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Old soldiers' home

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Many of the old soldiers' homes in the United States were constructed in high Victorian style, like the New Hampshire Soldiers' Home in Tilton, New Hampshire.
Many of the old soldiers' homes in the United States were constructed in high Victorian style, like the New Hampshire Soldiers' Home in Tilton, New Hampshire.

An old soldiers' home is a military veterans' retirement home, nursing home, or hospital, or sometimes an institution for the care of the widows and orphans of a nation's soldiers, sailors, and marines, etc.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the Royal Hospital Chelsea was established by King Charles II in 1682 as a retreat for veterans.[1] The provision of a hostel rather than the payment of pensions was inspired by Les Invalides in Paris.[1]

The Royal Hospital Chelsea, often called simply Chelsea Hospital,[2] is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army. It is a 66-acre site located on Royal Hospital Road in Chelsea, London. It is an independent charity and relies partly upon donations to cover day-to-day running costs to provide care and accommodation for veterans.

Any man or woman who is over the age of 65 and served as a regular soldier may apply to become a Chelsea Pensioner (i.e. a resident), on the basis they have found themselves in a time of need and are "of good character". They must not, however, have any dependent spouse or family and former Officers must have served at least 12 years in the ranks before receiving a commission.

The site for the Royal Hospital was an area of Chelsea which held an incomplete building "Chelsey College", a theological college James I founded in 1609.[1] The Royal Hospital opened its doors to the Chelsea Pensioners in 1692 for "the relief and succour" of veterans. Some of the first soldiers admitted included those injured at the Battle of Sedgemoor.[3]

The hospital maintains a 'military-based culture which puts a premium on comradeship'. The in-pensioners are formed into three companies, each headed by a Captain of Invalids (an ex-Army officer responsible for the 'day to day welfare, management and administration' of the pensioners under his charge).[4]

There is also a Secretary who traditionally was responsible for paying the Army pensions, but today they look after the annual budget, staff, buildings and grounds. Further senior staff include the Physician & Surgeon, the Matron, the Quartermaster, the Chaplain and the Adjutant.[5]

A Board of Commissioners has governed the Royal Hospital since 1702. The ex-officio chairman of the board is HM Paymaster General (whose predecessor Sir Stephen Fox was instrumental in founding the Hospital in the seventeenth century). The purpose of the Board is 'to guide the development of The Royal Hospital, ensuring the care and well-being of the Chelsea Pensioners who live there and safeguarding the historic buildings and grounds, which it owns in trust'.[6]

Royal Hospital is also a ward of the Kensington and Chelsea Council. The population at the 2011 Census was 7,252.[7]

Greenwich Hospital was a permanent home for retired sailors of the Royal Navy, which operated from 1692 to 1869. Its buildings were later used by the Royal Naval College, Greenwich and the University of Greenwich, and are now known as the Old Royal Naval College. The word "hospital" was used in its original sense of a place providing hospitality for those in need of it, and did not refer to medical care, although the buildings included an infirmary which, after Greenwich Hospital closed, operated as Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital until 1986. The foundation which operated the hospital still exists, for the benefit of former Royal Navy personnel and their dependants. It now provides sheltered housing on other sites.

Sir Oswald Stoll mansions named after Oswald Stoll is based in Fulham Broadway London London London till this day continues to house disabled ex-servicemen and women to this day, but also provides supported housing for veterans suffering from mental ill health, and those who, having left the Forces, have found themselves homeless.[8]

The hospital was created as the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich on the instructions of Queen Mary II, who had been inspired by the sight of wounded sailors returning from the Battle of La Hogue in 1692. She ordered the King Charles wing of the palace—originally designed by architect John Webb for King Charles II in 1664—to be remodelled as a naval hospital to provide a counterpart for the Chelsea Hospital for soldiers. Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor gave their services free of charge as architects of the new Royal Hospital. Sir John Vanbrugh succeeded Wren as architect, completing the complex to Wren's original plans.[9]

Construction was financed through an endowment, financed through the transfer of £19,500 in fines paid by merchants convicted of smuggling in 1695, a public fundraising appeal which brought in £9,000, and a £2,000 annual contribution from Treasury. In 1705 an additional £6,472 was paid into the fund, comprising the liquidated value of estates belonging to the recently hanged pirate Captain William Kidd.[10]

