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Oregon Republican Party

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oregon Republican Party
ChairpersonHerman Baertschiger Jr.
Founded1857
Headquarters752 Hawthorne Ave NE, Salem, OR 97301
Membership (2021)Decrease730,113[1]
IdeologyConservatism
Fiscal conservatism
Social conservatism
Trumpism
Political positionRight-wing to far-right[2][3][4][5]
National affiliationRepublican Party
Colors  Red
U.S. Senate delegation
0 / 2
U.S. House delegation
1 / 5
Statewide offices
0 / 5
Seats in the Oregon State Senate
11 / 30
Seats in the Oregon House of Representatives
22 / 60
Website
oregon.gop

The Oregon Republican Party is the state affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Oregon, headquartered in Salem. The party was established in the Oregon Territory in February 1857 as the "Free State Republican Party of Oregon" and held its first state convention on April 1, 1859, after Oregon achieved statehood.

The Republican Party was the dominant political organization in the state of Oregon from the time of the American Civil War through the 1960s, before moving to a position of approximate parity with the rival Democratic Party of Oregon for the next four decades. Since 2000, the Oregon Republican Party has become a minority party in state government, which has generally been controlled by Democrats.

In recent years, the Oregon Republican Party has been the subject of significant controversy regarding the increasing influence of far-right organizations and militias within the party, especially during the presidency of Donald Trump.[5] The party received national attention and widespread criticism for its efforts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election, and its resolution claiming the 2021 United States Capitol attack was a false flag operation.[6]

History

Antislavery origins

Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), first Oregon Republican elected to the U.S. Senate, was an early casualty fighting for the Union in the American Civil War.
Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), first Oregon Republican elected to the U.S. Senate, was an early casualty fighting for the Union in the American Civil War.

The politics of the Oregon Territory were largely dominated by the generally states' rights Democratic Party with a vocal pro-slavery component. Only weak opposition came from the Whigs and their nativist Know Nothing cousins.[7] A serious opposition first began to emerge in the aftermath of the bitter and costly Rogue River Wars of 1855 to 1856, centered around the growing anti-slavery sentiment nationally and increasing threat that the Democratic Party would hasten the expansion of slavery in Oregon. Opposition to the Democrats gradually coalesced around the fledgling Republican Party that was intent upon slavery's limitation.[7][8]

A first convention of Republicans in Oregon was held in May 1856 at the Lindley schoolhouse in Jackson County, with the gathering called for the nomination of candidates to appear on the June 1856 territorial ballot.[7] The convention also adopted a resolution declaring that while Congress had no power over the existence of slavery in states in which it already existed, outside of such state jurisdictions federal power should be exerted to prevent its introduction.[9]

Throughout 1856, antislavery sentiment continued to grow in Oregon, with Republican clubs springing up around the state.[10] Republican county conventions were held in Clackamas, Washington, Marion, Linn, and possibly one or two other locales around the state.[11] Representatives of these county gatherings were then assembled at a territorial organizing convention held in Albany on February 11, 1857, which adopted the official name "Free State Republican Party of Oregon" for the organization.[12] A platform for the new political party was announced, emphasizing the indissoluble nature of the United States, opposition of the expansion of slavery to free territory, prohibition of polygamy, construction of a Pacific railroad to link Oregon with California, government effort to improve the navigability of rivers and harbors, and admission of Oregon to the United States only as a free state.[12]

The year 1857 was marked by preparations for future Oregon statehood, including the holding of a constitutional convention, and the ruling Democratic Party found itself divided over the question of slavery, attempting to sidestep the issue by passing in state convention a resolution binding Democratic delegates to such a gathering to the position that the matter of slavery in Oregon be settled later by a vote of the people.[13]

The Republicans did not nominate a candidate for Representative to Congress in the June 1857 election, instead pooling their support for G.W. Lawson, a Free Soil Democrat running as an independent.[14] While pro-slavery Democrat Joseph Lane was ultimately sent as the Territorial delegate to Congress, voting further down the ticket showed a Republican advance, with Republicans joining with so-called "soft" (free state) Democrats[15] to elect about a third of the delegates to the constitutional convention and 10 of the 30 members to the Oregon Territorial Legislature.[16]

Oregon Republican Charles L. McNary (1874-1944) sat in the halls of the U.S. Senate for 25 years during the first half of the 20th century.
Oregon Republican Charles L. McNary (1874-1944) sat in the halls of the U.S. Senate for 25 years during the first half of the 20th century.
Governor and U.S. Senator Mark O. Hatfield (1922-2011) was the face of the Oregon Republican Party for a generation.
Governor and U.S. Senator Mark O. Hatfield (1922-2011) was the face of the Oregon Republican Party for a generation.

