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Orange County, Indiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Orange County
The Orange County courthouse in Paoli
The Orange County courthouse in Paoli
Map of Indiana highlighting Orange County
Location within the U.S. state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 38°32′N 86°30′W / 38.54°N 86.5°W / 38.54; -86.5
Country United States
State Indiana
FoundedFebruary 1, 1816
Named forHouse of Orange-Nassau
SeatPaoli
Largest townPaoli
Area
 • Total408.19 sq mi (1,057.2 km2)
 • Land398.39 sq mi (1,031.8 km2)
 • Water9.80 sq mi (25.4 km2)  2.40%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total19,867
 • Density49.7/sq mi (19.17/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district9th
Indiana county number 59

Orange County is located in southern Indiana in the United States. As of 2020, its population was 19,867.[1] The county seat is Paoli.[2] The county has four incorporated settlements with a total population of about 8,600,[3] as well as several small unincorporated communities. It is divided into 10 townships which provide local services.[4][5] One U.S. route and five Indiana state roads pass through or into the county.[6]

History

Orange County was formed from parts of Knox County, Gibson County and Washington County by the Indiana Territorial Legislature, on December 26, 1815 (effective February 1, 1816). In 1816 the Orange County seat was designated at Paoli, which was named after Pasquale Paoli Ash, the 12-year-old son of the sitting North Carolina Governor.[7]

The first courthouse was a temporary log structure that was built for $25; a more permanent stone structure was completed in 1819 at a cost of $3,950.[n 1] [9] In 1847, plans were made for a larger courthouse, which was completed in 1850 at a cost of $14,000.[n 2] This building is the second oldest courthouse in the state that has been continuously used since its construction. Like the oldest in Ohio County, it is a Greek Revival building with two stories and a Doric portico supported by fluted columns; it has ornamental iron stairs and a clock tower. In 1970, the clock tower was damaged by fire.[10]

The early settlers were mostly Quakers fleeing the institution of slavery in Orange County, North Carolina. Jonathan Lindley brought his group of Quakers from North Carolina to the area in 1811. They were the first to build a religious structure, the Lick Creek Meeting House in 1813. It was from this group that Orange County got its name.[11][12] (See List of Indiana county name etymologies). The name Orange derives from the Dutch Protestant House of Orange, which accessed the English throne with the accession of King William III in 1689, following the Glorious Revolution.

When the North Carolina Quakers came to Indiana, they brought several freed slaves. These free men were deeded 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land in the heart of a dense forest. Word of mouth soon spread the news, and this land became part of the "underground railroad" for runaway slaves. For many years, the freed slaves in this area farmed, traded, and sold their labor to others while living in this settlement. A church and cemetery were constructed.

All that remains today is the cemetery, with many lost or vandalized headstones. Several years ago, Boy Scouts restored the cemetery, replacing the stones with wooden crosses designating a grave. The name of "Little Africa" came about because of the black settlement, but it was called "Paddy's Garden" by its early users.[citation needed]

Geography

Map of Orange County, showing townships and settlements
Map of Orange County, showing townships and settlements

Much of the south part of the county, south of Paoli and French Lick, is part of the Hoosier National Forest. Patoka Lake is within the national forest; the majority of the lake lies in Orange County, with parts extending into neighboring Dubois and Crawford counties.

According to the 2010 United States Census, Orange County has a total area of 408.19 square miles (1,057.2 km2), of which 398.39 square miles (1,031.8 km2) (or 97.60%) is land and 9.80 square miles (25.4 km2) (or 2.40%) is water.[13]

Adjacent counties

villages

Unincorporated communities

Townships

Transportation

Highways

  • U.S. Route 150 – runs east–west through central part of county. Passes French Lick, Turleys, and Paoli.
  • Indiana 37.svg
    Indiana State Road 37 – runs north–south through central part of county. Passes Orleans, Paoli, and Bacon.
  • Indiana 56.svg
    Indiana State Road 56 – enters west line of county at 6.6 miles (10.6 km) north of SW county corner. Runs NE to intersection with US-150 north of West Baden Springs.
  • Indiana 60.svg
    Indiana State Road 60 – runs NW-SE across northeastern tip of county. Enters 2 miles west of NE corner and exits 2 miles south of NE corner.
  • Indiana 145.svg
    Indiana State Road 145 – enters south line of county at 3.7 miles (6 km) from SW county corner. Runs north to intersection with Indiana-56 at French Lick.
  • Indiana 337.svg
    Indiana State Road 337 – runs SE-NW across northeastern part of county. Enters east line of county near Bromer, then runs NW to intersection with Indiana-37 at Orleans.[14]

Airports

French Lick Municipal Airport (IATA: FRH, ICAO: KFRH, FAA LID: FRH) is a city-owned public-use airport located three nautical miles (6 km) southwest of the central business district of French Lick, a town in Orange County, Indiana, United States.[1] Also known as French Lick Airport, it serves the French Lick and West Baden, Indiana area.[2]

Railways

French Lick Scenic Railway (French Lick West Baden and Southern Railway/ Indiana Railway Museum) Popular train rides in Indiana aboard the French Lick Scenic Railway offer 20-mile day tours through parts of the Hoosier National Forest, the 2,200-foot Burton Tunnel (Indiana's second longest tunnel), and past limestone outcroppings.

