To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ophelia
Hamlet character
Ophelia 1894.jpg
John William Waterhouse's painting Ophelia (1894)
Created byWilliam Shakespeare
Information
FamilyPolonius (father)
Laertes (brother)

Ophelia (/ˈfliə/) is a character in William Shakespeare's drama Hamlet. She is a young noblewoman of Denmark, the daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes, and potential wife of Prince Hamlet.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/3
    Views:
    922 825
    90 169
    76 044
  • ✪ Ophelia, Gertrude, and Regicide - Hamlet II: Crash Course Literature 204
  • ✪ Sir John Everett Millais, Ophelia
  • ✪ The Lumineers - Ophelia

Transcription

CCENG204 - Hamlet PART II Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course Literature and today we continue our discussion of Hamlet. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I’ve figured it out already.Hamlet has an Oedipus complex. That explains everything. No, no, no Me From the Past. As we’ve already learned, not even Oedipus had an Oedipus complex. Although your fascination with it is starting to freak me out a little. And while you can read Hamlet as being entirely about sex, sex, sex, sex, sex, you don’t have to. I’ll give you this though Me From The Past, whether or not Hamlet wants to sleep with his mother, he definitely has girl trouble. Intro So Hamlet’s pretty vicious to the women in this play. He orders Ophelia, for instance, to “get thee to a nunnery!” and he tells his mother Gertrude “frailty, thy name is woman,” even though Hamlet isn’t terribly robust, as you may have noticed. Now there’s been some backlash discussing gender dynamics in literature, but this is a really important contemporary approach to the study of literature. It’s not the only one. It’s not the only one that we do here. But it is one that matters. So a basic reading of Hamlet would look like this: Claudius has and uses power, Hamlet has power but mostly chooses not to use it, Polonius has less power than he imagines himself to have, and Ophelia and Gertrude have no power. Right? Yeah, not exactly. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. So in painting, there’s a tradition of depicting Ophelia as a tragic, romantic, completely powerless heroine, following the mythology created by Gertrude when she describes Ophelia’s death in extensive detail. How she “fell in the weeping brook. Her clothes spread wide, / and mermaid-like awhile they bore her up […] till that her garments, heavy with their drink, / pull’d the poor wretch from her melodious lay / to muddy death” Did Gertrude actually see this? Probably not. And if she did, why didn’t she to try to save Ophelia instead of coming up with a lovely simile about how much she looks like a mermaid while she drowns? Gertrude’s description makes Ophelia’s death sound like an accident. A branch broke and she plunged helplessly into the water. Could have happened to anyone hanging out on a riverbank wearing lots of layers. But pretty much everyone else accepts Ophelia’s death as a deliberate suicide caused by her madness. So that raises the question: What kind of agency did she have since she clearly had some and how did she use it? And, also, what caused her mad ness? Thanks, Thought Bubble. So before Hamlet escapes into madness he’s in a difficult spot. He’s heir to a throne that should be his already, son to a mother he no longer trusts, nephew to the guy who possibly killed his dad. Well, Ophelia is in a pretty tight spot too. I mean, Ophelia’s father has been murdered by Hamlet, who used to be in love with her, and who is now shouting at her about nunneries and making weird sexual banter and then going off to sea. It’s like if that guy, who you’re totally not sure is your boyfriend, killed your dad and then still sort of wanted to be your boyfriend, but only sometimes, we’ve all been there. In Act 2, Polonius says of Hamlet, “though this be madness yet there is method in’t” and let’s not overlook the method in Ophelia’s madness. Like, towards the end of Act 4, she hands out flowers she has collected to Claudius, Gertrude, and Laertes. These flowers each have meanings that would be known to the Elizabethan audience, who were the kind of people who liked their bouquets to contain secret codes. “There’s