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Northumberland County, Virginia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Northumberland County
Northumberland County Courthouse in Heathsville
Northumberland County Courthouse in Heathsville
Official seal of Northumberland County
Map of Virginia highlighting Northumberland County
Location within the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 37°52′N 76°23′W / 37.86°N 76.38°W / 37.86; -76.38
Country United States
State Virginia
Founded1648
SeatHeathsville
Largest communityHeathsville
Area
 • Total286 sq mi (740 km2)
 • Land191 sq mi (490 km2)
 • Water94 sq mi (240 km2)  33.0%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total11,839
 • Density41/sq mi (16/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district1st
Websitewww.co.northumberland.va.us

Northumberland County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population sits at 11,839.[1] Its county seat is Heathsville.[2] The county is located on the Northern Neck and is part of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace AVA winemaking appellation.

History

The area was occupied at the time of English settlement by the Algonquian-speaking historic tribes of the Wicocomico, Chickacoan, and Patawomeck. The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1648 during a period of rapid population growth and geographic expansion. Settlement began in this area of the Northern Neck around 1635. Originally known as the Indian district Chickacoan, the area was first referred to as Northumberland (a namesake of Northumberland County, England) in the colonial records in 1644. The following year, John Mottrom served as the first burgess for the territory in the House of Burgesses, which met at the capital of the Virginia Colony at Jamestown. The county was formed from a part of York County.

The colonial court ordered the Wicocomico and Chickacoan tribes to merge and by 1655, assigned them a reservation of 4,400 acres (18 km2) near Dividing Creek, south of the Great Wicomico River.[3] The Patawomeck Tribe was hunted nearly to extinction in 1666, and survived only by intermarriage.[4] By the early 1700s, the Wicocomico tribe was greatly reduced, and English colonists took control of their lands. They were believed to be extinct as a tribe as, landless, they disappeared from the historical record. Descendants of the last weroance are working to regain recognition as a tribe, the Wicocomico Indian Nation.[5] Descendants of the Patawomeck achieved tribal recognition from the state of Virginia in February 2010. The size of the county was drastically reduced in 1651 and 1653 when the colonial government organized Lancaster and Westmoreland counties from it.

Of the 172 counties, that have ever existed in Virginia's history, Northumberland ended up being an "ancestor" to 116 of these—more than the current 95 counties (several were lost to other states, such as West Virginia).[6]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 286 square miles (740 km2), of which 191 square miles (490 km2) is land and 94 square miles (240 km2) (33.0%) is water.[7] The county is located between the Rappahannock River to the south and Potomac River to the north. Chesapeake Bay is immediately east of the county.

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
17909,163
18007,803−14.8%
18108,3086.5%
18208,016−3.5%
18307,953−0.8%
18407,924−0.4%
18507,346−7.3%
18607,5312.5%
18706,863−8.9%
18807,92915.5%
18907,885−0.6%
19009,48620.3%
191010,77713.6%
192011,5186.9%
193011,081−3.8%
194010,463−5.6%
195010,012−4.3%
196010,1851.7%
19709,239−9.3%
19809,8286.4%
199010,5247.1%
200012,25916.5%
201012,3300.6%
202011,839−4.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010[12] 2020[13]

2020 census

Northumberland County, Virginia - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[12] Pop 2020[13] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 8,638 8,310 70.06% 70.19%
Black or African American alone (NH) 3,106 2,673 25.19% 22.58%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 20 14 0.16% 0.12%
Asian alone (NH) 36 67 0.29% 0.57%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 2 0 0.02% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 7 59 0.06% 0.50%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 139 365 1.13% 3.08%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 382 351 3.10% 2.96%
Total 12,330 11,839 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2000 Census

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 12,259 people, 5,470 households, and 3,785 families residing in the county. The population density was 64 people per square mile (25/km2). There were 8,057 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile (16/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 72.18% White, 26.58% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.33% from other races, and 0.56% from two or more races. 0.93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 5,470 households, out of which 20.11% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.80% were non-families. 27.70% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.70.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 18.60% under the age of 18, 4.80% from 18 to 24, 20.20% from 25 to 44, 30.10% from 45 to 64, and 26.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $38,129, and the median income for a family was $49,047. Males had a median income of $30,151 versus $24,116 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,917. 12.30% of the population and 8.10% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 17.00% are under the age of 18 and 10.70% are 65 or older.

Government, education, law enforcement, and emergency services

The county is governed by a Board of Supervisors, elected every four years, one from each of five districts. Similarly, the county has an elected school board, elected every four years, one from each of the five supervisor districts. The school board, formerly appointed by the Board of Supervisors, manages local education policy; but it remains subordinate to the Board of Supervisors and must submit budgetary matters for supervisors' approval. The county has three public schools (high, middle, and elementary), all located on one campus near Heathsville; the high and middle schools comprise a large consolidated facility that opened in 2009.