The first of the principal buildings constructed was the King Charles Court (the oldest part dating back to the restoration), completed in 1705. The first governor, Sir William Gifford, took up office in 1708.[11]

United States

Federal homes

The first national veterans' home in the United States was the United States Naval Home approved in 1811 but not opened until 1834 in the Philadelphia Naval Yard. The Naval Home was moved to Gulfport, Mississippi in 1976.[12] It was subsequently opened to veterans of other services and is now the Gulfport Campus of the Armed Forces Retirement Home.[13]

The first Army national old soldiers' home in the U.S. was established in Washington, D.C. in 1851.[14] General Winfield Scott founded the Soldier's Home in Washington, D.C. and another (since fallen into disuse) in Harrodsburg, Kentucky with about $118,000 in leftover proceeds of assessments on occupied Mexican towns and the sale of captured tobacco in the Mexican–American War.[15]

The Old Soldier's Home, now known as the Armed Forces Retirement Home, was the site of President Lincoln's Cottage, a 34-room Gothic Revival cottage, which served as Lincoln's summer home during the American Civil War.[16] It is adjacent to National Cemetery, the first federal military cemetery in the United States. The Home has remained in continuous use since its establishment. It is located on a 250-acre (1.0 km2) wooded campus overlooking the U.S. Capitol in the heart of Washington, D.C., three miles from the White House,[16] and continues to serve as a retirement home for U.S. enlisted men and women. Both the Washington, D.C. and Gulfport soldiers' and sailors' homes are funded through a small monthly contribution from the pay of members of the U.S. Armed Services.

Following the American Civil War the federal government increased the number of National Military Homes, and took over a few formerly state-run old soldiers' homes. By 1933 there were 17 federally managed veterans homes. All except the first two of these homes were eventually combined with other federal government agencies to become part of what is now called the Veterans Administration, or U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs established in 1930.[citation needed]

State homes

Caring for the disabled and elderly, and the widows and orphans of men who died in the war became a concern even before the Civil War ended. For example, in 1864 Fitch's Home for Soldiers and Their Orphans was opened with private donations in Connecticut. Various female benevolent societies pushed for the creation of a long-term care federal or state soldier home system at the end of the war.[17] Large veterans organizations like the Grand Army of the Republic[18][19] and United Confederate Veterans eventually also worked for the creation of federal and state homes to care for disabled or elderly veterans. In a few cases veterans organizations on their own raised the money to buy property and build veterans homes. Most of these were quickly turned over to the state government to fund and manage. The majority of state legislatures established veterans homes paid for by state monies from the start. 43 states managed 55 functioning state veterans homes before 1933. Fourteen of those states also had a federal veterans home open at the same time as their state veterans home.

Eleven states had two or more state veterans homes in operation at the same time (two of which also had a federal home). Some states simply had several homes at once. A few states admitted veterans' widows, and a few other states established separate homes for the widows and orphans. A few states had separate Union and Confederate old soldiers' homes. The first of 16 Confederate homes was opened in 1881 in Georgetown, Kentucky.[20] Confederate soldiers' homes were supported entirely by subscribers or by the states, with no funds from the federal government against which the Confederates had fought.

A few state-run old soldiers' homes were eventually folded into the federal veterans home system. As their last few Civil War veterans were dying in the 1930s, some states chose to close their old soldiers' homes, and other states began admission of veterans from more recent wars. Several of these state old soldiers' homes have been modernized and stop serve veterans.

City homes

Soldier homes in major cities were among the earliest, usually starting more as hotels for men passing through town, but increasingly taking on disabled servicemen. These were usually operated as paying businesses rather than being fully funded by the government.[17] Philadelphia had two soldiers' homes which were associated with nearby saloons and got their start as a part of the refreshment and lodging business.[21] Women activists also helped establish disabled soldiers' homes in Boston, Chicago, and Milwaukee, or in conjunction with the U.S. Sanitary Commission in 25 other cities. The Boston home closed in 1869, the Philadelphia homes closed in 1872, the Chicago Soldiers' Home lasted until 1877, and Milwaukee turned into a federal home.[22]

US Sanitary Commission homes, lodges, and rest

During the Civil War, the US Sanitary Commission provided Union servicemen "[t]emporary aid and protection,—food, lodging, care, etc.,—for soldiers in transitn[sic], chiefly the discharged, disabled, and furloughed." By 1865 the Commission operated 18 "soldiers' homes," 11 "lodges," and one "rest" in 15 states north and south (for a list see Commission bulletin, 3:1279). Most of their homes were war-time facilities and were closed at war's end. They are not included in the following list.

