To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Northern Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Northern Europe is a loosely defined geographical and cultural region in Europe. Narrower definitions may describe Northern Europe as being roughly north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, which is about 54°N, or may be based on other geographical factors such as climate and ecology. A broader definition would include the area of Europe north of the Alps (but excluding Eastern Europe).

Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Roman Empire, everything not near the Mediterranean region was termed Northern European,[citation needed] including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries, and Austria. This meaning is still used today in some contexts, for example, discussions of the Northern Renaissance.

During the Early Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic Church expanded into Northern Europe and spread Christianity among the Germanic peoples.[1] Christianity reached the Vikings and other Scandinavians in later centuries. The Latin alphabet gradually replaced the runic alphabet in Scandinavia and England as the influence of Catholic Christianity spread northward from Rome, leading to English, German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Icelandic. During the Protestant Reformation, which began in Northern Europe according to some looser definitions of the region, Protestantism was embraced to an extent unseen in other parts of Europe such as Southern Europe, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe, and the vast majority of Northern European countries, by any definition, are mostly Protestant historically.


European climate. The Köppen climate classification map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.
European climate. The Köppen climate classification map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.

The climate is mainly Humid continental climate (Dfb), Subarctic climate (Dfc), and Tundra (ET).


Northern Europe might be defined roughly to include some or all of the following areas: British Isles, Fennoscandia, the peninsula of Jutland, the Baltic plain that lies to the east and the many islands that lie offshore from mainland Northern Europe and the main European continent. In some cases, Greenland is also included.

The area is partly mountainous, including the northern volcanic islands of Iceland and Jan Mayen, and the mountainous western seaboard, Scotland and Scandinavia, and also often includes part of the large plain east of the Baltic sea.

The entire region's climate is at least mildly affected by the Gulf Stream. From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates. In the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental.

Just as both climate and relief are variable across the region, so too is vegetation, with sparse tundra in the north and high mountains, boreal forest on the north-eastern and central regions temperate coniferous forests (formerly of which a majority was in the Scottish Highlands and south west Norway) and temperate broadleaf forests growing in the south, west and temperate east.


There are various definitions of Northern Europe which often include the Nordic countries and the Baltic states and sometimes the British Isles, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.

CIA World Factbook

Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook: .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Northern Europe   Western Europe   Central Europe   Southwest Europe   Southern Europe   Southeast Europe   Eastern Europe
Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook:
  Northern Europe

In the CIA World Factbook, the description of each country includes information about "Location" under the heading "Geography", where the country is classified into a region. The following countries are included in their classification "Northern Europe":[2]

as well as the dependent areas:

In this classification Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are included in Eastern Europe.


European sub-regions according to EuroVoc:   Northern Europe   Western Europe   Southern Europe   Central and Eastern Europe
European sub-regions according to EuroVoc:
  Northern Europe

EuroVoc is a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, giving definitions of terms for official use. In the definition of "Northern Europe", the following countries are included:[3]

as well as the dependent area:

UN geoscheme classification

Subregions of Europe by United Nations geoscheme.   Eastern Europe   Northern Europe   Southern Europe   Western Europe
Subregions of Europe by United Nations geoscheme.
  Northern Europe

The United Nations geoscheme is a system devised by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups, based on the M49 coding classification. The partition is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories.[4]

In the UN geoscheme, the following countries are classified as Northern Europe:[4]

as well as the dependent areas:


Language branches in Northern Europe   North Germanic (Iceland, Scandinavia and Faroe Islands)   Finnic (Estonia, Finland)   Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)
Language branches in Northern Europe
  North Germanic (Iceland, Scandinavia and Faroe Islands)
  Finnic (Estonia, Finland)
  Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)

Countries in Northern Europe generally have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world. They often score highly on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. They generally have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. Most peoples living in Northern Europe are traditionally Protestant Christians, although many are non-practicing. There are also growing numbers of non-religious people and people of other religions, especially Muslims, due to immigration. The quality of education in much of Northern Europe is rated highly in international rankings, with Estonia and Finland topping the list among the OECD countries in Europe. The Hansa group in the European Union comprises most of the Northern European states, plus Ireland and the Netherlands.

See also


  1. ^ Tanner, Norman. New Short History of the Catholic Church. p. 41.
  2. ^ CIA. "The World Factbook".
  3. ^ Publications Office of the European Union. "EU Vocabularies 7206 Europe". EuroVoc.
  4. ^ a b "UNSD — Methodology". Retrieved 17 June 2019.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 July 2021, at 00:52
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.