There is no police department in the county. Instead, law enforcement is the responsibility of the county Sheriff, a commonwealth constitutional officer elected every four years, with support from the Virginia State Police. The Northumberland County Sheriff's Office is located in Heathsville.

Northumberland County has two courthouses: an antebellum building and a new building constructed in the late 1990s behind the older structure. The county courts (Circuit Court, General District Court, and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court), along with the Clerk of the Circuit Court and the Commonwealth's Attorney, both commonwealth constitutional officers, are located in the new building. The Commissioner of Revenue and the County Treasurer, both commonwealth constitutional officers, have offices in the older building.

Northumberland County is one of the few counties left in Virginia that has all-volunteer emergency services. The county is served by two fire departments, Callao Volunteer Fire Department in Callao and Fairfield Volunteer Fire Department with buildings in Reedville and Burgess. There are three rescue squads that serve the county: Callao Volunteer Rescue Squad in Callao, Mid-County Volunteer Rescue Squad in Heathsville, and Northumberland County Rescue Squad in Reedville and Burgess. The county also has a water rescue service, Smith Point Sea Rescue.

Politics

United States presidential election results for Northumberland County, Virginia[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 4,485 57.39% 3,252 41.61% 78 1.00%
2016 4,302 58.16% 2,852 38.56% 243 3.29%
2012 4,310 57.03% 3,191 42.22% 57 0.75%
2008 4,041 54.56% 3,312 44.72% 53 0.72%
2004 3,832 59.79% 2,548 39.76% 29 0.45%
2000 3,362 59.98% 2,118 37.79% 125 2.23%
1996 2,605 51.81% 1,957 38.92% 466 9.27%
1992 2,667 50.00% 1,862 34.91% 805 15.09%
1988 2,984 65.14% 1,506 32.87% 91 1.99%
1984 3,166 68.41% 1,407 30.40% 55 1.19%
1980 2,598 60.00% 1,551 35.82% 181 4.18%
1976 2,167 52.52% 1,814 43.97% 145 3.51%
1972 2,332 71.58% 884 27.13% 42 1.29%
1968 1,438 41.18% 1,077 30.84% 977 27.98%
1964 1,423 58.85% 988 40.86% 7 0.29%
1960 1,340 60.61% 858 38.81% 13 0.59%
1956 1,191 62.68% 428 22.53% 281 14.79%
1952 1,230 68.11% 573 31.73% 3 0.17%
1948 535 46.68% 429 37.43% 182 15.88%
1944 525 43.00% 695 56.92% 1 0.08%
1940 386 35.03% 712 64.61% 4 0.36%
1936 260 29.61% 618 70.39% 0 0.00%
1932 245 27.71% 630 71.27% 9 1.02%
1928 744 72.23% 286 27.77% 0 0.00%
1924 130 17.83% 589 80.80% 10 1.37%
1920 221 28.96% 536 70.25% 6 0.79%
1916 111 17.99% 503 81.52% 3 0.49%
1912 102 16.35% 470 75.32% 52 8.33%


Reedville, menhaden fishing industry

Reedville is a small village in eastern Northumberland County on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Reedville is home to the Atlantic menhaden fishing industry. It is named for Captain Elijah W. Reed (1827-1888), who is credited with bringing the menhaden fishing industry, and the tremendous wealth that resulted from it, to Reedville—and to Northumberland County in general.

Dozens of fish-processing factories, most recently Omega Protein Corporation (successor to Zapata Haynie, Reedville Oil and Guano Company and Haynie Products Company) and Standard Products Company, have dotted the Northumberland coastline near Reedville and adjacent fishing communities.

Today, Omega Protein remains the largest industrial organization in the area. Omega, with a fleet of large oceangoing fish-harvesting vessels, supported by a number of spotter aircraft, is a major industry in the area and on the Eastern seaboard. Menhaden, once caught, are cooked in large mass and processed for further use in various applications, including as a protein additive for poultry feed.

Located at the eastern terminus of U.S. Route 360, Reedville is a popular place to begin fishing charters and trips to Tangier Island in the Bay. Reedville is also a tourist destination itself, steeped in the history of the menhaden fishing industry. The Millionaire's Row of Victorian Era mansions and several watercraft of the Fishermen's Museum are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Communities

Town

Census-designated place

Other unincorporated communities

See also

References

  1. ^ "Northumberland County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Rountree, Helen (1996). Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia through Four Centuries. Univ. of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 9780806128498.
  4. ^ https://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/history/virginias-first-people/today/patawomeck/index.shtml
  5. ^ Wicocomico History, Wicocomico Indian Nation
  6. ^ A Hornbook of Virginia History, p. 9.
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  8. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau. Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  12. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Northumberland County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
  13. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Northumberland County, Virginia". United States Census Bureau.
  14. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved December 9, 2020.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 July 2022, at 14:45
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