The constitutional convention held in the summer of 1857 ultimately steamrolled Republican sentiment and again sidestepped the slavery question by deciding to leave the slavery question to a vote of the people, while declaring that "no negro, Chinaman, or mulatto should have the right to vote."[17] The bill of rights adopted by the Democratic-dominated constitutional convention gave the future state legislature the right to exclude African-Americans from immigrating to the state altogether, thereby setting the stage for restrictive racial laws in spite of Oregon's free state status.[18]

Three propositions were ultimately put to territorial voters, with the Democratic-authored Oregon Constitution gaining approval by a vote of about 7,200 to 3,100, a measure allowing slavery falling to defeat by a majority of nearly 5,100 votes, and a proposal allowing "Free Negroes" to settle in Oregon overwhelmingly defeated by a vote of 8,640 to 1,081.[19] Oregon would not be a slave state but rather one closed to black immigration — a law remaining on the books (albeit not in actual effect) into the 20th century.[20]

19th century

On April 1, 1859, just two weeks after Oregon was admitted to the Union, the Republican Party held a convention in Salem at which it nominated David Logan as the party's choice for the state's first fully fledged Congressional representative.[21] Logan would narrowly fall to defeat both in 1859 and again when nominated again for a full term in the election of 1860, but national political events would soon change the tide for the new political party.[21] The Democratic Party found itself divided with the coming of the American Civil War between pro- and anti-Union elements.[22] With the nation embroiled in war, pro-Union Democrats and Republicans put aside their differences at a fusion convention in April 1862, establishing themselves as the Union Party.[22] This joint political organization would continue in Oregon through four elections under the Union Party banner, terminating only in 1868.[22]

As the united political organization for a preserved United States of America in contradistinction to defeatists and Confederate sympathizers, the Union Party and, after 1868, the rechristened Republican Party experienced dramatic political gains in Oregon, buoyed by the defection and disenfranchisement of the Democratic South. The party, as one historian noted, began to "grow like the plant that sprang up from the mustard seed."[21] An alliance of Republicans and pro-Union Democrats in the Oregon State Legislature came together in 1860 to elect Edward Dickinson Baker as the first Republican U.S. Senator from Oregon.[23] An era of Republican dominance in Oregon was begun.

When the Civil War began in 1861, Baker raised his own militia, in which he served as commanding officer. On October 21, 1861, with Congress out of session, Colonel Baker and his men met Confederate forces on a hill called Ball's Bluff just outside Washington, D.C. Shortly after the battle started Baker was killed along with nearly 1,000 others.[24]

Despite the untimely death of Oregon's first Senator, E.D. Baker would hardly be the last. Over the next 30 years a steady stream of Republicans were sent to the U.S. Senate by the Oregon legislature, including Benjamin F. Harding (1862), George H. Williams (1864), Henry W. Corbett (1866), John H. Mitchell (1872, reappointed 1885, re-elected 1887 and 1891), Joseph N. Dolph (1882, re-elected 1889), and George W. McBride (1895).[25]

By the 1890s, the ideology of the two major parties had begun to switch, with the Republican Party emerging as the party of sound money, industry and commerce, protective tariffs, and expansionist foreign policy.[citation needed]

Trump era

The Oregon Republican Party gained national attention in June 2019 when all 11 Republican state senators staged a "walkout" designed to prevent a vote on Oregon House Bill 2020. The walkout deepened the alignment of the party with right-wing militias, including Oregon 3 Percenters and Oath Keepers as well as pro-Trump social media.[26][4][5] State Senator Brian Boquist threatened, in response to the state government's efforts to return him to the state capitol in Salem, "send bachelors and come heavily armed."[27][28][29][30] According to the Pew Charitable Trusts, "rare walkouts are ones like that in Oregon, where lawmakers flee the state for several weeks or months. These large events use a lot of political capital and show voters that those lawmakers might be sore losers and unwilling to negotiate."[31] Oregon Republicans continued such "walkouts" in 2021 to protest coronavirus restrictions and disable normal political processes, as well as organized groups to harass state inspectors doing their lawful work.[32]

