 10.3% Irish, 9.4% American and 7.3% Polish ancestry and 96.0% spoke English and 3.0% Spanish as their first language.

Census 2010 showed there were 16,119 households, out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.6% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.5 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 19.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, and 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $48,731. Males had a median income of $32,450 versus $22,605 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,457. About 15.2% of the population were below the poverty line.

Education

Public schools

The county has five school districts, although the actual district boundaries can extend into neighboring counties, and the same is true for neighboring counties' districts. The five districts, from west to east,[15] are:

Each of these school districts participates in Orleans/Niagara BOCES or Monroe #2-Orleans BOCES.[16]

Private school

There is currently one non-denominational K-12 school in the county.

  • Orleans County Christian School[17]

College

One college maintains satellite campuses in Orleans County.[15]

Recreation

Libraries

Orleans County has 4 public libraries serving its population.[18]

  • Community Free Library, located in Holley
  • Hoag Library, located in Albion
  • Lee-Whedon Memorial Library, located in Medina
  • Yates Community Library, located in Lyndonville

Museums

Orleans County has 3 museums that are open to the public.

  • The Cobblestone Museum
  • Medina Railroad Museum
  • Oak Orchard Lighthouse Museum

Parks

There are two State Parks and many municipal parks spread throughout the county.

Communities

Larger Settlements

All larger settlements are Villages

# Location Population
1 Medina 6,065
2 Albion 6,056
3 Holley 1,811
4 Lyndonville 838
The town and village borders
The town and village borders

Towns

Hamlets

See also

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  2. ^ Lattin, C.W. (January 23, 1981). "Early County History - Part II". Journal-Register.
  3. ^ a b c Lattin, Cary (1976). Orleans County History. Albion, NY: Eddy Printing Corp. p. 20.
  4. ^ a b Signor, Issac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. pp. 1.
  5. ^ Signor, Isaac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. pp. 2–5.
  6. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  7. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  12. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  14. ^ "Orleans County, New York". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Orleans County Visitors". Orleans County New York. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  16. ^ "Component Districts". Orleans/Niagara BOCES. Archived from the original on December 5, 2003. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  17. ^ "Orleans County Christian School". Orleans County Christian School. Retrieved October 27, 2017.
  18. ^ "NIOGA Library System". New York State Library. Retrieved October 30, 2017.

External links

This page was last edited on 20 June 2022, at 23:01
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