fennel for you, and columbines,” says Ophelia, presumably to Gertrude as Fennel signified flattery and Columbines marital infidelity. She also hands out rue, which signified repentance, and mentions that the violets –associated with faithfulness – “withered all when my father died.” This is Ophelia at her most deliciously subversive, delivering her own form of judgment, speaking out against corruption and injustice and doing it in her own particularly feminine way behind the mask of seeming madness. So while Hamlet’s off on some pirate ship giving yet more soliloquies about his indecisiveness, Ophelia is asserting her own beliefs about right and wrong and life and death, and she’s doing it in a way that’s clear. I mean, at least it would be clear to Elizabethans. But then, she tragically decides to inflict this judgment on her own body, viewing her death as the only way to free herself from Elsinore’s depravity and depression. Quick personal sidenote: I think that is a terrible decision and a poor use of Ophelia’s agency. As bad as her her use of the flowers is good. Suicide is a permanent solution to a temporary problem. Even in Ophelia’s case. So there’s very popular reading of Hamlet that Ophelia’s suicide is an assertive choice, the only choice she really can make. But, in fact, the flowers show that she can also make other choices. Now of course those choices might have resulted in her death anyway, but the choice was there. All that noted, there’s no question that while Hamlet is stuck between to be or not to be, Ophelia actively chooses NOT to be. She makes her peace with death, and she does it a whole act before Hamlet does. So without Ophelia we’re left with the other woman in the play, Queen Gertrude. Gertrude’s quickie marriage to Claudius forces Hamlet to think a lot more than he would want to about his mother’s sexuality. Or maybe it’s exactly as much as he wants to. Hamlet sees Gertrude’s hookup with Claudius as a betrayal of his father but also of Hamlet himself, because it deprives him of the throne. So it’s not fair to say that Gertrude has no power or agency, she has the one vote in the election for who becomes king. But does her choice make Gertrude a traitor? I mean is she complicit in her husband’s murder or is she just another victim of Claudius’s sweet, sweet, poisonous lies? And this is where the oedipal reading comes in, like is Hamlet angry at Claudius because Claudius has done what Hamlet always secretly wanted to do. You know, kill the father, marry the mother, become king. And he does focus pretty intently on Gertrude’s “incestuous sheets,” but most of the time he’s hesitating to kill Claudius, it’s because he doesn’t want to become a murderer not because of anything about what’s happening between the sheets. For a character with not that many lines, Gertrude is very interesting. Like is her ultimate loyalty to Hamlet or to Claudius? Shakespeare presses this idea in the duel scene when Gertrude—either inadvertently or on purpose—saves Hamlet’s life, if only for like a minute. Gertrude reaches for Hamlet’s poisoned cup, and Claudius orders her not to drink, but her only response is “I will, my lord, I pray you pardon me.” Is she just thirsty or is that a conscious choice? In her final moments, is she showing Hamlet where her allegiance lies? Now, of course, Shakespeare meant this to be ambiguous but her final line is, “O my dear Hamlet!” not “O my dear Claudius”. Now both Gertrude and Ophelia’s defiance of authority ultimately results in their suicide. And I want to underscore that I don’t think suicide is heroic, but the most interesting discussion question in my high school English class was, “Which of these characters, in Hamlet, is the most heroic?”