List of historic old soldiers' and sailors' homes in the United States

(By state)[23]

Soldiers home in Dayton, Ohio
Soldiers home in Dayton, Ohio
Soldier's Home, Hampton, Va

See also


  1. ^ a b c Guidebook, p. 3
  2. ^ Weinreb, Ben and Hibbert, Christopher (1992). The London Encyclopaedia (reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 149.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ Whiles, John (1985). Sedgemoor 1685 (2nd ed.). Chippenham: Picton Publishing. ISBN 978-0948251009.
  4. ^ "The living might not be easy - but at least it's free..." The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  5. ^ Annual Report, 2011
  6. ^ Corporate Information Royal Hospital Chelsea. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  7. ^ "Kensington and Chelsea Ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  8. ^
  9. ^ J. Bold, P. Guillery, D. Kendall, Greenwich: an architectural history of the Royal Hospital for Seamen and the Queen's House (Yale University Press) 2001.
  10. ^ Kemp, Peter (1970). The British Sailor: a Social History of the Lower Deck. Aldine Press. p. 64. ISBN 0460039571.
  11. ^ "Memorial: M2378". Maritime Memorials. National Maritime Museum. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  12. ^ a b "US History Encyclopedia: Soldiers' Home" in at (Retrieved 4 January 2010), and Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries (PACSCL), "Views of the U.S. Naval Asylum and Hospital, Philadelphia" in Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries at (Retrieved 4 January 2010).
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Ellis, Angela; Carl S. McCarthy. "Soldiers' Home." Dictionary of American History. The Gale Group Inc. 2003. (29 December 2009).
  15. ^ a b Ulysses S. Grant (1 November 2007). Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant. Cosimo, Inc. pp. 58–9 (note). ISBN 978-1-60206-918-3.
  16. ^ a b "Lincoln's Cottage--Presidents: A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary". Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  17. ^ a b Trevor K. Plante, "Genealogy Notes: The National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers" in Prologue Magazine [Online] Spring 2004, Vol. 36, No. 1 at (Retrieved 17 December 2009).
  18. ^ "The Grand Army of the Republic and Kindred Societies (Main Reading Room, Library of Congress)". Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Grand Army of the Republic - Kansapedia - Kansas Historical Society". Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  20. ^ R. B. Rosenburg, Living Monuments: Confederate Soldier's Homes in the New South (Chapel Hill, N.C.: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1993), 28–29, citing Georgetown Weekly Times, 13 July; 30 November 1881; 14 November 1883; "Confederate Soldiers' Home," "Subscribers to Confederate Soldiers' Home and Widows' and Orphans' Asylum," Kentucky State Archives, Frankfort; Southern Historical Society Papers, 11 (1883): 432.
  21. ^ Library Company of Philadelphia, "McA 5778.F Civil War Volunteer Saloons and Hospitals Ephemera Collection 1861‐1868" ([Philadelphia, Pa.: LCP, 2006), 5. Digitized at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  22. ^ Andrews, Barbara (2012). Postcard Collector. Penguin. ISBN 9781440234934.
  23. ^ This list does not include soldiers' orphans' homes separate from the old soldiers' home, nor U.S. Sanitary Commission soldiers' homes.
  24. ^ R. B. Rosenburg, Living Monuments: Confederate Soldier's Homes in the New South (Chapel Hill, N.C.: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1993), 215, says the Alabama Dept. of Archives and History, Montgomery, has cemetery rosters, insurance papers, and superintendent reports.
  25. ^ "VA Hospital Began with 250 Beds, Now Has 2,307" in The Tuskegee News, 8 February 1973. At archived on 27 January 2010
  26. ^ Rosenburg, 215, says the Arkansas State Archives, Little Rock, has applications for admission, Board of Managers reports, and superintendent's reports.
  27. ^ National Archives and Records Administration, "15.3 Records Relating to the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers and the National Homes Service, Veterans Administration 1866–1938," in Guide to Federal Records at (Retrieved 2 January 2010).
  28. ^ California Dept. of Veterans Affairs, "The Veterans Home of California, Yountville" in California Dept. of Veterans Affairs [Internet site] at Archived 15 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 24 November 2009).
