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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nissan Leaf
2018 Nissan Leaf Tekna Front.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerNissan
Production2010–present
Body and chassis
ClassCompact car / Small family car (C)
Body style5-door hatchback
LayoutFront-motor, front-wheel-drive
Chronology
PredecessorNissan Altra (EV)

The Nissan Leaf (Japanese: 日産・リーフ, Nissan Rīfu), stylised by manufacturer Nissan as LEAF, is a compact five-door hatchback battery electric vehicle, introduced in Japan and the United States in December 2010, and now in its second generation. Its range on a full charge is 243 km (151 miles).

Among other awards and recognition, the Leaf has won the 2010 Green Car Vision Award, the 2011 European Car of the Year, the 2011 World Car of the Year, and the 2011–2012 Car of the Year Japan.

Global sales totaled over 400,000 Leafs by March 2019. The United States is its largest market, with 126,747 sold through October 2018; followed by Japan with 100,000 units by April 2018; and Europe with 100,000 by June 2018. The European market was led by Norway with 33,156 new units registered by the end of October 2018.

First generation (2010–2017)

Nissan Leaf (ZE0)
2017 Nissan LEAF (ZE0 MY17) hatchback (2018-11-02) 01.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerNissan
Also calledVenucia e30 (China; 2014–2018)
Production2010–2017
AssemblyJapan: Yokosuka, Kanagawa
United States: Smyrna, Tennessee
United Kingdom: Sunderland (NMUK)
Body and chassis
PlatformNissan EV platform
Powertrain
Electric motor80 kW (110 hp), 280 N⋅m (210 ft⋅lb) synchronous motor
TransmissionSingle speed constant ratio (7.94:1)
BatteryMY 2011-15 and MY 2016 S trim
24 kWh lithium-ion battery
MY 2016 (SL and SV trims)
30 kWh lithium-ion battery[1]
RangeMY 2011/12
117 km (73 miles) EPA
175 km (109 miles) NEDC
MY 2013
121 km (75 miles) EPA[2]
200 km (120 miles) NEDC[3]
MY 2014/15
135 km (84 miles) EPA[1]
MY 2016
with 24 kWh battery
135 km (84 miles) EPA[1]
with 30 kWh battery
172 km (107 miles) EPA[1]
Plug-in charging3.6 kW (3.3 kW output) and optional 6.6 kW (6.0 kW output) 240 V AC[4] on SAE J1772-2009 inlet, max 44 kW 480 V DC on CHAdeMO inlet, adapters for domestic AC sockets (110–240 V)
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,700 mm (106.3 in)[5]
Length4,445 mm (175.0 in)[5]
Width1,770 mm (69.7 in)[5]
Height1,550 mm (61.0 in)[5]
Curb weightMY 2011/12
1,521 kg (3,354 lb)[6]
MY 2013
1,493 kg (3,291 lb)[7]
MY 2017
1,500-1,538 kg (3,307-3,391 lb)

Design

Dashboard: power meter at the top which shows either battery usage or battery charging via regenerative braking, battery temperature at left, at the center is indicated a time of 4:30 to full charge, at the right is indicated a 101 km range, at the far right the battery health indicator at 12/12.
Dashboard: power meter at the top which shows either battery usage or battery charging via regenerative braking, battery temperature at left, at the center is indicated a time of 4:30 to full charge, at the right is indicated a 101 km range, at the far right the battery health indicator at 12/12.
Shifter knob
Shifter knob

Nissan sought to make the Leaf appealing to mainstream drivers by giving it a familiar five-door hatchback design.[8] The body has a sharp V-shape design with large, up slanting headlights that split and redirect airflow away from the door mirrors, and the bottom of the car has aerodynamic panelling.[9] The battery, the heaviest part of most electric vehicles, is situated below the seats and rear foot space, keeping the center of gravity as low as possible and giving the car better structural rigidity than a conventional five-door hatchback.[6]

The Leaf is powered by an electric synchronous motor with 80 kW (107 hp) and 280 N⋅m (207 ft⋅lb) driving the front wheels. The Leaf was initially equipped with a 24 kWh lithium ion battery, later increased to 30 kWh.[10] The battery is manufactured by Automotive Energy Supply Corporation. It's guaranteed for eight years or 100,000 miles.[11]

There is no active cooling of the battery pack, only passive cooling by radiation.[12]

There is a battery refurbishment program in Japan, but not in the US.[13]

According to a 2015 report by Warranty Direct, of 35,000 Leafs sold in Europe, three had had a battery failure, compared to a failure rate 25 times higher for internal combustion engined cars.[14]

Nissan reports the 2011 Leaf has a drag coefficient of Cd=0.29 and the 2013 model Cd=0.28. The Leaf is generally cheaper to operate than gasoline and hybrid cars.[15] However, since the Leaf costs significantly more than similar gasoline-powered vehicles, it may take a long time for the fuel savings to cancel out the increased initial cost, even after government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles.[16]