Efforts to overturn the 2020 election

Following the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, Oregon Republicans again received national attention. On 21 December 2020, an armed group had forcibly entered the Oregon Capitol, caused damage, and sprayed “some kind of chemical agent” at the officers guarding the capitol. Police identified the chemical agent as "bear spray." The capitol break-in was promoted by the far-right Patriot Prayer. In January 2021, evidence came to light that Representative Mike Nearman had opened doors to the Oregon Capitol "allowing violent demonstrators who were protesting immediately outside the door to illegally enter the building" and cause damage.[33][34][35][36][37] The militia-inflamed "chaos in Oregon over the past year [was] a prologue to the insurrection at the U.S Capitol," in one account.[38] At least three "men who participated in an effort to storm the Oregon Capitol on December 21st also appear to have been part of the mob that stormed the U.S. Capitol" in January.[39][32] Also among the Oregonians arrested for the US Capitol attack was the vice chair of the Young Republicans of Oregon.[40][41][42]

"The Trump era seems only to have exacerbated the Oregon GOP’s embrace of its most extreme constituencies," writes the conservative National Review.[43]

On January 19, 2021, the Oregon Republican Party issued a resolution declaring that the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol by supporters of Donald Trump was a "false flag" event meant to "discredit President Trump, his supporters, and all conservative Republicans."[6][44][45] Others had previously claimed antifa had staged the attack, though the FBI stated there was no evidence of antifa involvement.[6][44][45]

The party resolution provoked substantial controversy. Oregon's House Republicans pointedly disavowed the party resolution, and State Senator Tim Knopp stated publicly that he did "not support the Oregon Republican Party’s resolution."[46][47][48][49] Knute Buehler, a former Oregon House member and recent Republican gubernatorial nominee, "filed to change his registration from Republican to independent."[50] State Senator Brian Boquist also left the party and joined the Independent Party of Oregon.[50]

More than 6,000 Republicans left the party in January 2021.[51] In early February, state voter registration indicate a total of 11,000 registered Republicans in Oregon have left the party since Election Day.[52][53]

Dallas Heard, an Oregon State Senator serving as the Chairman of the party, resigned in 2022 after severe internal disagreements with party members.[54]

Platform

Logo used from 2009 to 2016
Logo used from 2009 to 2016

The party's formal platform, adopted in 2015, expresses opposition to abortion and assisted suicide; support for mandatory minimum sentencing for violent offenders, truth-in-sentencing laws, and the death penalty; lower taxes; deregulation and minimal government intervention in the economy; opposition to same-sex marriage; repeal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; opposition for "amnesty" for undocumented immigrants; an individual right to keep and bear arms; and voter ID laws.[55] The party's platform, amended in 2019, includes opposition to National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, advocacy of the arming of educational staff "to protect themselves and their students from violence" while opposing gun-free zones; asserting that "marriage is between one man and one woman" and that "there are only two sexes, male and female, based on a person’s biological sex at birth"; favoring that "all government business shall be conducted in English"; continuing repeal of Obamacare; asserting that "violent, radical, Islamic Jihadists and other groups have . . . declared war on America"; and "need for personal responsibility and self-reliance in the event of a disaster."[56]

At the beginning of the 2022 legislative short session, the house republican caucus announced that they would use the session to "fix failures from Democratic leadership by restoring education standards, holding state government accountable and enabling our law enforcement to do its job. We will push to remove roadblocks to health care access and preserve Oregon’s natural environment while protecting the way of life of communities relying on these resources. We will give Oregonians the freedom to recover financially from government-mandated shutdowns by fighting the state’s regulatory burdens and mandates."[57]

The caucus intends to terminate the state of emergency related to COVID-19, and amend the Oregon Constitution to limit the declaration of an emergency to 30 days.[58]

Past elections

Presidents

Republican nominees won 25 of Oregon's 32 Presidential popular votes from 1860 to 1984.[59] Since 1988 the Democratic presidential nominee has won 8 straight popular votes.[60]

Governance

The party is ran by an elected state Leadership Team.[61]

Office Office-holder
Chairman Herman Baertschiger Jr.
Vice Chairman Vacant
Secretary Becky Mitts
Treasurer Alex McHaddad
National Committeeman Solomon Yue Jr.
National Committeewoman Tracy Honl

County parties

Each of Oregon's 36 counties have semi-autonomous county leadership teams. They are elected by precinct committee members who in turn are elected by all Republicans in a specific precinct.

