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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Number sign
apostrophe  '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash ‒  –  —  ―
ellipsis  ...      
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
guillemets ‹ ›  « »
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /    
Word dividers
interpunct ·
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
basis point
caret ^
dagger † ‡ ⹋
degree °
ditto mark
equals sign =
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
komejirushi, kome, reference mark
multiplication sign ×
number sign, pound, hash #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
plus, minus + −
plus-minus, minus-plus ± ∓
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
copyleft 🄯
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
currency sign ¤

؋฿¢$֏ƒ£元 圆 圓 ¥ 円

Uncommon typography
fleuron, hedera
index, fist
irony punctuation
In other scripts

The symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign,[1] hash,[2] or pound sign.[3] The symbol has historically been used for a wide range of purposes, including the designation of an ordinal number and as a ligatured abbreviation for pounds avoirdupois (having been derived from the now-rare ℔).[4]

Since 2007, widespread usage of the symbol to introduce metadata tags on social media platforms has led to such tags being known as "hashtags"[5] and from that, the symbol itself is sometimes called a "hashtag".[6]

The symbol is defined in Unicode and ASCII as U+0023 # Number sign (HTML #) and # in HTML5.[7] It is graphically similar to several other symbols, including the sharp () from musical nomenclature and the equal-and-parallel symbol (⋕) from mathematics, but is distinguished by its combination of level horizontal strokes and right-tilting vertical strokes.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Pre-Algebra 8 - Multiplying Negative Numbers
  • Learn How to Sign the Word Number
  • Rainbow Loom Band # Hashtag Number Sign Charm
  • REAL Cedar House Number Sign: Custom Design Engraving Cutting
  • Why Do We Flip the (Inequality) Sign When Dividing by a Negative?


Hello. I'm Professor Von Schmohawk and welcome to Why U. In our lectures, so far we have discussed multiplying positive numbers. But what happens when we multiply negative numbers? With the invention of negative numbers the rules of multiplication had to be expanded to allow the operands to be either positive or negative. The rules of multiplication were picked so as to keep everything consistent. For instance, since one is the multiplicative identity if a number is multiplied by one we should expect that the number’s value and sign will not change. Therefore, multiplying a positive number times a positive number must produce a positive result and multiplying a positive number times a negative number must produce a negative result. Because of the commutative property of multiplication we should be able to swap the operands and get the same result. So if either operand is negative we must still get a negative result. But what if both operands are negative? If two negative numbers are multiplied, should the product be positive or negative? Let’s try it both ways and see what happens. Let’s multiply six minus four, times negative one. We know what the answer should be. Six minus four is two. And we already have shown that the product of a negative and positive number must be negative. So the answer must be negative two. But instead, let’s say we use the distributive property and multiply negative one times each number in the parentheses separately. We then have negative one times six plus negative one times negative four. We know that negative one times six is negative six. But we don’t know what sign the product should be when we multiply two negative numbers. Is negative one times negative four negative four or positive four? Let’s try both possibilities and see which one gives us the correct answer. If we assume that multiplying two negative numbers results in a negative product then we end up adding negative four to negative six which equals negative ten. But the answer should be negative two so this is not correct. The other possibility is that multiplying two negative numbers gives a positive result. In that case, negative one times negative four would be positive four. We then add positive four to negative six which gives us negative two the correct answer. So, we get the correct answer if we make the rule that the product of two negative numbers is positive. Now we know what sign the result should be when we multiply two numbers of any sign. Multiplying two numbers with the same sign always gives a positive result. And multiplying two numbers with opposite signs always gives a negative result. Understanding this, can help us simplify multiplication problems involving multiple numbers of different signs. Let's say that we have a bunch of positive and negative numbers which are multiplied. The commutative property of multiplication says that we can arrange these numbers in any way we like so let's group pairs of negative numbers together. Each pair of negative numbers creates the same result as if the pair was positive so we can change their signs to positive without changing the result of the multiplication. Since there was an even number of negative numbers after each pair of negatives was changed to positives there were no negative numbers left over. Therefore, the result of the multiplication is positive. Now, let's see what happens if we have an odd number of negative numbers. Once again, we group the negative numbers into pairs and change their signs but one unpaired negative number is left. So this time, the result of the multiplication is negative. Here is another interesting trick which can come in handy. Multiplying any positive number, which we will call A, by negative one switches its sign to negative. Likewise, multiplying any negative number by negative one will switch its sign to positive. Now, let’s say that we have a sum of several numbers of various signs. If we enclose the sum in parentheses and multiply by negative one the distributive property says that this is the same as multiplying each number individually by negative one which switches the sign of each number. So multiplying a sum of numbers in parentheses by negative one switches the sign of each number. Instead of multiplying by negative one we could just put a negative sign in front of the parentheses which means exactly the same thing. So a negative sign in front of a parentheses has the same effect as switching the sign of each number summed in the parentheses. Here’s one more trick using the distributive property. Let's say we start with A minus B. If we enclose this in parentheses with a negative sign in front it switches the sign of each number. Using the commutative property, we can then swap the positions of the two numbers and the result is that we now have B minus A. So placing a negative sign in front of two numbers which are subtracted swaps the two numbers. We have seen that with the invention of negative numbers the rules of multiplication had to be expanded to allow numbers of any sign to be multiplied. We have shown that these rules were picked in a way that kept things consistent. Since positive one is the multiplicative identity it made sense that multiplying a number by a positive number should not change that number’s sign. Since we don’t want to break the commutative property we must also make the rule that if either one of the operands is negative the result must be negative. And if we don’t want to break the distributive property we must make the rule that if both operands are negative, the result must be positive. So we now have a set of rules which allow us to multiply integers of any sign. In the next few lectures we will explore the properties of division and see how this operation forced the world to create a new type of number.