Check the daily departure schedule but know the historic French Lick Scenic Railway also hosts special events and seasonal trips throughout the year, like these famous family attractions:

Wild-West Hold-ups Tasting Trains Easter Bunny Express Dinner Trains

Climate and weather

Paoli, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
3.3
 
 
38
18
 
 
3.1
 
 
44
22
 
 
4.4
 
 
55
31
 
 
4.8
 
 
65
40
 
 
5.1
 
 
75
50
 
 
4.2
 
 
83
60
 
 
4.5
 
 
87
64
 
 
4.2
 
 
85
62
 
 
3.3
 
 
79
53
 
 
2.9
 
 
68
40
 
 
4.2
 
 
55
32
 
 
3.6
 
 
43
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[15]

In recent years, average temperatures in Paoli have ranged from a low of 18 °F (−8 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −29 °F (−34 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 111 °F (44 °C) was recorded in July 1901. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.90 inches (74 mm) in October to 5.14 inches (131 mm) in May.[15]

Government

The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code. The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are elected from county districts. The council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes.[16][17]

A board of commissioners is the county's executive body. Commissioners are elected in staggered four-year terms. The board is charged with executing the council's decisions, with collecting revenue, and with managing the county government.[16][17]

The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. The judge is assisted by a constable who is elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court.[17]

The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor and circuit court clerk. Each serves a four-year term, and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and be residents of the county.[17]

Each township has a trustee and a three-member board, which administers rural fire protection and ambulance service, provides poor relief and manages cemetery care, among other duties.[5] The trustee and board members are elected to four-year terms.[18]

Orange County is part of Indiana's 9th congressional district. It is part of Indiana Senate districts 44 and 48,[19] and Indiana House of Representatives district 62.[20]

United States presidential election results for Orange County, Indiana[21]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 6,432 72.83% 2,224 25.18% 176 1.99%
2016 5,803 70.84% 2,048 25.00% 341 4.16%
2012 4,617 59.38% 2,939 37.80% 220 2.83%
2008 4,536 55.94% 3,390 41.81% 182 2.24%
2004 5,683 65.68% 2,885 33.34% 84 0.97%
2000 4,687 62.85% 2,601 34.88% 170 2.28%
1996 3,355 45.69% 3,016 41.07% 972 13.24%
1992 3,738 46.64% 2,948 36.78% 1,329 16.58%
1988 5,245 65.44% 2,739 34.17% 31 0.39%
1984 5,909 69.40% 2,571 30.19% 35 0.41%
1980 5,073 59.28% 3,228 37.72% 257 3.00%
1976 4,399 51.90% 4,031 47.56% 46 0.54%
1972 5,715 65.89% 2,932 33.80% 27 0.31%
1968 4,666 54.82% 2,918 34.28% 928 10.90%
1964 4,187 48.07% 4,490 51.55% 33 0.38%
1960 5,589 59.19% 3,818 40.44% 35 0.37%
1956 5,751 62.37% 3,438 37.28% 32 0.35%
1952 5,551 62.38% 3,272 36.77% 75 0.84%
1948 4,574 57.03% 3,359 41.88% 88 1.10%
1944 4,784 60.06% 3,130 39.29% 52 0.65%
1940 5,519 57.77% 4,003 41.90% 31 0.32%
1936 5,106 52.68% 4,549 46.94% 37 0.38%
1932 4,561 48.08% 4,844 51.06% 82 0.86%
1928 5,086 61.77% 3,112 37.79% 36 0.44%
1924 4,538 56.04% 3,374 41.66% 186 2.30%
1920 4,726 58.86% 3,222 40.13% 81 1.01%
1916 2,481 52.94% 2,091 44.62% 114 2.43%
1912 1,521 35.27% 1,830 42.43% 962 22.30%
1908 2,433 53.92% 1,961 43.46% 118 2.62%
1904 2,458 55.25% 1,888 42.44% 103 2.32%
1900 2,247 53.82% 1,851 44.34% 77 1.84%
1896 2,044 52.80% 1,797 46.42% 30 0.77%
1892 1,653 46.92% 1,628 46.21% 242 6.87%
1888 1,779 51.67% 1,654 48.04% 10 0.29%


