To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Organopónicos

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Produce and flowers from a Cuban organopónico
Produce and flowers from a Cuban organopónico
Crop rows at Alamar Organic Farm in Havana. Many organoponics have been developed in urban environments, as seen by the city-scape in the background.
Crop rows at Alamar Organic Farm in Havana. Many organoponics have been developed in urban environments, as seen by the city-scape in the background.

Organopónicos or organoponics is a system of urban agriculture using organic gardens. It originated in Cuba and is still mostly focused there. It often consists of low-level concrete walls filled with organic matter and soil, with lines of drip irrigation laid on the surface of the growing media. Organopónicos is a labour-intensive form of local agriculture.

Organopónico farmers employ a wide variety of agroecological techniques including integrated pest management, polyculture, and crop rotation. Most organic materials are also produced within the gardens through composting. This allows production to take place with few petroleum-based inputs.[1]

Organopónicos first arose as a community response to lack of food security during the Special Period after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It is publicly functioning in terms of ownership, access, and management, but heavily subsidized and supported by the Cuban government.

Background

During the Cold War, the Cuban economy relied heavily on support from the Soviet Union. In exchange for sugar, Cuba received subsidized petroleum, petroleum products, agrochemicals (such as fertilizers and pesticides), and other farm products. Moreover, approximately 50% of Cuba's food was imported. Cuba's food production was organized around Soviet-style, large-scale, industrial agricultural collectives.[2] Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba used more than 1 million tons of synthetic fertilizers and up to 35,000 tons of herbicides and pesticides per year.[2]

With the collapse of the USSR, Cuba lost its main trading partner and the favorable trade subsidies it received from it, as well as access to oil, chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc. From 1989 to 1993, the Cuban economy contracted by 35%; foreign trade dropped 75%.[2] Without Soviet aid, domestic agriculture production fell by half. During this time, known in Cuba as the Special Period, food scarcities became acute. The average per capita calorie intake fell from 2,900 a day in 1989 to 1,800 calories in 1995. Protein consumption plummeted 40%.[2]

To address this, Cuba began to seek ways to increase its food production. This was done through the creation of small private farms and thousands of pocket-sized urban market gardens. Lacking many chemicals and fertilizers, much food became de facto organic.[3] Thousands of new urban individual farmers called parceleros (for their parcelas, or plots) emerged. They formed and developed farmer cooperatives and farmers markets. These urban farmers were supported by the Cuban Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI), who provided university experts to train volunteers in the use of biopesticides and beneficial insects.

Without artificial fertilizers, hydroponic equipment from the Soviet Union was no longer usable. Instead, this was converted for the use of organic gardening. The original hydroponic units, long cement planting troughs and raised metal containers, were filled with composted sugar waste, thus turning hydroponicos ("hydroponics") into organopónicos.

The rapid expansion of urban agriculture in the early 1990s included the colonization of vacant land both by community and commercial groups. In Havana, organopónicos were created in vacant lots, old parking lots, abandoned building sites and even spaces between roads.

Current status

Havana small farm
Havana small farm

More than 35,000 hectares (over 87,000 acres) of land are being used in urban agriculture in Havana alone.[4]

Havana produces enough food for each resident to receive a daily serving of 280 grams (9.88 ounces) of fruits and vegetables. The urban agricultural workforce in Havana has grown from 9,000 in 1999 to 23,000 in 2001 and more than 44,000 in 2006.[4] However, Cuba still has food rationing for basic staples. Approximately 69% of these rationed basic staples (wheat, vegetable oils, rice, etc.) are imported.[5] Overall, however, approximately 16% of food is imported from abroad.[5]

The structures of organopónicos vary from garden to garden. Some are run by state employees, others are run cooperatively by the gardeners themselves. The government provides community farmers with the land and the water, and sells key materials such as organic compost, seeds, irrigation parts, and organic pesticides called "biocontrols" in the form of beneficial insects and plant-based oils. These biological pest and disease controls are produced in some 200 government centers across the country.[2] All garden crops such as beans, tomatoes, bananas, lettuce, okra, eggplant and taro are grown intensively within Havana using only organic methods, the only methods permitted in the urban parts of Havana. No chemicals are used in 68% of Cuban corn, 96% of cassava, 72% of coffee and 40% of bananas. Between 1998 and 2001, chemicals were reduced by 60% in potatoes, 89% in tomatoes, 28% in onion and 43% in tobacco.[4]

Despite the successes of organoponics, efforts of the Cuban government have been negatively evaluated by some authors. A 2012 article in The Economist stated:

The grip of the state on Cuban farming has been disastrous. State farms of various kinds hold 75% of Cuba's 6.7m hectares of agricultural land. In 2007 some 45% of this was lying idle, much of it overrun by marabú, a tenacious weed. Cuba is the only country in Latin America where killing a cow is a crime (and eating beef a rare luxury). That has not stopped the cattle herd declining from 7m in 1967 to 4m in 2011.

The same article claimed that As of 2012, there were plans to privatise farming and dismantle organopónicos, as part of broader plans to improve productivity.[6] However, as of 2018, organopónicos are still an active component of the Cuban agricultural system.[7]

Applicability beyond Cuba

In Venezuela, the socialist government is trying to introduce urban agriculture to the populace.[8] In Caracas, the government has launched Organoponico Bolivar I, a pilot program to bring organopónicos to Venezuela. Urban agriculture has not been embraced in Caracas.[8] Unlike Cuba, where organopónicos arose from the bottom-up out of necessity, the Venezuelan organopónicos are a top-down initiative based on Cuba's success. Another problem for urban agriculture in Venezuela is the pollution in major urban areas. At the Organoponico Bolivar I, a technician reads a pollution meter in the garden every 15 days.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cederlöf, Gustav (2016). "Low-carbon food supply: The ecological geography of Cuban urban agriculture and agroecological theory" (PDF). Agriculture and Human Values. 33 (4): 771–784. doi:10.1007/s10460-015-9659-y.
  2. ^ a b c d e Mark, Jason (Spring 2007). "Growing it Alone". Earth Island Institute. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  3. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (August 8, 2006). "The good life in Havana: Cuba's green revolution". The Independent. London: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  4. ^ a b c Knoot, Sinan (January 2009). "The Urban Agriculture of Havana". Monthly Review. Monthly Review Foundation. 60 (8): 44–63. doi:10.14452/MR-060-08-2009-01_5. Retrieved 2010-05-18.
  5. ^ a b "The Paradox of Cuban Agriculture". Monthly Review.
  6. ^ "The Castros, Cuba and America: On the road towards capitalism". The Economist. 2012-03-24. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  7. ^ "Si de agricultura se trata, todo espacio cuenta". Granma. 2018-07-20.
  8. ^ a b c Howard, April (2006). "How Green Is That Garden?". E - The Environmental Magazine. Earth Action Network, Inc. 17: 18–20. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2010-05-18.

External links

This page was last edited on 26 April 2020, at 12:47
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.