A stylized version of the abbreviation for libra pondo ("pound weight").
A stylized version of the abbreviation for libra pondo ("pound weight").
The abbreviation written by Isaac Newton, showing the evolution from ℔ toward #.
The abbreviation written by Isaac Newton, showing the evolution from ℔ toward #.

It is believed that the symbol traces its origins to the symbol ℔, an abbreviation of the Roman term libra pondo, which translates as "pound weight".[8][9] This abbreviation was printed with a dedicated ligature type, with a horizontal line across, so that the lowercase letter "l" would not be mistaken for the numeral "1". Ultimately, the symbol was reduced for clarity as an overlay of two horizontal strokes "=" across two slash-like strokes "//".[9] Examples of it being used to indicate pounds exist at least as far back as 1850.[10]

The symbol is described as the "number" character in an 1853 treatise on bookkeeping.[11] and its double meaning is described in a bookkeeping text from 1880.[12] The instruction manual of the Blickensderfer model 5 typewriter (c. 1896) appears to refer to the symbol as the "number mark".[13] Some early 20th-century U.S. sources refer to it as the "number sign",[14] although this could also refer to the numero sign.[15] A 1917 manual distinguishes between two uses of the sign: "number (written before a figure)"; and "pounds (written after a figure)".[16]

The use of the phrase "pound sign" to refer to this symbol is found from 1932 in U.S. usage. Before this time, and still outside the United States, the term "pound sign" was used to refer to the pound currency symbol (£) or the pound weight symbol (lb).[17] An alternative theory is that the name "pound sign" arose from the fact that character encodings used the same code for both the number sign and the British pound sign "£". Claims have included ISO 646-GB as well as the Baudot code in the late 19th century.[18] The apparent use of the sign to mean pounds weight in 1850 appears to rule out both of these code sets as the origin, although that same reference admits that the earliest reference in print was a decade after Baudot code.[10]

"Hash sign" is found in South African writings from the late 1960s,[19] and from other non-North-American sources in the 1970s.[citation needed]

The symbol appears to be used primarily in handwritten material, while in the printing business, the numero (№) symbol and barred-lb (℔) are used for "number" and "pounds" respectively.

For mechanical devices, it appeared on the keyboard of the Remington Standard typewriter (c. 1886),[20] but was not used on the keyboards used for typesetting.[10] It appeared in many of the early teleprinter codes and from there was copied to ASCII which made it available on computers and thus caused many more uses to be found for the character. The symbol was introduced on the bottom right button of touch-tone keypads in 1968, but that button was not extensively used until the advent of large scale voicemail (PBX systems, etc.) in the early 1980s.[21]

Usage in North America

Mainstream use in the United States is as follows: when it prefixes a number, it is read as "number", as in "a #2 pencil" (indicating "a number-two pencil"). The one exception is with the # key on a phone, which is always referred to as the "pound key" or "pound." Thus instructions to dial an extension such as #77 are always read as "pound seven seven."