The body features bulging headlamp enclosures which direct wind away from the side mirrors, reducing drag and noise.[11]

Some trims initially came equipped with the telematics system CarWings. From 2011 to 2015 this used the 2G cellular network. 2G has been decommissioned in many areas, requiring an upgrade of the telematic control unit to use newer networks.[17] Rebranded NissanConnectEV in 2016, it is provided provided free of charge to owners, if equipped, depending on year and trim. As of 2017 it offers GPS data for routing, and for locating charging stations. It may also provide two-way communication with the car which enables remote control of the climate system, and monitoring of charging status,[18]

Model and production history

Nissan electric vehicles has existed since 1946 and the Leaf was preceded by the Altra, and the Hypermini.

2011/12

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated it 21.2 kWh/100 km. It is 175 km (109 miles) on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). US-market S and SV trims had an SAE J1772 connector for (120/220 volts AC).[19] Using mains electricity and the included cable, the car regains about five miles of range per hour. The SL trim had a CHAdeMO port with which it can be charged from fully discharged to 80% capacity in about 30 minutes.[20] Nissan warns that if fast charging is the primary way of recharging, then the normal and gradual battery capacity loss is about 10% more than regular 220-volt charging over a 10-year period. Other companies make compatible charging stations, and companies and local government have various initiatives to create electric vehicle networks of public charging stations.[21]

The 2011/12 model Leaf has a top speed of over 150 km/h (93 mph). The motoring press has reported a 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) acceleration time of 9.9 seconds.[6] About a dozen Leaf Nismo RC (Racing Competition) vehicles were produced, with the same motor but otherwise optimized for racing.

2013

By March Nissan had plants at Smyrna, Tennessee, Oppama, Japan, and Sunderland, England,[22] with production of 150,000, 50,000, and 50,000 respectively.

The 2013 Leaf has extended range due to a more efficient heating system, better regenerative braking, weight reduction, and improved aerodynamics.[23] The EPA rating is 121 km (75 miles), a slight increase from 117 km (73 miles) in 2011 and 2012 models also due to technicality in the rating system.[2]

The 2013 model year Leaf has a dashboard display of the battery's charge percentage. A 6.6-kW onboard charger, available as an extra-cost option on the base model, reduces charging times using 240-volt power, so a charge from empty to full takes about four hours, instead of seven.[24] The onboard charger is more compact and located under the hood, increasing cargo volume.[25]

In November Nissan demonstrated on public roads a Leaf based driverless car[26]

There are three trim levels. A new trim level, Leaf S, has a lower price and 16-inch steel wheels and fewer accessories.[24]

In Europe Nissan offered a battery leasing option for all trims produced at Sunderland[27] which lowered the price.

2014/15

The official EPA range for the 2014 and 2015 model year Leaf, increased from 121 to 135 km (75 to 84 miles).[28]

The 2014 Leaf is largely the same as the 2013 model year, except[29] for standard rearView monitor and updated EV-IT functionality with voice destination entry and SMS readout.

In China, the Leaf-based Venucia e30 went on sale.

2016

Beginning in late 2016, all three trims (S, SV, and SL) came equipped with both charging receptacles.[30] A larger 30 kWh battery in the US-market SL and SV trims boosted range to 172 km (107 miles).[31]

The S trim initially kept the 24 kWh battery found in earlier Leafs, and received the upgrade midway through the 2016 model year.[30]

With the new battery pack Nissan extended the warranty to 96 months or 160,000 km (100,000 miles).[32] This means that if a car lost four of the 12 bars on its capacity gauge before that period is up, Nissan would replace or repair the battery free of charge.

2017

Global sales in 2017 fell to about 47,000 units, in anticipation of the second generation.[33] As of January 2018, the Leaf was available in more than 60 countries in four continents.[34]

Environmental footprint

In February 2014, the Automotive Science Group (ASG) published the result of a study conducted to assess the life-cycle of over 1,300 automobiles across nine categories sold in North America. The study found that among advanced automotive technologies, the Nissan Leaf holds the smallest life-cycle environmental footprint of any model year 2014 automobile available in the North American market with minimum four-person occupancy. The study concluded that the increased environmental impacts of manufacturing the battery electric technology is more than offset with increased environmental performance during operational life. For the assessment, the study used the average electricity mix of the U.S. grid in 2014.[35]

In December 2014, Nissan announced that Leaf owners have accumulated together 1 billion kilometers (625 million miles) driven. This amount of electric miles translates into avoiding 180 million kilograms of CO
2
emissions by driving an electric car in comparison to travelling with a gasoline-powered car.[36] In December 2016, Nissan reported that Leaf owners worldwide achieved the milestone of 3 billion kilometers (1.9 billion miles) driven collectively through November 2016, saving nearly 500 million kilograms of CO
2
emissions.[37]

Models with an on-board 3.6 kW charger can be fully charged in eight hours from an appropriate 240-volt charger, while models with an on-board 6.6 kW charger[24] can be fully recharged in 4 hours.