  29. ^ O'DEA GAUGHAN, Timothy (22 March 2009). "Veterans Home marks 125 years". Napa Valley Register. Napa, CA: Lee Enterprises, Inc. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  30. ^ Colorado Dept. of Humans Services, "Colorado State and Veterans Nursing Homes" at Archived 28 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 25 November 2009).
  31. ^ Connecticut Department of Veterans' Affairs, "History of Connecticut Veterans' Home" [Internet site] at (Retrieved 15 January 2010).
  32. ^ U.S. Soldiers' and Airmens' Home (USSAH), "History of the U.S. Soldiers' Home" at (Retrieved 3 December 2009).
  33. ^ Rosenburg, 215 and 218, says the Jacksonville Public Library, Jacksonville, has applications for admission, Board of Directors letters received, and Florida Soldiers' Home Papers.
  34. ^ National Archives, "The National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers-Branches of the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers," in Prologue Magazine Spring 2004, Vol. 36, No. 1 at (Retrieved 25 November 2009).
  35. ^ Rosenburg, 215 and 218, says the Georgia Dept. of Archives and History, Atlanta, has applications for admission, Board of Trustees letters received, minutes, and reports, hospital record book, invoices, list of persons subscribing contributions, payrolls, record of miscellaneous functions, record of admissions, discharges and deaths, record of donations, register of inmates, George N. Saussey Diary, and visitors' register, and the Atlanta Historical Society, Atlanta, has a Confederate veterans file.
  36. ^ Boise Idaho Veterans Home at (Retrieved 2 December 2009).
  37. ^ A.T. Andreas, History of Chicago: from the Earliest Period to the Present Time (Chicago: A.T. Andreas, 1884–1886; Digitized by BYU Family History Archives) 2:310-13.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h, "U.S. National Homes for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, 1866–1938" in at (Retrieved 29 December 2009).
  39. ^ University of Illinois at Chicago, University Library, "Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War: An inventory of the collection at the University of Illinois at Chicago" in Special Collections Finding Aids at (Retrieved 31 December 2009).
  40. ^ Illinois Veterans' Home [Internet site] at Archived 3 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 30 December 2009).
  41. ^ Oakwood Cemetery Association of Wilmington, Illinois, "Soldiers' Widows' Home," in Oakwood Cemetery, Wilmington, Illinois at (Retrieved 4 December 2009).
  42. ^ Friends of the Indiana State Archives, "Indiana State Soldiers' Home" in Friends of the Indiana State Archives Archives Collections at Archived 16 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 1 January 2010).
  43. ^ "Iowa Veterans Home > Home". Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  44. ^ Ford County Historical Society, "4th of July, 1890 Fort Dodge, Kansas Soldiers Home" at (Retrieved 4 December 2009).
  45. ^ Rosenburg, 216, says the Kentucky State Archives, Frankfort, has a list of Subscribers to the Confederate Soldiers' Home and Widows' and Orphans' Asylum.
  46. ^ Rosenburg, 216, says the Kentucky State Archives, Frankfort, has Board of Trustees minutes, clothing issue book, commandant reports, hospital register, inmates register, miscellaneous reports, officer and employee payroll, physician and undertaker records, purchase ledgers, and rules and regulations.
  47. ^ Rosenburg, 216, says the Louisiana Historical Association Collection at the Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane Univ., New Orleans, has Board of Directors correspondence, House Committee reports, Investigating Committee reports, membership lists, minutes, President reports, reports 1886–1938, Secretary reports; clippings and pamphlets, financial reports, rules and regulations, Superintendent reports, and Surgeon reports.
  48. ^ "The National Home For Disabled Volunteer Soldiers A Memorandum 1917" in Dayton History Books Online at (Retrieved 4 December 2009).
  49. ^ Maryland Historical Society, "Maryland Line Confederate Soldiers' Home Collection" at (Retrieved 4 December 2009).
  50. ^ Associated Topeka Libraries Automated System catalog description citing Discharged Soldiers' Home (Boston, Mass.), "Sixth Annual Report of the Discharged Soldiers' Home [microform] : with the Constitution, By-laws, and a List of the Officers" (Boston: Press of Geo. C. Rand and Avery, 1868) at[permanent dead link] (Retrieved 18 December 2009), and "Sixth Annual Report of the Board of State Charities of Massachusetts" (Boston, Mass.: Wright and Potter, 1870). Digitized by Google Books at (Retrieved 18 December 2009), 111–13.]