When the symbol follows a number, the symbol indicates weight in pounds. (Five pounds are indicated as 5#.) This traditional usage still finds handwritten use, and may be seen on some signs in markets and groceries. It is also commonly known as the "pound sign".[22]

In Canada the symbol is called both the "number sign" and the "pound sign".[23] The American company Avaya has an option in their programming to denote Canadian English, which in turn instructs the system to say "number sign" to callers instead of "pound sign".[24]

Usage in the United Kingdom and Ireland

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it is generally[25] called a hash (probably ultimately from "hatch",[26] referring to cross-hatching, although the exact derivation is disputed[27]). It is never used to denote pounds, either as weight (lb or lbs is used for this) or currency (pounds sterling, for which "£" is used). It is never called the "pound sign"; that term is understood to mean the currency symbol "£" for pound sterling or (formerly) Irish pound, although if one is speaking about telephones the term would be understood to mean # and not £.

The use of "#" as an abbreviation for "number" is often understood in Britain and Ireland, especially where there has been business or educational contact with American usage, but use in print is rare[28] and British typewriters had "£" in place of the American "#".[29] Where Americans might write "Symphony #5", the British and Irish are more likely to write "Symphony No. 5", or perhaps use the numero sign - "Symphony № 5" (as in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians).

To add to the confusion between "£" and "#", in BS 4730 (the UK national variant of the ISO/IEC 646 character set), 0x23 represents "£" whereas in ASCII (the US variant), it represents "#", thus it was common for the same character code to display "#" on US equipment and "£" on British equipment.

Other names in English

The symbol has many other names (and uses) in English:

Comment sign 
Taken from its use in many shell scripts and some programming languages (such as Python) to start comments.
The word "hashtag" is often used when reading social media messages aloud, indicating the start of a hashtag. For instance the text "#foo" is often read out loud as "hashtag, foo" (as opposed to "hash, foo"). This leads to the common belief that the symbol itself is called "hashtag".[6]
Hashtag symbol
Twitter documentation refers to it as "the hashtag symbol".[30]
Common usage in Singapore and Malaysia, as spoken by many recorded telephone directory-assistance menus: "Please enter your phone number followed by the hex key". The term "hex" is discouraged in Singapore in favour of "hash". In Singapore, a hash is also called "hex" in apartment addresses, where it precedes the floor number.[31][32]
Octothorp, octothorpe, octathorp, octatherp
Most scholars believe the word was invented by workers at the Bell Telephone Laboratories by 1968,[33] who needed a word for the symbol on the telephone keypad. Don MacPherson is said to have created the word by combining octo and the last name of Jim Thorpe, an Olympic medalist.[34] Howard Eby and Lauren Asplund claim to have invented the word as a joke in 1964, combining octo with the syllable therp which, because of the "th" digraph, was hard to pronounce in different languages.[35] The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories, 1991, has a long article that is consistent with Doug Kerr's essay,[35] which says "octotherp" was the original spelling, and that the word arose in the 1960s among telephone engineers as a joke. Other hypotheses for the origin of the word include the last name of James Oglethorpe,[36] or using the Old English word for village, thorp, because the symbol looks like a village surrounded by eight fields.[37][38] The word was popularized within and outside Bell Labs.[39] The first appearance of "octothorp" in a US patent is in a 1973 filing. This patent also refers to the six-pointed asterisk (✻) used on telephone buttons as a "sextile".[40]
Resemblance to the glyph used in music notation, U+266F (♯). So called in the name of the Microsoft programming languages C#, J# and F#. Microsoft says, "It's not the 'hash' (or pound) symbol as most people believe. It's actually supposed to be the musical sharp symbol. However, because the sharp symbol is not present on the standard keyboard, it's easier to type the hash ('#') symbol. The name of the language is, of course, pronounced 'see sharp'."[41] According to the ECMA-334 C# Language Specification, section 6, Acronyms and abbreviations, the name of the language is written "C#" ("LATIN CAPITAL LETTER C (U+0043) followed by the NUMBER SIGN # (U+0023)") and pronounced "C Sharp".[42]
Used in proof-reading to denote that a space should be inserted. This can mean
  1. a line space (the space between two adjacent lines denoted by line # in the margin),
  2. a hair space (the space between two letters in a word, denoted by hr #)
  3. a word space, or letter space (the space between two words on a line, two letter spaces being ##)
Em- and en-spaces (being the length of a letter m and n, respectively) are denoted by a square-shaped em- or en-quad character (⊞ and ⊟, respectively).[citation needed]
Occasionally used in the UK (e.g. sometimes in BT publications and automatic messages) – especially during the Prestel era, when the symbol was a page address delimiter. The International Telecommunications Union specification ITU-T E.161 3.2.2 states: "The # is to be known as a 'square' or the most commonly used equivalent term in other languages."
crosshatch, (garden) fence, mesh, flash, grid, pig-pen, tictactoe, scratch (mark), (garden) gate, hak, oof, rake, crunch, punch mark,[43] sink, corridor, capital 3, and waffle.