[a] I think you can make a case for almost anyone, except for Polonius and of course Claudius. But there’s certainly a case to be made for Gertrude or Ophelia. Anyway, this leads us to the question whether heroism always involves taking heroic actions. Certainly, Hamlet’s a big fan of action. I mean not in his own life, but, you know, as an idea. I mean he describes man as “in action how like an angel.” But then he shows that this image of angelic man is inaccessible to him, even repellent, saying “and yet to me, what is this quintessence of dust?” And then of course smack dab in the middle of the play Hamlet lectures the traveling players about how best to act. And then Hamlet doesn’t act, for scene after scene, after scene. Except when he stabs Polonius who, while annoying, is innocent. But is this indecision meant to be seen as heroic? Like iIs Hamlet a weak and wishy washy guy for wasting all his time on investigations, or is it in fact kind of heroic to fact-check information that you get from a ghost before killing someone? Amleth, the inspiration for the tragedy, acts decisively and he’s certainly seen as a hero. But it’s much more complicated in Shakespeare’s play. For one thing, as we’ve seen, ghosts were not necessarily to be trusted, Oh… a ghost is moving my desk. It must be time for the open letter. No, no, no, no, you no! You are not real. You are not a ghost. You are a digital representation created by ThoughtCafe. I am not giving you an open letter! Moving on! Sorry, I’m scared of ghosts, even though they aren’t real. They definitely aren’t real. Anyway, there’s also the fact that killing a king - even if that king is a usurper - was generally seen as not a fantastic idea. Except when it came to Macbeth. I mean kings were seen to rule by divine right, so offing one was an insult to god. Also, it was in Hamlet’s best interest to keep that idea around so, you know, no one would off him if he became king. So maybe it’s a good thing that Hamlet doesn’t take murder lightly. Well, except for when he kills Polonius for the unforgivable sin of hiding behind some curtains. So what finally turns Hamlet into an actor? Maybe pirates. Maybe nothing, Many critics feel that it’s a different Hamlet who shows up in the fifth act, one who has undergone a “sea change” literally and now feels less conflicted about his own mortality. Bit it’s not like the play immediately becomes a Jean Claude Van Damme movie, I mean Hamlet tells Horatio “There's a special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, 'tis not to come. If it be not to come, it will be now.” That doesn’t sound like a guy who’s about to go on a slaughtering spree. When Hamlet does act it’s at the last possible moment. Killing Claudius only because he has learned that Claudius was planing to kill him, Gertrude, and Laertes. At a certain point all that stuff about mortal and divine justice and the perpetual cycle of violence goes out the window and you think, hey, maybe I should just kill this multiple murderer. But then, of course, in doing so you re-raise all those questions about mortal and divine justice and the perpetual cycle of violence. Ahhh, I love Shakespeare! But one thing you can say about Hamlet is that once he starts to take action he really takes it. He stabs Claudius with the poison sword and forces him to drink from the poison cup. Killing him twice. And he insults Claudius, calling him “thou incestuous, murderous, damned Dane,” which in Elizabethan terms is quite the burn. But taking action doesn’t really resolve or integrate Hamlet’s character. As he dies, Hamlet charges Horatio with telling his story, as though only in death will Horatio be able to make a coherent narrative out of all of his delay and wavering and ambivalence. If it’s revenge that made the original Amleth famous, that’s not what keeps drawing us back to Shakespeare’s play. It’s Hamlet inaction rather than his action that makes us pay attention. The soliloquies in which he weighs his options and tries to decide whether he will direct the course of his life or let fate determine it teaches us something about what it means to be human, to have a conscience, to make difficult decisions in our own lives. Or not make them. Inaction, as Hamlet shows us, is its own kind of action. Which kind of action is heroic? I don’t know. Tell me what you think in comments. Thanks for watching, I’ll see you next week. CrashCourse is made by all of these nice people and it exists because of your support at Subbable.com - a voluntary subscription service that allows us to keep CrashCourse free for everyone forever. Through your subscription you can also get great perks. Thank you for making CrashCourse possible, thanks for watching, and as we say in my hometown, “Don’t forget to be awesome!” [a]Hey Stan, are the four Hamlet characters I've listed here the only relevant Heroic characters you think?