  51. ^ Gerard W. Brown, Chapter 7: "The Soldiers' Home" in Chelsea, Postcard history series (Charleston, S.C.: Archadia Publishing, 2004), 99–108. Digitized by Google Books at'+home+chelsea&source=bl&ots=vtU9d5PAtM&sig=0q-8ksoQQNRDh9AqYZ7q0q1RiEs&hl=en&ei=W51DS63XD438MIi1tY4J&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CAwQ6AEwAjge#v=onepage&q=soldiers'%20home%20chelsea&f=false= (Retrieved 5 January 2010).
  52. ^ "Soldiers' Home in Holyoke". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  53. ^ Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan, "Soldier's and Sailor's Homes Records" at Archived 6 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 7 January 2010).
  54. ^ "Minnesota Soldiers Home, 5101 Minnehaha Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota - Placeography". Retrieved 16 January 2010{{inconsistent citations}}CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  55. ^ Rosenburg, 216, says the William D. McCain Library, Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, has Board of Directors correspondence, minute books 1920–1936, and reports, and the Mississippi Dept. of Archives and History, Jackson, has the register of inmates.
  56. ^ United States Department of Veterans Affairs, "VA Gulf Coast Veterans Health Care System-About this Facility" at (Retrieved 7 January 2010).
  57. ^ State Historical Society of Missouri, "Missouri. Confederate Home, Higginsville, Records, 1897–1944 (C0066" at (Retrieved 25 June 2013).
  58. ^ a b National Archives, "The National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers-State Run Homes (in 1922)," in Prologue Magazine Spring 2004, Vol. 36, No. 1 at (Retrieved 25 November 2009).
  59. ^[permanent dead link] (Retrieved 8 January 2010).
  60. ^ "Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Grand Island, Neb.- Historical Notes" in Nebraska Memories at (Retrieved 8 January 2010).
  61. ^ Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, Department of New Hampshire, "Veterans Helping Veterans Group at NH Home" at (Retrieved 9 January 2010).
  62. ^ Kearny High School "Home for Disabled Soldiers" in Kearny Photos: Landmarks [Internet site] at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (Retrieved 5 December 2009), and Deborah Fitts, "Kearny Veterans Home Statue Will Be Replaced" in Civil War News [Internet site] at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (Retrieved 5 December 2009).
  63. ^ Deborah Fitts, "Kearny Veterans Home Statue Will Be Replaced" in Civil War News [Internet site] at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (Retrieved 5 December 2009).
  64. ^ Frank John Urquhart, History of the City of Newark, New Jersey (New York: Lewis Historical Publ., 1913; digitized by Google Book, 2006), 2:719.
  65. ^ State of New Jersey, Dept. of Military and Veterans Affairs, "New Jersey Veterans Memorial Homes" at (Retrieved 5 December 2009).
  66. ^ New York State Legislature, Documents of the Senate of the State of New York – One Hundred and Fortieth Session (Albany, N.Y.: J.B. Lyon Co., 1917; Digitized by Google Books), 133 (Retrieved 12 January 2010).
  67. ^ "18. Confederate Women's Home Historical Marker" in Fayetteville, N.C. Military Sites Tour Map at Archived 20 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 13 January 2010). The home's ending date can be estimated from an article discussing the use of the Home's chapel by others in 1945: Haymount United Methodist Church, "Church History" at Archived 2 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 13 January 2010).
  68. ^ Rosenburg, 216-17, says the North Carolina Div. of Archives and History, Raleigh, has Board of Incorporators minutes, building and maintenance expenses, drug and whiskey account, hospital record of patients, hospital register, inmate expenses, inmate record, inmate register, inmate roll book, ledger accounts paid, record of clothing issued, Superintendent's inmate behavior log, visitors' register, and warrants and weekly payroll.
  69. ^ North Dakota Veterans Home, "History of the North Dakota Veterans Home" at (Retrieved 5 December 2009).
  70. ^ "Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home" in Ohio History Central: An Online encyclopedia of Ohio History at (Retrieved 18 January 2010).