Party Chairs

Name Year County of residence Profession
Kevin Mannix 2003-2005 Marion County Politician, Activist
Vance Day 2005-2009 Marion County Attorney
Bob Tiernan 2009-2011 Clackamas County Politician
Allen Alley 2011-2013 Clackamas County Politician
Suzanne Gallagher[62] 2013 Washington County Interior designer, Business owner, Activist
Art Robinson 2013-2015 Josephine County Scientist, Politician
Bill Currier 2015-2021 Benton County Politician
Dallas Heard 2021-2022 Douglas County Politician

[63][64][65][62][66]

Current elected officials

Members of Congress

U.S. Senate

  • None

Both of Oregon's U.S. Senate seats have been held by Democrats since 2008. Gordon H. Smith was the last Republican to represent Oregon in the U.S. Senate. Elected in 1996, Gordon lost his second re-election attempt in 2008 to Jeff Merkley.

The Oregon Republican Party holds one of the state's five U.S. House seats and neither of the two U.S. Senate seats.

U.S. House of Representatives

Out of the five seats Oregon is apportioned in the U.S. House of Representatives, one is held by a Republican:

District Member Photo
2nd Cliff Bentz

Statewide offices

  • None

Oregon has not had a Republican in statewide office since 2021 after the retirement of Secretary of State Bev Clarno and the election of Democrat Shemia Fagan to replace her.

State Legislators

The Oregon Republican Party holds a minority 25 of 60 seats in the Oregon House of Representatives and a minority 11 of the 30 Oregon Senate seats.

Mayors

Of the state's ten largest cities, three have Republican mayors as of 2021:

Election results

Presidential

Oregon Republican Party presidential election results
Election Presidential Ticket Votes Vote % Electoral votes Result
1860 Abraham Lincoln/Hannibal Hamlin 5,344 36.20%
3 / 3
Won
1864 Abraham Lincoln/Andrew Johnson 9,888 53.90%
3 / 3
Won
1868 Ulysses S. Grant/Schuyler Colfax 10,961 49.63%
0 / 3
Won
1872 Ulysses S. Grant/Henry Wilson 11,818 58.66%
3 / 3
Won
1876 Rutherford B. Hayes/William A. Wheeler 15,214 50.92%
3 / 3
Won
1880 James A. Garfield/Chester A. Arthur 20,619 50.51%
3 / 3
Won
1884 James G. Blaine/John A. Logan 26,860 50.99%
3 / 3
Lost
1888 Benjamin Harrison/Levi P. Morton 33,291 53.82%
3 / 3
Won
1892 Benjamin Harrison/Whitelaw Reid 35,002 44.59%
3 / 4
Lost
1896 William McKinley/Garret Hobart 48,779 50.07%
4 / 4
Won
1900 William McKinley/Theodore Roosevelt 46,172 55.46%
4 / 4
Won
1904 Theodore Roosevelt/Charles W. Fairbanks 60,455 67.06%
4 / 4
Won
1908 William Howard Taft/James S. Sherman 62,530 56.39%
4 / 4
Won
1912 William Howard Taft/Nicholas M. Butler 34,673 25.30%
0 / 5
Lost
1916 Charles E. Hughes/Charles W. Fairbanks 126,813 48.47%
5 / 5
Lost
1920 Warren G. Harding/Calvin Coolidge 143,592 60.20%
5 / 5
Won
1924 Calvin Coolidge/Charles G. Dawes 142,579 51.01%
5 / 5
Won
1928 Herbert Hoover/Charles Curtis 205,341 64.18%
5 / 5
Won
1932 Herbert Hoover/Charles Curtis 136,019 36.88%
0 / 5
Lost
1936 Alf Landon/Frank Knox 122,706 29.64%
0 / 5
Lost
1940 Wendell Willkie/Charles L. McNary 219,555 45.62%
0 / 5
Lost
1944 Thomas E. Dewey/John W. Bricker 225,365 46.94%
0 / 6
Lost
1948 Thomas E. Dewey/Earl Warren 260,904 49.78%
6 / 6
Lost
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower/Richard Nixon 420,815 60.54%
6 / 6
Won
1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower/Richard Nixon 406,393 55.21%
6 / 6
Won
1960 Richard Nixon/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. 408,060 52.56%
6 / 6
Lost
1964 Barry Goldwater/William E. Miller 282,779 35.96%
0 / 6
Lost
1968 Richard Nixon/Spiro Agnew 408,433 49.83%
6 / 6
Won
1972 Richard Nixon/Spiro Agnew 486,686 52.45%
6 / 6
Won
1976 Gerald Ford/Bob Dole 492,120 47.78%
6 / 6
Lost
1980 Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush 571,044 48.33%
6 / 6
Won
1984 Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush 685,700 55.91%
7 / 7
Won
1988 George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle 560,126 46.61%
0 / 7
Won
1992 George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle 475,757 32.53%
0 / 7
Lost
1996 Bob Dole/Jack Kemp 538,152 39.06%
0 / 7
Lost
2000 George W. Bush/Dick Cheney 713,577 46.52%
0 / 7
Won
2004 George W. Bush/Dick Cheney 866,831 47.19%
0 / 7
Won
2008 John McCain/Sarah Palin 738,475 40.40%
0 / 7
Lost
2012 Mitt Romney/Paul Ryan 754,175 42.15%
0 / 7
Lost
2016 Donald Trump/Mike Pence 782,403 39.09%
0 / 7
Won
2020 Donald Trump/Mike Pence 958,448 40.37%
0 / 7
Lost