Contents

Name

As with virtually all Hamlet characters, Ophelia's name is not Danish. It first appeared in Jacopo Sannazaro's 1504 poem Arcadia (as Ofelia), probably derived from Ancient Greek ὠφέλεια (ōphéleia, "help").[1][2]

Plot

Hamlet, Act IV, Scene V (Ophelia Before the King and Queen), Benjamin West, 1792
Hamlet, Act IV, Scene V (Ophelia Before the King and Queen), Benjamin West, 1792

In Ophelia's first speaking appearance in the play,[3] she is seen with her brother, Laertes, who is leaving for France. Laertes warns her that Hamlet, the heir to the throne of Denmark, does not have the freedom to marry whomever he wants. Ophelia's father, Polonius, who enters while Laertes is leaving, also forbids Ophelia from pursuing Hamlet, as Polonius fears that Hamlet is not earnest about her.

In Ophelia's next appearance,[4] she tells Polonius that Hamlet rushed into her room with his clothing askew and a "hellish" expression on his face; he only stared at her, nodding three times without speaking to her. Based on what Ophelia told him, Polonius concludes that he was wrong to forbid Ophelia from seeing Hamlet, and that Hamlet must be mad with love for her. Polonius immediately decides to go to Claudius, the new King of Denmark and also Hamlet's uncle and stepfather, about the situation. Polonius later suggests[5] to Claudius that they hide behind an arras to overhear Hamlet speaking to Ophelia, when Hamlet thinks the conversation is private. Since Polonius is now sure that Hamlet is lovesick for Ophelia, he thinks Hamlet will express his love for her. Claudius agrees to try the eavesdropping plan later.

The plan leads to what is commonly called the "Nunnery Scene,"[6] from its use of the term nunnery which would generally refer to a convent, but at the time was also popular slang for a brothel.[7] Polonius instructs Ophelia to stand in the lobby of the castle while he and Claudius hide. Hamlet approaches Ophelia and talks to her, saying "Get thee to a nunnery." Hamlet asks Ophelia where her father is and she lies to him, saying her father must be at home. Hamlet realises he is being spied upon. He exits after declaring, "I say we will have no more marriages." Ophelia is left bewildered and heartbroken, sure that Hamlet is insane. She knows that ultimately it is she that broke him because she lied. She was the woman he had loved and a friend whom he trusted and she lied to him. After Hamlet storms out, Ophelia makes her "O, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown" soliloquy.

Ophelia by John Everett Millais (1852) is part of the Tate Gallery collection. His painting influenced the image in Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet
Ophelia by John Everett Millais (1852) is part of the Tate Gallery collection. His painting influenced the image in Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet

The next time Ophelia appears is at the Mousetrap Play,[8] which Hamlet has arranged to try to prove that Claudius killed King Hamlet. Hamlet sits with Ophelia and makes sexually suggestive remarks; he also says that woman's love is brief.

Later that night, after the play, Hamlet kills Polonius[9] during a private meeting between Hamlet and his mother, Queen Gertrude. At Ophelia's next appearance,[10] after her father's death, she has gone mad, due to what the other characters interpret as grief for her father. She talks in riddles and rhymes, and sings some "mad" and bawdy songs about death and a maiden losing her virginity. She exits after bidding everyone a "good night".

The last time Ophelia appears in the play is after Laertes comes to the castle to challenge Claudius over the death of his father, Polonius. Ophelia sings more songs and hands out flowers, citing their symbolic meanings, although interpretations of the meanings differ. The only herb that Shakespeare gives Ophelia herself is rue; "...there's rue for you, and here's some for me; we may call it herb of grace o' Sundays; O, you must wear your rue with a difference". Rue is well known for its symbolic meaning of regret, but the herb is also used to treat pain, bruises and has abortive qualities.[11]

In Act 4 Scene 7, Queen Gertrude reports that Ophelia had climbed into a willow tree (There is a willow grows aslant the brook), and that the branch had broken and dropped Ophelia into the brook, where she drowned. Gertrude says that Ophelia appeared "incapable of her own distress". Gertrude's announcement of Ophelia's death has been praised as one of the most poetic death announcements in literature.[12]

Later, a sexton at the graveyard insists Ophelia must have killed herself.[13] Laertes is outraged by what the cleric says, and replies that Ophelia will be an angel in heaven when the cleric "lie[s] howling" in hell.