In mathematics

In computing

  • In many scripting languages and data file formats, especially ones that originated on Unix, the # introduces a comment that goes to the end of the line. The combination #! at the start of an executable file is a "shebang", "hash-bang" or "pound-bang", used to tell the operating system which program to use to run the script (see magic number). This combination was chosen so it would be a comment in the scripting languages.
  • In the Perl programming language, # is used as a modifier to array syntax to return the index number of the last element in the array, e.g., @array's last element is at $array[$#array]. The number of elements in @array is $#array + 1, since Perl arrays default to using zero based indices. If the array has not been defined, the return is also undefined. If the array is defined but has not had any elements assigned to it, e.g., @array = (); then $#array returns −1. See the section on Array functions in the Perl language structure article.
  • In the C preprocessor (and the C++ preprocessor, and other syntactically C-like languages), # is used to start a preprocessor directive. Inside macros (after #define) it is used for various purposes, including the double pound sign ## used for token concatenation.
  • In Unix shells, # is placed by convention at the end of a command prompt to denote that the user is working as root.
  • # is used in a URL of a webpage or other resource to introduce a "fragment identifier" – an id which defines a position within that resource. For example, in the URL the portion after the # (In_computing) is the fragment identifier, in this case denoting that the display should be moved to show the tag marked by <span id="In_computing">...</span> in the HTML.[44]
  • Internet Relay Chat: on (IRC) servers, # precedes the name of every channel that is available across an entire IRC network.
  • In blogs, # is sometimes used to denote a permalink for that particular weblog entry.
  • In lightweight markup languages, such as wikitext, # is often used to introduce numbered list items.
  • # is used in the Modula-2 and Oberon programming languages designed by Niklaus Wirth and in the Component Pascal language derived from Oberon to denote the not equal symbol, as a stand-in for the mathematical unequal sign ≠, being more intuitive than <> or !=. For example: IF i # 0 THEN ...
  • In OCaml, # is the operator used to call a method.
  • In Common Lisp,[45] # is a dispatching read macro character used to extend the S-expression syntax with short cuts and support for various data types (complex numbers, vectors and more).
  • In Scheme, # is the prefix for certain syntax with special meaning.
  • In Standard ML, #, when prefixed to a field name, becomes a projection function (function to access the field of a record or tuple); also, # prefixes a string literal to turn it into a character literal.
  • In Mathematica syntax, #, when used as a variable, becomes a pure function (a placeholder that is mapped to any variable meeting the conditions).
  • In LaTeX, #, when prefixing a number, references an arguments for a user defined command. For instance \newcommand{\code}[1]{\texttt{#1}}.
  • In Javadoc,[46] # is used with the @see tag to introduce or separate a field, constructor, or method member from its containing class.
  • In some dialects of assembly language, # is used to denote immediate mode addressing, e.g., LDA #10, which means "load the accumulator with the value 10" in MOS 6502 assembly language.
  • in HTML, CSS, SVG, and other computing applications "#" is used to identify a color specified in hexadecimal format, e.g., #FFAA00. This usage comes from X11 color specifications, which inherited it from early assembler dialects that used "#" to prefix hexadecimal constants, e.g.: ZX Spectrum Z80 assembly[47].
  • In Be-Music Script, every command line starts with #. Lines starting with characters other than # are treated as comments.
  • The use of the # symbol in a hashtag is a phenomenon conceived by Chris Messina, and popularized by social media network Twitter, as a way to direct conversations and topics amongst users. This has led to an increasingly common tendency to refer to the symbol itself as "hashtag", but this is technically incorrect.[48]
  • In programming languages like PL/1 and Assembler used on IBM mainframe systems, as well as JCL (Job Control Language), the # symbol (along with $ and @) are used as additional letters in identifiers, labels and data set names.