Gubernatorial

Oregon Republican Party gubernatorial election results
Election Gubernatorial candidate Votes Vote % Result
1858 Endorsed E. M. Barnum (Democratic) N/A N/A Did not run
1862 A. C. Gibbs 7,039 67.11% Won Green tickY
1866 George Lemuel Woods 10,316 50.68% Won Green tickY
1870 Joel Palmer 11,095 48.62% Lost Red XN
1874 J. C. Tolman 9,163 36.06% Lost Red XN
1878 Cornelius C. Beekman 15,610 47.69% Lost Red XN
1882 Zenas Ferry Moody 21,481 51.75% Won Green tickY
1886 Thomas R. Cornelius 24,199 44.13% Lost Red XN
1890 David P. Thompson 33,765 46.45% Lost Red XN
1894 William Paine Lord 41,139 47.23% Won Green tickY
1898 Theodore Thurston Geer 45,094 53.22% Won Green tickY
1902 W. J. Furnish 41,611 45.9% Lost Red XN
1906 James Withycombe 43,508 44.99% Lost Red XN
1910 Jay Bowerman 48,751 41.42% Lost Red XN
1914 James Withycombe 121,037 48.80% Won Green tickY
1918 James Withycombe 81,067 52.99% Won Green tickY
1922 Ben W. Olcott 99,164 42.64% Lost Red XN
1926 I. L. Patterson 120,073 53.14% Won Green tickY
1930 Phil Metschan Jr. 46,480 18.83% Lost Red XN
1934 Joe E. Dunne 86,923 28.73% Lost Red XN
1938 Charles A. Sprague 214,062 57.41% Won Green tickY
1942 Earl Snell 220,188 77.87% Won Green tickY
1946 Earl Snell 237,681 69.06% Won Green tickY
1948 (special) Douglas McKay 271,295 53.23% Won Green tickY
1950 Douglas McKay 334,160 66.05% Won Green tickY
1954 Paul L. Patterson 322,522 56.91% Won Green tickY
1956 (special) Elmo Smith 361,840 49.48% Lost Red XN
1958 Mark Hatfield 331,900 55.32% Won Green tickY
1962 Mark Hatfield 345,497 54.20% Won Green tickY
1966 Tom McCall 377,346 55.26% Won Green tickY
1970 Tom McCall 369,964 55.52% Won Green tickY
1974 Victor G. Atiyeh 324,751 42.14% Lost Red XN
1978 Victor G. Atiyeh 498,452 54.90% Won Green tickY
1982 Victor G. Atiyeh 639,841 61.41% Won Green tickY
1986 Norma Paulus 506,989 47.85% Lost Red XN
1990 David Frohnmayer 444,646 40.0% Lost Red XN
1994 Denny Smith 517,874 42.41% Lost Red XN
1998 Bill Sizemore 334,001 30.01% Lost Red XN
2002 Kevin Mannix 581,785 46.16% Lost Red XN
2006 Ron Saxton 589,748 42.75% Lost Red XN
2010 Chris Dudley 694,287 47.76% Lost Red XN
2014 Dennis Richardson 648,542 44.13% Lost Red XN
2016 (special) Bud Pierce 845,609 43.45% Lost Red XN
2018 Knute Buehler 814,988 43.65% Lost Red XN

