To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oberst (German pronunciation: [ˈoːbɐst]) is a senior field officer rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to Colonel.[1] It is currently used by both the ground and air forces of Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, and Norway. The Swedish rank överste is a direct translation, as are the Finnish rank eversti and the Icelandic rank ofursti.

History and origins

Oberst is a German word. Spelled with a capital O, "Oberst" is a noun and defines the military rank of colonel or group captain. Spelled with a lower case o, or "oberst", it is an adjective, meaning "top, topmost, uppermost, highest, chief, head, first, principal, or supreme". Both usages derive from the superlative of ober(e), "the upper" or "the uppermost".[citation needed]

As a family name, Oberst is common in the southwest of Germany, in the area known as the Black Forest (Schwarzwald). The name is also concentrated in the north-central cantons of Switzerland (Aargau & Zürich). Here the Swiss version of Oberst is spelled Obrist. The name first appeared in the thirteenth century in the German-Swiss border area, and early forms were Zoberist and Oberist. The name most likely refers to the "tribe that lives the highest on the mountain" or "the family that lives the highest in the village".[citation needed]

Translated as "superior" or "supreme", the rank of Oberst can trace its origins to the Middle Ages where the term most likely described the senior knight on a battlefield or the senior captain in a regiment. With the emergence of professional armies in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, an Oberst became the commander of regiment or battalion-sized formations.[citation needed]

By the eighteenth century, Obersten were typically afforded aides or lieutenants, often titled Oberstleutnant. This led to formation of the modern German rank of the same name, translated as lieutenant colonel.[citation needed]


Having a long, shared political and cultural history with Germany, the Austrian armed forces have adopted many of the same terms and rank names for their armed forces (Der Bundesheer) that the German Armed Forces use.


The Danish rank of oberst is based around the German term.[2] Ranked OF-5 within NATO and having the paygrade of M402.,[3] it is used in the Royal Danish Army and the Royal Danish Air Force.


HD H 53 Oberst ABCAbw.svg
LD B 53 Oberst.svg
Country Germany
Service branch German Army
 German Air Force
Rank groupCommissioned officer
NATO rank codeOF-5
Pay gradeA16 or B3
Formation1956 (current)
Next higher rankBrigadegeneral
Next lower rankOberstleutnant
Equivalent ranksKapitän zur See

Oberst (short: O) is the highest staff officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and the German Air Force (Luftwaffe).

Oberst in the Bundeswehr

The rank is rated OF-5 in NATO, and is grade A16 or B3 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence. It is equivalent to:

On the shoulder straps (Heer, Luftwaffe) there are three silver pips (stars) in silver oak leaves.

Heer Luftwaffe

Oberst in East Germany

Oberst was in the so-called armed organs of the GDR (German: Bewaffnete Organe der DDR), represented by Ministry of National Defence, and Ministry for State Security, the highest field officer rank, comparable to the colonel in many NATO-Armed forces (Rangcode OF-5). This was in reference to Soviet military doctrine and in line with other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact.

Branch Stasi Land forces Air Force Border troops Volksmarine
GDR Army OF5 Oberst.gif
OF-5 Oberst Pz.png
OF-5 Kapitän zur See.png
OF-5 Kapitän zur See VM, Ärmelstreifen.png
Kapitän zur See
junior rank
Flag of NVA (East Germany).svg

National People's Army rank
(Kapitän zur See)
senior rank

Oberst in the Wehrmacht

Oberst was in the German Reich, and Nazi Germany the highest field officer rank, comparable to the OF-5 rank in many NATO-Armed forces. It was equivalent to Kapitän zur See in the Kriegsmarine, and SS-Standartenführer in the Waffen-SS until 1945.

Branch German Army Luftwaffe Waffen-SS Kriegsmarine
Collar tabs of Offiziere of the Heer.svg
Luftwaffe collar tabs Oberst 3D.svg
SS-Standartenführer Collar Rank.svg
WMacht H OF5 Oberst Inf h.svg
Wehrmach Lw Oberst 1945h.svg
SS-Standartenführer h.svg
Kriegsmarine KptzS.svg
Oberst Staf OF5 cam slv 1945.svg
Luftwaffe flightsuit Oberst.svg
Oberst Staf OF5 cam slv 1945.svg
Kriegsmarine-Kapitän zur See.svg
der Waffen-SS
Kapitän zur See
junior rank:

(German officer rank)
(Kapitän zur See)

senior rank:


The rank of oberst was introduced around the same time as Denmark, as Norway at the time was part of Denmark–Norway.[4]


The Swedish variant Överste, is the most senior field grade military officer rank in the Swedish Army and the Swedish Air Force, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the Swedish Navy.[5]


Swiss Guard


  1. ^ STANAG 2116, pp. A-2, A-5, C-2, C-5.
  2. ^ Editors 1935, p. 3.
  3. ^ Ministry of Defence 2017.
  4. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 493.
  5. ^ "Förordning om ändring i officersförordningen (1994:882)" (PDF) (in Swedish). Swedish Code of Statutes. 26 June 2000. p. 2. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  • Editors (12 February 1935). "Grads-Betegnelserne i Hæren". Danske Soldater (in Danish). 2 (2).CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  • Military Committee Land Standardization Board (13 January 2021). STANAG 2116 (7th ed.). NATO Standardization Agency.
  • Ministry of Defence (9 January 2017). "Historik". (in Danish). Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  • Petersen, Karsten Skjold (2014). Kongens klæder - Hærens uniformer og udrustning i Danmark-Norge (in Danish) (1st ed.). Slovenia: Historika. ISBN 9788793229006.
This page was last edited on 14 July 2021, at 19:21
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.