Demographics

The Orange County Courthouse in the center of the Paoli, Indiana town square
The Orange County Courthouse in the center of the Paoli, Indiana town square
Historical population
Census Pop.
18205,368
18307,90147.2%
18409,60221.5%
185010,80912.6%
186012,07611.7%
187013,49711.8%
188014,3636.4%
189014,6782.2%
190016,85414.8%
191017,1922.0%
192016,974−1.3%
193017,4592.9%
194017,311−0.8%
195016,879−2.5%
196016,8770.0%
197016,9680.5%
198018,67710.1%
199018,409−1.4%
200019,3064.9%
201019,8402.8%
202019,8670.1%
US Decennial Census[22]
1790-1960[23] 1900-1990[24]
1990-2000[25] 2010-2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,840 people, 7,872 households, and 5,416 families in the county.[26] The population density was 49.8 inhabitants per square mile (19.2/km2). There were 9,176 housing units at an average density of 23.0 per square mile (8.9/km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 97.0% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.6% were of English ancestry, 18.8% were of German ancestry and 12.4% were of Irish ancestry.

Of the 7,872 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, and 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 40.8 years.

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $45,874. Males had a median income of $35,679 versus $30,072 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,119. About 13.5% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.7% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over.[27]

Education

The county is served by four school districts:[28]

  • Lost River Career Cooperative
  • Orleans Community Schools
  • Paoli Community School Corporation
  • Springs Valley Community School Corporation.

Orleans Community Schools (Superintendent:Gary McClintic)[29] includes:

  • Orleans Elementary School (Principal: Christopher Stevens)
  • Orleans Jr./Sr. High School (Principal: Roy Kline).

Paoli Community Schools (Superintendent:Greg Walker)includes:

  • Throop Elementary School (Principal:Amanda Crews)
  • Paoli Jr./Sr. High School (Principal:Dr. Sherry Wise).

Springs Valley School Corporation (Superintendent: Tony Whitaker) includes:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ A $3,950 capital expense in 1816 would be roughly equivalent to $2,000,000 in 2010.[8]
  2. ^ A $14,000 capital expense in 1850 would be roughly equivalent to $6,000,000 in 2010.[8]

References

  1. ^ a b "Orange County QuickFacts". Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  2. ^ "Find a County – Orange County IN". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 15, 2012. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  3. ^ "Orange County IN – County Subdivision and Place. GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 16, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  4. ^ "Orange". Indiana Township Association. Retrieved November 15, 2011.
  5. ^ a b "Duties". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  6. ^ "Indiana Transportation Map 2009–2010" (PDF). Indiana Department of Transportation. 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  7. ^ Paoli - Monon Historical (June 2006)
  8. ^ a b Williamson, Samuel H. (April 2010). Seven Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount, 1774 to present. MeasuringWorth. Calculations made using Nominal GDP Per Capita, a measure of capital intensivity, using "the 'average' per-person output of the economy in the prices of the current year." This is a measure of the amount of capital and volume of labor required to reproduce the work over varying production methods, but assuming that money represents a proportion of the economy.
  9. ^ Goodspeed 1884, pp. 421–3.
  10. ^ Counts, Will; Jon Dilts (1991). The 92 Magnificent Indiana Courthouses. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-253-33638-5.
  11. ^ "Orange County Indiana Genealogy Trails".
  12. ^ De Witt Clinton Goodrich & Charles Richard Tuttle (1875). An Illustrated History of the State of Indiana. Indiana: R. S. Peale & Co. p. 569.
  13. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". US Census Bureau]]. Archived from the original on February 12, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  14. ^ Orange County IN Google Maps (accessed 20 September 2018)
  15. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Paoli IN". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 27, 2011.
  16. ^ a b Indiana Code. "Title 36, Article 2, Section 3". Government of Indiana. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  17. ^ a b c d Indiana Code. "Title 2, Article 10, Section 2" (PDF). Government of Indiana. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
  18. ^ "Government". United Township Association of Indiana. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
  19. ^ "Indiana Senate Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  20. ^ "Indiana House Districts". State of Indiana. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
  21. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved May 19, 2018.
  22. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  23. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  24. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  25. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  26. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  27. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  28. ^ Education, Indiana Department of. "Indiana K-12 School Web Sites". Retrieved May 29, 2009.
  29. ^ "Welcome to Orleans Community Schools". May 18, 2009. Retrieved May 29, 2009.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 22 September 2022, at 00:37
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