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Knowledge graph

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A knowledge graph is a knowledge base that uses a graph-structured data model. Knowledge graphs are often used to store interlinked descriptions of entities — real-world objects, events, situations or abstract concepts — with free-form semantics,[1] not fitting into a single traditional ontology.[2]

Since the development of the Semantic Web, knowledge graphs are often associated with linked open data projects, focusing on the connections between concepts and entities.[3] The are also prominently associated with and used by search engines such as Google, Bing, and Yahoo; knowledge-engines and question-answering services such as WolframAlpha, Apple's Siri, and Amazon Alexa; and social networks such as LinkedIn and Facebook.

History

The term was coined as early as 1972, in a discussion of how to build modular instructional systems for courses.[4] In the late 1980s, Groningen and Twente universities jointly began a project called Knowledge Graphs, focusing on the design of semantic networks with edges restricted to a limited set of relations, to facilitate algebras on the graph. In subsequent decades, the distinction between semantic networks and knowledge graphs was blurred.

Some early knowledge graphs were topic-specific. In 1985, Wordnet was founded, capturing semantic relationships between words and meanings -- an application of this idea to language itself. In 2005, Marc Wirk founded Geonames to capture relationships between different geographic names and locales and associated entities.

In 2007, both DBpedia and Freebase were founded as graph-based knowledge repositories for general-purpose knowledge. DBpedia focused exclusively on data extracted from Wikipedia, while Freebase also included a range of public datasets. Neither described themselves as a 'knowledge graph' but developed and described related concepts.

In 2012, Google introduced their Knowledge Graph,[5] building on DBpedia and Freebase among other sources. They later incorporated RDFa and microdata formats from indexed web pages, which in time were standardized around vocabularies published by schema.org.[6] The Google Knowledge Graph became a successful complement to string-based search within Google, and its popularity online brought the term into more common use.[6]


Definitions

There is no single commonly accepted definition of a knowledge graph. Popular definitions include:[7]

  • General structure: A large network of entities, their semantic types, properties, and relationships.[8][9]
  • Supporting reasoning over inferred ontologies: A knowledge graph acquires and integrates information into an ontology and applies a reasoner to derive new knowledge. [3]
  • Flexible relations among knowledge in topical domains: A knowledge graph (i) mainly describes real world entities and their interrelations, organized in a graph, (ii) defines possible classes and relations of entities in a schema, (iii) allows for potentially interrelating arbitrary entities with each other, and (iv) covers various topical domains.[10]

Implementations

In addition to the above examples, the term has been used to describe open knowledge projects such as YAGO and Wikidata; federations like the Linked Open Data cloud;[11] a range of commercial search tools, including Yahoo’s semantic search assistant Spark, Google’s Knowledge Vault, and Microsoft’s Satori; and the LinkedIn and Facebook entity graphs.[3]

Using a knowledge graph for reasoning over data

In the case of integrating supplemental data source, a knowledge graph formally represents the meaning involved in information by describing concepts, relationships between things, and categories of things. This supports data inference through connected relations, instead of repeated searching of tables in a relational database.

In machine learning, knowledge graphs can help find latent connections or augment a dataset with other connections between entities.

See also

References

  1. ^ "What is a Knowledge Graph?". 2018.
  2. ^ Ehrlinger, Lisa; Wöß, Wolfram (2016). "Towards a Definition of Knowledge Graphs" (PDF).
  3. ^ a b c Ehrlinger, Lisa; Wöß, Wolfram (2016). Towards a Definition of Knowledge Graphs (pdf). SEMANTiCS2016. Leipzig: Joint Proceedings of the Posters and Demos Track of 12th International Conference on Semantic Systems - SEMANTiCS2016 and 1st International Workshop on Semantic Change & Evolving Semantics (SuCCESS16). pp. 13–16.
  4. ^ Edward W. Schneider. 1973. Course Modularization Applied: The Interface System and Its Implications For Sequence Control and Data Analysis. In Association for the Development of Instructional Systems (ADIS), Chicago, Illinois, April 1972
  5. ^ Singhal, Amit. "Introducing the Knowledge Graph: things, not strings". Official Google Blog. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  6. ^ a b McCusker, James P.; McGuiness, Deborah L. "What is a Knowledge Graph?". www.authorea.com. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  7. ^ Hogan, Aidan; Blomqvist, Eva; Cochez, Michael; d'Amato, Claudia; de Melo, Gerard; Gutierrez, Claudio; Gayo, José Emilio Labra; Kirrane, Sabrina; Neumaier, Sebastian; Polleres, Axel; Navigli, Roberto (2020-04-16). "Knowledge Graphs". arXiv:2003.02320 [cs].
  8. ^ Kroetsch, Markus; Weikum, Gerhard. "Special Issue on Knowledge Graph". Journal of Web Semantics. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  9. ^ "What is a Knowledge Graph?|Onotext". Ontotext. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  10. ^ Paulheim, Heiko (2017). "Knowledge Graph Refinement: A Survey of Approaches and Evaluation Methods" (PDF). Semantic Web Journal: 489–508. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  11. ^ "The Linked Open Data Cloud". lod-cloud.net. Retrieved 2020-06-30.
This page was last edited on 1 July 2020, at 17:39
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