At Ophelia's funeral, Queen Gertrude sprinkles flowers on Ophelia's grave ("Sweets to the sweet"), and says she wished Ophelia could have been Hamlet's wife (contradicting Laertes' warnings to Ophelia in the first act). Laertes then jumps into Ophelia's grave excavation, asking for the burial to wait until he has held her in his arms one last time and proclaims how much he loved her. Hamlet, nearby, then challenges Laertes and claims that he loved Ophelia more than "forty thousand" brothers could. After her funeral scene, Ophelia is no longer mentioned.

Portrayal

Mary Catherine Bolton (later Lady Thurlow) (1790–1830) as Ophelia in 1813, opposite John Philip Kemble's Hamlet
Mary Catherine Bolton (later Lady Thurlow) (1790–1830) as Ophelia in 1813, opposite John Philip Kemble's Hamlet

In productions of Hamlet

While it is known that Richard Burbage played Hamlet in Shakespeare's time, there is no evidence of who played Ophelia; since there were no professional actresses on the public stage in Elizabethan England, we may assume that she was played by a boy.[14] The actor appears to have had some musical ability, as Ophelia is given lines from ballads such as Walsingham to sing, and, according to the first quarto edition, enters with a lute.[15]

The early modern stage in England had an established set of emblematic conventions for the representation of female madness: dishevelled hair worn down, dressed in white, bedecked with wild flowers, Ophelia's state of mind would have been immediately 'readable' to her first audiences.[16] "Colour was a major source of stage symbolism", Andrew Gurr explains, so the contrast between Hamlet's "nighted colour" (1.2.68) and "customary suits of solemn black" (1.2.78) and Ophelia's "virginal and vacant white" would have conveyed specific and gendered associations.[17] Her action of offering wild flowers to the court suggests, Showalter argues, a symbolic deflowering, while even the manner of her 'doubtful death', by drowning, carries associations with the feminine (Laertes refers to his tears on hearing the news as "the woman").

Gender structured, too, the early modern understanding of the distinction between Hamlet's madness and Ophelia's: melancholy was understood as a male disease of the intellect, while Ophelia would have been understood as suffering from erotomania, a malady conceived in biological and emotional terms.[18] This discourse of female madness influenced Ophelia's representation on stage from the 1660s, when the appearance of actresses in the English theatres first began to introduce "new meanings and subversive tensions" into the role: "the most celebrated of the actresses who played Ophelia were those whom rumor credited with disappointments in love".[19] Showalter relates a theatrical anecdote that vividly captures this sense of overlap between a performer's identity and the role she plays:

Soprano Mignon Nevada as Ophelia in the opera Hamlet, circa 1910. The operatic version simplifies the plot to focus the drama on Hamlet's predicament and its effects on Ophelia
Soprano Mignon Nevada as Ophelia in the opera Hamlet, circa 1910. The operatic version simplifies the plot to focus the drama on Hamlet's predicament and its effects on Ophelia

"The greatest triumph was reserved for Susan Mountfort, a former actress at Lincoln's Inn Fields who had gone mad after her lover's betrayal. One night in 1720 she escaped from her keeper, rushed to the theater, and just as the Ophelia of the evening was to enter for her mad scene, "sprang forward in her place ... with wild eyes and wavering motion." As a contemporary reported, "she was in truth Ophelia herself, to the amazement of the performers as well as of the audience—nature having made this last effort, her vital powers failed her and she died soon after."[20]

During the 18th century, the conventions of Augustan drama encouraged far less intense, more sentimentalised and decorous depictions of Ophelia's madness and sexuality. From Mrs Lessingham in 1772 to Mary Catherine Bolton, playing opposite John Kemble in 1813, the familiar iconography of the role replaced its passionate embodiment. Sarah Siddons played Ophelia's madness with "stately and classical dignity" in 1785.[21]

