To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Olymp-K
Mission typeMilitary, ELINT
OperatorFSB
COSPAR ID2014-058A[1]
SATCAT no.40258[1]
Mission duration15 years
Spacecraft properties
BusEkspress-2000
ManufacturerJSC Information Satellite Systems
Launch mass3,000 kilograms (6,600 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date28 September 2014, 20:23 (2014-09-28UTC20:23Z) UTC
RocketProton-M/Briz-M
Launch siteBaikonur 81/24[1]
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric 167° East
RegimeGeosynchronous
Perigee altitude35,780 kilometres (22,230 mi)[1]
Apogee altitude35,798 kilometres (22,244 mi)[1]
Inclination0.05 degrees[1]
Period1436.24 minutes[1]
Epoch5 October 2015, 09:00 UTC[1]
 

Olymp-K (Russian: Олимп-К meaning Olympus) is a Russian geostationary satellite built for the Russian Ministry of Defence and Federal Security Service (FSB). The satellite is also referred to as "Luch".[2] It is believed to be a signals intelligence satellite.[2]

Launch

Olymp-K was launched on 28 September 2014. The Proton-M rocket with a Briz-M upper stage launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome launchpad 81/24 in Kazakhstan at 20:23 UTC.[3][1][4] After four burns of the Briz-M upper stage it was placed into geosynchronous transfer orbit.[4][1] In a press release on 28 September 2014, Roscosmos referred to the satellite as "Luch".[5]

Manoeuvres

Following its launch, the Olymp-K satellite made several manoeuvres before settling at 18.1° West longitude around 4 April 2015. The satellite was then positioned in an orbit directly between Intelsat 901, which was located at 18° West, and Intelsat 7, located at 18.2° West.[4] It remained in geosynchronous orbit between the satellites for five months. At times, Olymp-K performed colocation manoeuvres, positioning itself around 10 kilometres from the satellites.[4] In September 2015, the satellite was manoeuvred to a position at 24.4° West, adjacent to the Intelsat 905 satellite.[6] While JFCC SPACE spokesperson and Air Force Captain Nicholas Mercurio said there were three occasions where the Olymp-K satellite had come within five kilometres of another satellite, an industry source indicated that Air Force data were predictions based on drift rates and that Olymp-K's approach had not brought it closer than 10 kilometres to the Intelsat satellites.[4] As of December 2019, the satellite is located at 70.6° East Longitude.[7]

In 2018 France criticised Russia for manoeuvring the satellite close to the French Athena-Fidus satellite. Florence Parly, the French defence minister, accused Russia of "an act of espionage".[2]

Analysis and response

Intelsat criticized the maneouvres, with Intelsat General president Kay Sears saying that "this is not normal behavior and we're concerned."[4] Attempts by Intelsat to contact the owners of the Russian satellite directly and via the US Defense Department did not receive a response. Members of the space community consider the incident to be among the first documented instances of a foreign military satellite approaching a commercial operator in such a manner.[4]

In a 5 October analysis of Russian proximity and rendezvous operations written for the Space Review, Secure World Foundation technical adviser Brian Weeden highlighted Olymp-K's movements. In his paper, he wrote that many Russian space program observers believe the satellite mission involves signals intelligence or communications.[8][4] Observers also speculated whether there is a connection between Olymp-K and the Yenisey A1 (Luch 4) experimental satellite.[6] A Kommersant report indicated that Olymp-K would provide secure governmental communications as well as electronic intelligence (SIGINT).[9] Sources have also reported that the satellite has an onboard laser communications device and will provide the GLONASS system with navigation correction signals.[6]

Olymp-K's maneouvres were reported to have led to several classified meetings within the U.S. Defense Department.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "2014-058". Zarya.info. 2014. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  2. ^ a b c Chrisafis, Angelique (7 September 2018). "'Act of espionage': France accuses Russia of trying to spy on satellite data". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  3. ^ Zak, Anatoly (19 October 2015). "Proton successfully returns to flight delivering a secret Olymp satellite". Russian Space Web.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gruss, Mike (9 October 2015). "Russian Satellite Maneuvers, Silence Worry Intelsat". SpaceNews.
  5. ^ "Космический аппарат «Луч» выведен на расчетную орбиту". Новости Роскосмоса (in Russian). 28 September 2014. Archived from the original on 29 September 2014.
  6. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter Dirk. "Luch (Olimp-K)". space.skyrocket.de. Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
  7. ^ Roberts, Thomas G. (2020). "Unusual Behavior in GEO: Luch (Olymp-K)". CSIS Aerospace Security. Retrieved 1 Jul 2020.
  8. ^ Weeden, Brian (5 October 2015). "Dancing in the dark redux: Recent Russian rendezvous and proximity operations in space (page 2)". The Space Review.
  9. ^ Сафронов, Иван (24 March 2014). "Анатолия Шилова приняли на госслушбу". Газета "Коммерсантъ" (in Russian). p. 2. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
This page was last edited on 19 January 2021, at 04:09
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.