Other uses

  • Press releases: the notation "###" denotes "end", i.e. that there is no further copy to come.[49]
  • Chess notation: # after a move denotes checkmate, being easier to type than the traditional ‡.
  • Scrabble: Putting a number sign after a word indicates that the word is found in the British word lists, but not the North American lists.[50]
  • Prescription drug delimiter: in some countries, such as Norway or Poland, # is used as a delimiter between different drugs on medical prescriptions.
  • Copy writing and editing: technical writers often use three hash signs ("###") as a marker in text where more content will be added or there are errors to be corrected.
  • Mining: in underground mining, the hash sign is sometimes used as a shorthand for "seam" or "shaft". An example would be "4#", which would mean "four shaft" or "four seam" depending on the context.[citation needed]
  • Medical shorthand: # is often used to indicate a bone fracture.[51] For example, '#NOF' is often used for 'fractured neck of femur'. In radiotherapy, a full dose of radiation is divided into smaller doses or 'fractions'. These are given the shorthand # to denote either the number of treatments in a prescription (e.g. 60Gy in 30#), or the fraction number (#9 of 25).
  • Linguistic phonology: # denotes a word boundary. For instance, /d/ → [t] / _# means that /d/ becomes [t] when it is the last segment in a word (i.e. when it appears before a word boundary).
  • Linguistic syntax: a # before an example sentence denotes that the sentence is semantically ill-formed, though grammatically well-formed. For instance, "#The toothbrush is pregnant" is a grammatically correct sentence, but the meaning is odd.[52]
  • Teletext and DVB subtitles (in the UK and Ireland): the # symbol is used to mark text that is either sung by a character or heard in background music, e.g. # For he's a jolly good fellow #
  • American sign language transcription: the # prefixing an all-caps word identifies a lexicalized fingerspelled sign, having some sort of blends or letter drops. All-caps words without the prefix are used for standard English words that are fingerspelled in their entirety.[53]
  • Footnote symbols (or endnote symbols): due to ready availability in many fonts and directly on computer keyboards, # and other symbols (such as the caret) have in recent years begun to be occasionally used in catalogues and reports in place of more traditional symbols (esp. dagger, double-dagger, pilcrow).


In Unicode, several # characters are assigned:

  • U+0023 # Number sign (HTML #). Other attested names in Unicode are: pound sign, hash, crosshatch, octothorpe.

At least three orthographically distinct number signs from other languages are also assigned:

On keyboards

On the standard US keyboard layout, the # symbol is ⇧ Shift+3. On standard UK and some other European keyboards, the same keystrokes produce the pound currency symbol (£), and # is moved to a separate key above the right shift. On UK Mac keyboards, # is generated by ⌥ Opt+3, whereas on some other European Mac keyboards, the # can be found above the right shift key.