Limited options for replacement battery packs

After the original battery packs degrade, owners may wish to refurbish, replace, or upgrade their battery packs instead of purchasing a new electric car. However, there are few options globally for this process. In August of 2019, Automotive News reported that "more than a year after launching a battery refurbishment program for Leaf customers in Japan, Nissan remains noncommittal about offering the program in the brand's largest market — the U.S."[38] Nissan previously offered a replacement battery back for the Leaf for $5,499 plus installation in the U.S.,[39] but then later raised the price to $8,500.[38]

Safety

NHTSA rates the 2011 and 2012 model years as five out of five stars overall. It won the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's "Top Safety Pick" in 2011. It received top ratings of "Good" for front, side, and rear impact crash tests, and also on rollover protection. All injury measurements except one were rated good, indicating a low risk of significant injuries in crashes according to the scale of severity employed in the IIHS's testing.[40] The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) awarded the Leaf the highest five-star car safety rating, earning the following ratings for each criterion:

Euro NCAP test results
Nissan Leaf (2011)[41]
Test Points %
Overall: 5 /5 stars
Adult occupant: 32 89%
Child occupant: 40 83%
Pedestrian: 23 65%
Safety assist: 6 84%

In the case of an accident in which the airbags are deployed, the Leaf automatically disconnects the high-voltage system. In December 2010, Nissan also advised first responders to manually disconnect both the high voltage and 12 V systems before performing any first response actions.[42]

The Nissan Leaf's battery pack is shielded from crash damage by structural steel reinforcement.[43] In December 2011, Nissan reported that none of the around two dozen Leafs destroyed in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami caught fire, and that their batteries remained intact.[44] As of December 2011, no fires after a crash have been reported in the U.S. associated with the Leaf or other plug-in electric cars available in the market.[45][needs update]

In 2011 electric vehicle warning sounds, to alert pedestrians of the Leaf's quiet movement relative to traditional motor vehicles, were introduced in anticipation of legislation mandating it in Europe, Japan, and America.[46] This sound varies according to direction and acceleration, and is only active at low speeds. It can be disabled on some models. Actual legislation requiring this did not come into effect until 2019 in the EU and 2010 in the US.[47]

Awards

At the 2010 Washington Auto Show, the Leaf was given the Green Car Vision Award by the Green Car Journal, which said that the Leaf "will provide the features, the styling, and the driving experience that will meet the needs of a sophisticated and demanding market, while producing zero localized emissions and requiring no petroleum fuels." Popular Mechanics, upon awarding the Leaf its 2010 Breakthrough Award, explained that the Nissan Leaf is "not the first pure EV, but [...] hits the mainstream like none of its predecessors." Popular Mechanics also alluded to the Leaf's 160 km (100 miles) range, which is said to be "enough for most commuters for the price of an average vehicle – and with a much lower operating cost than gasoline-powered vehicles."[48]

Other awards received by the Leaf include the 2011 European Car of the Year,[49] EV.com's 2011 EV of the Year,[50] 2011 Eco-Friendly Car of the Year by Cars.com,[51] 2011 Green Fleet Electric Vehicle of the Year,[52] it was listed among the 2011 Greenest Vehicles of the Year by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy,[53] also listed by Mother Earth News among its "Best Green Cars" of 2011,[54] and also was ranked first in Kelley Blue Book Top 10 Green Cars for 2011.[55] The Leaf won the 2011 World Car of the Year,[56] and was a finalist for the 2011 World Green Car.[57] Ward's Auto listed the Leaf's 80 kW electric motor in Ward's 10 Best Engines for 2011.[58] Until October 2011 the Leaf was ranked as the most efficient EPA certified vehicle for all fuels ever.[59] In December 2011, the Leaf was awarded with the 2011–2012 Car of the Year Japan at the Tokyo Motor Show.[60]

Motorsport

An Electric Production Class was formed for the 2011 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb and Chad Hord raced a Leaf in the event.[61] The off-road racing driver ascended the 19.99 km (12.42 miles) course in 14 minutes and 33 seconds to win the class.[62] The interior of the car was removed and replaced with mandatory racing seats, safety harness, and a roll cage.[63]

Global sales

The production version was unveiled in August 2009.[64] After receiving 20,000 pre-orders in the United States,[65] Nissan stopped taking reservations in the United States until early 2011. Production in Japan started in October 2010,[66] and delivery in the US[67] and Japan began in December, with deliveries in other markets beginning in early 2012.