Many great actresses have played Ophelia on stage over the years. In the 19th century, she was portrayed by Helen Faucit, Dora Jordan, Frances Abington, and Peg Woffington, who won her first real fame by playing the role.[22] Theatre manager Tate Wilkinson declared that next to Susannah Maria Cibber, Elizabeth Satchell (of the famous Kemble family) was the best Ophelia he ever saw.[23] The American scholar Tina Packer argued that Ophelia is trapped within the imprisoning world of the Danish court, and only by losing her mind can she escape.[24] Packer argued that Ophelia's problems stem from being too dutiful a daughter as she obeys her father in rejecting Hamlet and returning his gifts to him, as she is untrue to herself, thus settling herself up for her downfall.[24]

Frances MacDonald – Ophelia 1898
Frances MacDonaldOphelia 1898

In film

Ophelia has been portrayed on screen since the days of early silent films. Dorothy Foster played Ophelia opposite Charles Raymond's Hamlet in the 1912 film Hamlet.[25] Jean Simmons played Ophelia to Laurence Olivier's Oscar-winning Hamlet performance in 1948 and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.[26] More recently, Ophelia has been portrayed by Anastasiya Vertinskaya (1964),[27] Marianne Faithfull (1969),[28] Helena Bonham Carter (1990),[29] Kate Winslet (1996), Julia Stiles (2000), and Mariah Gale (2009). Themes associated with Ophelia have led to movies such as Ophelia Learns to Swim (2000)[30] and Dying Like Ophelia (2002).

In many modern theatre and film adaptations she is portrayed barefoot in the mad scenes, including Kozintsev's 1964 film, Zeffirelli's 1990 film, Kenneth Branagh's 1996 film, and Michael Almereyda's Hamlet 2000 (2000) versions.

Ophelia is referenced several times in the film Melancholia, and the protagonist is seen drowning in water. [31] The films publicity poster was based upon this scene.[32]

In Vishal Bhardwaj's adaptation Haider (2014), the character was portrayed by actress Shraddha Kapoor.[33]

In art

Ophelia has been a frequent subject in artwork.

Fictional characters inspired by Ophelia

  • The characters of both Tara Knowles and Opie Winston in the FX cable TV drama Sons of Anarchy have been described as possible allegories of Ophelia.[34][35]
  • Ophelia in Giannina Braschi's postcolonial novel, United States of Banana (2011), is a 21st century passive-aggressive woman, who threatens to slash her wrists when arguing with her ex-lover Hamlet; the staged adaption by Juan Pablo Felix was produced by Columbia Stages in New York City in 2015.[36]
  • Ophelia, in Paul Griffiths' novel let me tell you (2008), is a derivative of Shakespeare's character who tells her story in her own words, in the literal sense that she can use only the words she is given in the play. She speaks of her childhood, of her parents and brother, of Hamlet, and of events leading up to the point at which the play begins.[37]