  71. ^ "Oklahoma Veterans Center, Ardmore, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Confederate Home, 1911–1942)" in at Archived 8 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 15 December 2009).
  72. ^ Doug Loudenback, "The Union Soldier's Home" in Doug Dawgz Blog at (Retrieved 15 December 2009), citing The Oklahoman's [newspaper?] archives.
  73. ^ United States, Dept. of Veterans Affairs, "Cemeteries – Roseburg National Cemetery" at (Retrieved 15 December 2009).
  74. ^ Ray, Wm. Stanley (1904). Report of Trustees of the Pennsylvania Soldiers and Sailors Home at Erie. State Printer of Pennsylvania. p. 17. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  75. ^ Library Company of Philadelphia, "McA 5778.F Civil War Volunteer Saloons and Hospitals Ephemera Collection 1861‐1868" (Philadelphia, Pa.: LCP, 2006; Digitized by LCP), 5.
  76. ^ "Philadelphia City National Cemetery Haines Street and Limekiln Pike Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19138" at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 19 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (Retrieved 16 December 2009), page 223.
  77. ^ Rhode Island. Dept. of State, "Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home" in Manual, with rules and orders, for the use of the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island, 1912 (Providence, R.I.: E.L. Freeman, 1912; Digitized by Google Books), 278 at'+Home&source=bl&ots=JH6He0Zofu&sig=UqZ_E4tDsHPzLanYBHUg7TZ9P4U&hl=en&ei=utNUS-jwHoiWtgefs4yoCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CBQQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=Rhode%20Island%20Soldiers'%20Home&f=false (Retrieved 18 January 2010).
  78. ^ South Carolina Department of Archives and History, "Confederate Home and Infirmary Applications" in Research at the Archives at{34FB3DAA-B858-4705-8B19-6584274CFD5B} (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  79. ^ United States, National Archives, "Sample Case Files of Members, Battle Mountain Sanitarium, 1907–1934" in Selected Military Personnel Records in ARC at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  80. ^ Hikenutty, "State Soldiers' Home – Hot Springs, South Dakota" at (Retrieved 18 January 2010).
  81. ^ "Confederate Soldiers' Home and Cemetery" in The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  82. ^ "Texas Confederate Home" in The Handbook of Texas Online at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  83. ^ "Confederate Woman's Home" in The Handbook of Texas Online at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  84. ^ "A Brief History of the Soldiers' Home of Vermont" in Vermont Veterans' Home at Archived 28 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 18 January 2010).
  85. ^ Library of Virginia, "About the Robert E. Lee Camp Confederate Soldiers' Home" in Library of Virginia at (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  86. ^ Washington State Dept. of Veterans Affairs, "WA Veterans Home" at Archived 7 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  87. ^ Washington State Dept. of Veterans Affairs, "Washington Veterans Home" at Archived 7 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 16 December 2009).
  88. ^ "Grand Army Home, King, Waupaca County, Wisconsin" . retrieved 18 January 2010.
  89. ^ National Trust for Historic Preservation: Milwaukee VA Soldiers Home
  90. ^ National Trust for Historic Preservation: National Soldiers Home Historic District, NTHP List of 11 Most Endangered Historic Places (2015).
  91. ^ National Park Service: Veterans Affairs National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Milwaukee, NPS Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary.
  92. ^ About the Milwaukee Soldiers Home
  93. ^ Grace Raymond Hebard, Government of Wyoming: The History, Constitution, and Administration of Affairs, 8th ed. (San Francisco, Calif.: C.F. Weber, 1919; Digitized by Google Books), page 265 footnote (a).
  94. ^ Mary and Don Saban, "Fort McKinney" in U.S. Army Frontier Posts in Wyoming at Archived 28 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 16 December 2009), and Grace Raymond Hebard, Government of Wyoming: The History, Constitution, and Administration of Affairs, 8th ed. (San Francisco, Calif.: C.F. Weber, 1919; Digitized by Google Book), page 265 footnote (a).

External links

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