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Voter Registration by County: August 2021". Oregon Secretary of State. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  2. ^ Oregonian/OregonLive, Ted Sickinger| The (January 20, 2021). "Oregon Republican Party condemns impeachment, aligns itself with conspiracy theories". oregonlive.
  3. ^ Jaclyn Peiser, "Oregon Republican Party falsely calls U.S. Capitol riot a ‘false flag’ meant to ‘discredit President Trump’," Washington Post Jan. 26, 2021 at https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2021/01/26/oregon-republican-false-flag-capitol/
  4. ^ a b Jason Wilson, "Portland Republicans to use militia for security as far-right rallies continue," The Guardian 1 July 2017 at https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jul/01/portland-far-right-rally-republicans-militia-security
  5. ^ a b c David D. Kirkpatrick and Mike McIntire, "‘Its Own Domestic Army’: How the G.O.P. Allied Itself With Militants," New York Times (February 8, 2021) at https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/08/us/militias-republicans-michigan.html
  6. ^ a b c Peiser, Jaclyn. "Oregon Republican Party falsely calls U.S. Capitol riot a 'false flag' meant to 'discredit President Trump'" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  7. ^ a b c Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of Oregon: Volume 2: 1848-1883. San Francisco, CA: The History Company, 1888.
  8. ^ Jim M. Labbe, "The Colored Brothers Few Defenders: Oregon Abolitionists and Their Followers" Oregon Historical Quarterly, Winter 2019, pages 440-467, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.120.4.0440
  9. ^ Oregon Argus [Oregon City], June 7, 1856; cited in Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 416, fn. 6.
  10. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 417-418.
  11. ^ See: Republican League Register, a Record of the Republican Party in the State of Oregon. Portland, OR: Register Publishing Co., 1896; pg. 24.
  12. ^ a b Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 418.
  13. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 419-420.
  14. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 420.
  15. ^ The name was a pejorative assigned to dissidents by the pro-slavery majority faction of the Democratic Party. See: Republican League Register, pg. 25.
  16. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 421. Only one of these was elected on a straight Republican ticket, however, that being John R. McBride of Yamhill County. See: Republican League Register, pg. 23.
  17. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pg. 424.
  18. ^ Bancroft, History of Oregon: Vol. 2, pp. 424-425.
  19. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 25.
  20. ^ Oregon's Black Exclusion Law was only repealed by voters in 1926. See: Greg Nokes, "Black Exclusion Laws in Oregon," Oregon Encyclopedia, Oregon Historical Society.
  21. ^ a b c Republican League Register, pg. 27.
  22. ^ a b c Republican League Register, pg. 28.
  23. ^ Republican League Register, pp. 27-28.
  24. ^ "U.S. Senate: Senator Killed in Battle". www.senate.gov.
  25. ^ Republican League Register, pg. 54.
  26. ^ Doug Brown, "Multnomah County Republicans Formally Allow Militia Groups to Run Security," Portland Mercury June 30, 2017 at https://www.portlandmercury.com/blogtown/2017/06/30/19130461/multnomah-county-republicans-formally-allow-militia-groups-to-run-security
  27. ^ Connor Radnovich, "Senate GOP threatens walkout, Gov. Brown responds with threat of state police," (Statesman Journal) USA Today 20 June 2019 at https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2019/06/19/senate-gop-threatens-walkout-brown-responds-state-police-threat-oregon/1502876001/
  28. ^ Benjamin Fearnow, "Oregon Republicans Gloat on Fox News While Hiding in Idaho to Escape Climate Change Vote," Newsweek 25 June 2019 at https://www.newsweek.com/oregon-republicans-flee-idaho-fox-news-climate-change-bill-gloat-1445731
  29. ^ Julie Turkewitz, "Oregon Climate Walkout Left Republicans in Hiding, Statehouse in Disarray," New York Times June 28, 2019 at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/28/us/oregon-climate-fight.html
  30. ^ Dirk VanderHart, "After Republican Protest, Oregon's Climate Plan Dies," NPR June 25, 2019 at https://www.npr.org/2019/06/25/735792788/after-republican-protest-oregons-climate-plan-dies
  31. ^ Matt Vasilogambros, "Oregon Walkout Reflects a Growing Trend: Here's Why Lawmakers Leave," Pew Charitable Trusts Stateline June 27, 2019 at https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/blogs/stateline/2019/06/27/oregon-walkout-reflects-a-growing-trend-heres-why-lawmakers-leave
  32. ^ a b Sergio Olmos, "Its ranks diminished, Oregon Republican Party embraces far right approach," Oregon Public Broadcasting (March 2, 2021) at https://www.opb.org/article/2021/03/01/oregon-republican-party-embraces-far-right-approach/
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Further reading

External links

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