In non-fiction

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "ophelia - Origin and meaning of the name ophelia by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
  2. ^ Campbell, Mike. "Meaning, origin and history of the name Ophelia". Behind the Name.
  3. ^ Hamlet, Act 1, Scene 3
  4. ^ Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 1
  5. ^ Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2
  6. ^ Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 1
  7. ^ see Hamlet#Language
  8. ^ Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 2
  9. ^ Hamlet, Act 3, Scene 4
  10. ^ Hamlet, Act 4, Scene 5
  11. ^ "Rue". Drugs.com. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  12. ^ For one example of praise, see "The Works of Shakespeare", in 11 volumes (Hamlet in volume 10), edited by Henry N. Hudson, published by James Munroe and Company, 1856: "This exquisite passage is deservedly celebrated. Nothing could better illustrate the Poet's power to make the description of a thing better than the thing itself, by giving us his eyes to see it with."
  13. ^ Hamlet, Act 5, Scene 1
  14. ^ Taylor (2002, 4); Banham (1998, 141); Hattaway asserts that "Richard Burbage [...] played Hieronimo and also Richard III but then was the first Hamlet, Lear, and Othello" (1982, 91); Peter Thomson argues that the identity of Hamlet as Burbage is built into the dramaturgy of several moments of the play: "we will profoundly misjudge the position if we do not recognize that, whilst this is Weiner Hamlet talking about the groundlings, it is also Burbage talking to the groundlings" (1983, 24); see also Thomson (1983, 110) on the first player's beard. A researcher at the British Library feels able to assert only that Burbage "probably" played Hamlet; see its page on Hamlet.
  15. ^ Q1 has the direction, "Enter Ofelia playing on a Lute..."
  16. ^ Showalter (1985, 80–81). In Shakespeare's King John (1595/6), the action of act three, scene four turns on the semiotic values of hair worn up or down and disheveled: Constance enters "distracted, with her hair about her ears" (17); "Lady, you utter madness, and not sorrow", Pandolf rebukes her (43), yet she insists that "I am not mad; this hair I tear is mine" (45); she is repeatedly bid to "bind up your hairs"; she obeys, then subsequently unbinds it again, insisting "I will not keep this form upon my head / When there is such disorder in my wit" (101–102).
  17. ^ Gurr (1992, 193) and Showalter (1985, 80–81).
  18. ^ Showalter (1985, 80–81).
  19. ^ Showalter (1985, 80, 81).
  20. ^ Showalter (1985, 81–82).
  21. ^ Showalter (1985, 82).
  22. ^ William Cullen Bryant & Evert A. Duyckinck (eds.), The Complete Works of Shakespeare, 1888
  23. ^ Some aspects of provincial drama in the eighteenth centuryFrederick T. Wood English Studies, Volume 14, Issue 1 – 6 1932 (p. 73)
  24. ^ a b Packer, Tina (2015). Women of Will: Following the Feminine in Shakespeare's Plays. New York City: Alfred Knopf. p. 190. ASIN B00N6PCXS8.
  25. ^ "Hamlet (1912)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  26. ^ "Hamlet". Variety. 12 May 1948. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  27. ^ Crowther, Bosley (15 September 1964). "Film Festival: Regal Soviet 'Hamlet':Capacity Crowd Fills Philharmonic Hall". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  28. ^ Greenspun, Roger (22 December 1969). "Williamson as 'Hamlet':Richardson Film Based on Debated Version". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  29. ^ "Ophelia Is No Passive Wimp, Helena Bonham-Carter Believes". Los Angeles Times. 22 December 1990. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  30. ^ "Ophelia Learns to Swim". British Universities Film & Video Council. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  31. ^ Zoladz, Lindsay (23 November 2011). "Is "Melancholia" a feminist film?". Salon. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  32. ^ Owen, Paul (12 September 2011). "Poster notes: Melancholia". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  33. ^ Gilbey, Ryan (14 October 2014). "To pout or not to pout: Hamlet goes Bollywood". New Statesman. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  34. ^ Adair, Jamie (5 September 2015). "Sons of Anarchy, The Bastard Executioner, Honor-based Culture". History Behind Game of Thrones. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  35. ^ Schremph, Kelly (10 December 2014). "'Sons of Anarchy' Vs. 'Hamlet'". Bustle. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  36. ^ Giannina, Braschi (2011). United States of Banana. AmazonCrossing. ISBN 9781611090673. OCLC 760912360.
  37. ^ *Tonkin, Boyd, "Singing in the chains: a tongue-tied heroine", The Independent, 16 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2014.

References

  • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43437-8.
  • Charney, Maurice. 2000. Shakespeare on Love & Lust. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10429-4.
  • Gurr, Andrew. 1992. The Shakespearean Stage 1574–1642. Third ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42240-X.
  • Hattaway, Michael. 1982. Elizabethan Popular Theatre: Plays in Performance. Theatre Production ser. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-9052-8.
  • Thomson, Peter. 1983. Shakespeare's Theatre. Theatre Production ser. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-7100-9480-9.
  • Wells, Stanley, and Sarah Stanton, eds. 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage. Cambridge Companions to Literature ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79711-X.

External links

This page was last edited on 11 April 2019, at 15:13
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.