The Leaf was the world's best selling electric car from 2011 to 2014[68][69][70] and 2016.[71]

Sales fell in 2015[72] with overall sales led by the Tesla Model S.[69]

As of March 2019 the Leaf was the world's best-selling electric car, with more than 400,000 sold.[73] As of October 2018, the United States was the biggest market,[74] followed by Japan,[75] then Europe.[76] The European market is led by Norway.[77] There are also many used imports registered in Norway.[78]

Nissan Leaf sales by top national markets between 2010 and 2017
Country Total 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
US[79] 114,827 11,230 14,006 17,269 30,200 22,610 9,819 9,674 19
Japan[69][80][81][82] 96,999 16,925 14,793 9,057 14,177 13,021 11,115 10,310 19
Norway[83][84][85][86] 22,781 3,374 4,162 3,189 4,781 4,604 2,298 373  
UK[87][88][89][90] 22,359 5,463 4,463 5,236 4,051 1,812 699 635  
France[91] 12,113 2,381 3,887 2,200 1,600 1,438 524 83  
Canada[92] 5,519 946 1,375 1,233 1,085 470 240 170  
Germany[93][94] 4,918 841 1,121 831 812 855 451 7  
China[95] 4,032[a] 1,961 1,273 582 216      
Netherlands 3,157 513 666 447 510 462 265 294  
Sweden[96][97][98][99] 3,542 981 836 841 438 317 129    
Spain[100][101][102][103][104] 2,159 530 344 344 465 263 154 59  
Italy[105][106][107] 2,103 448 460 389 332 323 146 5  
Denmark[108] 1,202 20 85 224 577 211 73 12  
Ireland[109][110][111][112][113] 1,366 258 352 405 192 43 69 45 2
Belgium[114][115][116][117][118] 1,510 389 466 162 178 141 114 60  
Austria[119] 1,151 384 333 156 121 88 64 3
Australia[120][121][122][123] 997[b] 384 156 109[b] 173 188 77 19  
Switzerland[124] 831 131 158 145 106 178 74 39  
Total top markets 293,545 44,814 49,624 43,354 60,259 47,152 26,247 21,785 40
Total global sales[125][68][72][69][33] 303,678 ~47,000 49,245 43,651 61,507 47,716 26,973 22,094 50
  1. ^ Chinese sales correspond to the rebadged Venucia e30.
  2. ^ a b Sales in Australia through September 2015.


Second generation (2017-present)

Nissan Leaf (ZE1)
Nissan Leaf Tromso10 2018 0856.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerNissan
ProductionOctober 2017–present
Model years2018–present
AssemblyJapan: Oppama Plant, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
United States: Smyrna, Tennessee
United Kingdom: Sunderland (NMUK)
Powertrain
Electric motor110 kW (148 hp), 320 N⋅m (240 lb⋅ft) synchronous motor[126]
TransmissionSingle speed constant ratio
BatteryMY 2018
40 kWh lithium-ion battery[127]
RangeMY 2018
243 km (151 miles) EPA[127] 270 km (170 miles) WLTP
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length4,490 mm (176.8 in)
Width1,788 mm (70.4 in)
Height1,530 mm (60.2 in)
Curb weight1,580–1,640 kg (3,480–3,620 lb)

In October 2017, for the 2018 model year, Nissan launched the new generation Leaf in Japan, and deliveries in the U.S. and Europe began in February 2018.[128] In 2018, global sales reached a record level of 87,149 units, third behind the Tesla Model 3 and the BAIC EC-Series.[129]

Mechanically, the second generation Leaf is similar to the first, while adding longer range, and more power. Stylistically, it is a major departure from the previous model.[130] The interior adds Apple CarPlay.

It has a 40 kWh battery pack with an EPA-rated range of 243 km (151 miles).[127] The electric motor produces 110 kilowatts (147 hp) and 320 newton metres (236 lb⋅ft) of torque.[126] It charges through either a 6.6 kW regular plug (SAE J1772 in US/Japan, or a Type 2 connector in EU countries) or a 50 kW CHAdeMO, and has the ability to send power back to the grid.[131]

Propilot Assist, a lane centering system, is available on the two highest trim levels for an additional cost, and has automatic parking in some markets.[132] The car offers one-pedal braking where easing off the accelerator pedal causes significant regenerative braking, to the point where the vehicle can be brought to a complete stop without the driver touching the brake pedal, at which point hydraulic brakes are automatically applied, to hold the vehicle in position.[133]

From 2019, a Leaf e+ (Leaf Plus in North America) variant has been offered. It has a larger 62 kWh battery providing a range of 364 km (226 miles), and a new 150 kW motor with 33% more power. It can use CHAdeMO chargers up to 100 kW.[134]

See also

Gallery

References

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External links

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