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Octet (computing)

octet
Unit systemunits derived from bit
Unit ofdigital information, data size
Symbolo
In primary units of information1 o = 8 bits

The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits. The term is often used when the term byte might be ambiguous, as the byte has historically been used for storage units of a variety of sizes.

The term octad(e) for eight bits is no longer common.[1][2]

Definition

A variable-length sequence of octets, as in Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1), is referred to as an octet string.

The international standard IEC 60027-2, chapter 3.8.2, states that a byte is an octet of bits. However, the unit byte has historically been platform-dependent and has represented various storage sizes in the history of computing. Due to the influence of several major computer architectures and product lines, the byte became overwhelmingly associated with eight bits. This meaning of byte is codified in such standards as ISO/IEC 80000-13. While byte and octet are often used synonymously, those working with certain legacy systems are careful to avoid ambiguity.[citation needed]

Octets can be represented using number systems of varying bases such as the hexadecimal, decimal, or octal number systems. The binary value of all eight bits set (or activated) is 111111112, equal to the hexadecimal value FF16, the decimal value 25510, and the octal value 3778. One octet can be used to represent decimal values ranging from 0 to 255.

The term octet (symbol: o[nb 1]) is often used when the use of byte might be ambiguous. It is frequently used in the Request for Comments (RFC) publications of the Internet Engineering Task Force to describe storage sizes of network protocol parameters. The earliest example is RFC 635 from 1974. In 2000, Bob Bemer claimed to have earlier proposed the usage of the term octet for "8-bit bytes" when he headed software operations for Cie. Bull in France in 1965 to 1966.[3]

In France, French Canada and Romania, octet is used in common language instead of byte when the 8-bit sense is required, for example, a megabyte (MB) is termed a megaoctet (Mo).

Historically, in Western Europe, the term octad (or octade) was used to specifically denote 8 bits;[2][1] however, this usage is no longer common. Early examples of usage exist in British,[2] Dutch and German sources of the 1960s and 1970s, and throughout the documentation of Philips mainframe computers.[1] Similar terms are triad for a grouping of three and decade for ten.

Unit multiples

Unit multiples of the octet may be formed with SI prefixes and binary prefixes (power of 2 prefixes) as standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission during 1998.

SI Prefixes
kilooctet (ko) = 103 octets = 1000 octets
megaoctet (Mo) = 106 octets = 1000 ko = 1000000 octets
gigaoctet (Go) = 109 octets = 1000 Mo = 1000000000 octets
teraoctet (To) = 1012 octets = 1000 Go = 1000000000000 octets
petaoctet (Po) = 1015 octets = 1000 To = 1000000000000000 octets
exaoctet (Eo) = 1018 octets = 1000 Po = 1000000000000000000 octets
zettaoctet (Zo) = 1021 octets = 1000 Eo = 1000000000000000000000 octets
yottaoctet (Yo) = 1024 octets = 1000 Zo = 1000000000000000000000000 octets
Binary Prefixes
kibioctet (Kio, also written Ko, as distinct from ko) = 210 octets = 1024 octets
mebioctet (Mio) = 220 octets = 1024 Kio = 1048576 octets
gibioctet (Gio) = 230 octets = 1024 Mio = 1073741824 octets
tebioctet (Tio) = 240 octets = 1024 Gio = 1099511627776 octets
pebioctet (Pio) = 250 octets = 1024 Tio = 1125899906842624 octets
exbioctet (Eio) = 260 octets = 1024 Pio = 1152921504606846976 octets
zebioctet (Zio) = 270 octets = 1024 Eio = 1180591620717411303424 octets
yobioctet (Yio) = 280 octets = 1024 Zio = 1208925819614629174706176 octets

The octet is used to represent Internet Protocol computer network addresses.[4] An IPv4 address consists of four octets, usually shown individually as a series of decimal values ranging from 0 to 255, each separated by a full stop (dot). Using octets with all eight bits set, the representation of the highest numbered IPv4 address is 255.255.255.255.

An IPv6 address consists of sixteen octets, shown using hexadecimal representation (two digits per octet) and using a colon character (:) after each pair of octets (16 bits also known as hextet) for readability, like this FE80:0000:0000:0000:0123:4567:89AB:CDEF. If two or more consecutive octets equal zero they may be replaced by two following colon characters (::) but this can be used only once in a given IPv6 address to avoid ambiguity. The previously given IPv6 address can thus also be written as FE80::0123:4567:89AB:CDEF. In addition leading zeroes may also be omitted as they are not significant bits in the address. Applying this to the previous example mentioned will result in an IPv6 address of FE80::123:4567:89AB:CDEF.