See also


  1. ^ "number sign". Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ "hash". Oxford English Dictionary.
  3. ^ "pound sign". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  4. ^ Houston, Keith (20 October 2014). Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. W W Norton & Company.
  5. ^ Piercy, Joseph (25 October 2013). Symbols: A Universal Language. Michael OMara. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-78243-073-5. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ HTML5 is the only version of HTML that has a named entity for the number sign, see ("The following sections present the complete lists of character entity references.") and ("num;").
  8. ^ "The Italian libbra (from the old Latin word libra, 'balance') represented a weight almost exactly equal to the avoirdupois pound of England. The Italian abbreviation of lb with a line drawn across the letters [℔] was used for both weights." Keith Gordon Irwin, in The Romance of Writing, p. 125 The Unicode character U+2114 L B BAR SYMBOL (HTML ) is intended to represent this ligature.
  9. ^ a b Houston, Keith (2013-09-06). "The Ancient Roots of Punctuation". The New Yorker. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  10. ^ a b c "The Sign of the Number". Sentence Spacing. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  11. ^ Crittendon, S. W. (1853). An Elementary Treatise on Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry. Philadelphia: E., C., & J. Biddle. p. 10. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  12. ^ Duff, C. P.; Duff, W. H.; Duff, R. P. (1880). Book-Keeping By Single and Double Entry. Harper and Brothers. p. 21. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  13. ^ n.a. (1896). Method of Operating and Instructions for Practice on the Blickensderfer Typewriter (PDF). Atlanta, GA,: K. M. Turner. p. 14. It is best to use the 'number mark' for plus; the hyphen for minus, and two hyphens for the sign =
  14. ^ e.g. J. W. Marley, "The Detection and Illustration of Forgery By Comparison of Handwriting", in Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Convention of the Kansas Bankers' Association. Kansas City: Rusell. 1903. p. 180.
  15. ^ e.g. The British Printer vol. viii (1895), p. 395
  16. ^ Thurston, Ernest L. (1917). Business Arithmetic for Secondary Schools. New York: Macmillan. p. 419.
  17. ^ Lawrence, Nancy M.; F. Ethel McAfee; Mildred M. Butler (1932). Correlated studies in stenography. Gregg. p. 141.
  18. ^ "The 'pound sign' mystery". Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  19. ^ Research Review. Navorsingsoorsig vols. 18–21, pp. 117, 259 (1968)
  20. ^ "Remington Standard typewriter". New York: Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. 1886. p. 50.
  21. ^ Keith Houston (2013). "The Octothorpe". Shady Characters: The Secret Life of Punctuation, Symbols, and Other Typographical Marks. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 41–57.
  22. ^ William Safire (March 24, 1991). "On Language; Hit the Pound Sign". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
  23. ^ Barber, Katherine, ed. (2004). The Canadian Oxford dictionary (2nd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195418166.
  24. ^
  25. ^ "How the # became the sign of our times". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Hash sign". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  27. ^ "Britain on Hash". Sentence Spacing. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  28. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer".
  29. ^ "The Hashtag: A History Deeper than Twitter". Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  30. ^ "Using hashtags on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  31. ^ Jack Tsen-Ta Lee. "A Dictionary of Singlish and Singapore English". Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  32. ^ "Address Formats". Retrieved 14 January 2016.
  33. ^ Hochhester, Sheldon (2006-09-29). "Pressing Matters: Touch-tone phones spark debate" (PDF). Encore.
  34. ^ Ralph Carlsen, "What the ####?" Telecoms Heritage Journal 28 (1996): 52–53.
  35. ^ a b Douglas A. Kerr (2006-05-07). "The ASCII Character "Octatherp"" (PDF).
  36. ^ John Baugh, Robert Hass, Maxine H. Kingston, et al., "Octothorpe," The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
  37. ^ Quinion, Michael (19 May 2010). "Octothorpe". World Wide Words. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
  38. ^ Bringhurst, "Octothorpe". Elements of Typographic Style
  39. ^ "You Asked Us: About the * and # on the New Phones," The Calgary Herald, September 9, 1972, 90.
  40. ^ "U.S. Patent No. 3,920,926". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  41. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about C#". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  42. ^ "". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  43. ^ "Pronunciation guide for Unix - Bash -". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  44. ^ "Introduction to HTML". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  45. ^ "". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  46. ^ "". Retrieved 16 September 2014.
  47. ^ "HISOFT DEVPAC ZX Spectrum Programmer's Manual" (PDF).
  48. ^ Nicks, Denver (June 13, 2014). "You'll Never Guess the Real Name for a Hashtag". TIME. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  49. ^ "How to Format a Press Release for the Associated Press", wikiHow
  50. ^ "Scrabble Glossary". Tucson Scrabble Club. Retrieved 2012-02-06.
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