To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Nineteenth Air Force

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nineteenth Air Force
Nineteenth Air Force - Emblem.png
Shield of the Nineteenth Air Force
Active 1 October 2014 – present
1 July 1993 – 13 July 2012
1 July 1955 – 2 July 1973
(62 years, 6 months)[1]
Country  United States of America
Branch
Flag of the United States Air Force.svg
  United States Air Force
Type Numbered Air Force
Role Provide flying, airmanship and SERE training to Air Force Officers, enlisted Airmen, and cadets[2]
Part of
Air Education and Training Command.png
  Air Education and Training Command
Headquarters Randolph Air Force Base, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas, U.S.
Decorations
US Air Force Outstanding Unit Award - Stremer.jpg

Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Commanders
Notable
commanders

Brig. Gen. Henry Viccellio, July 8, 1955 - June, 1960, July 1963 - June 1964.

Major General Mark S. Solo [3]

The Nineteenth Air Force (19 AF) is an active Numbered Air Force of the United States Air Force. During the Cold War it was a component of Tactical Air Command, with a mission of command and control over deployed USAF forces in support of United States foreign policy initiatives. The command was reactivated in 1993 under Air Education and Training Command with a mission of conducting AETC's flying training.

19th Air Force was inactivated on 9 July 2012 as a cost-cutting measure by the Secretary of the Air Force, but was reactivated on 1 October 2014 when it was determined that the cost-cutting measures did not reap the savings expected. AETC commander General Robin Rand directed the reactivation to consolidate the management of the AETC flying mission again under a Numbered Air Force instead of the AETC Headquarters.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    1 328 595
    13 972
    1 766
    20 411
    503
  • Women in the 19th Century: Crash Course US History #16
  • Scary Philippines Armed Forces and Military Power! 2017 || Hk Defense TV
  • HOW POWERFUL IS POLAND? Polish Military / Army Power 2017-2018 | HK Defense TV
  • SOCIAL REFORMS MOVEMENT DURING 19TH CENTURY BY DINESH SIR
  • University of Idaho One Hundred Nineteenth Commencement

Transcription

0CCUS 16 - Women in the 19th Century Hi, I’m John Green; this is CrashCourse U.S. history and today we’re going to talk about wonder women. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, finally we get to the history of the United States as seen through the lens of Marvel comic superheroes. Oh, Me from the Past, you sniveling little idiot. Wonder Woman is from the DC Universe. Also this is the study of history, which means a constant reexamination and redefinition of what it means to be a hero, and in the case of this episode, it’s about taking the first steps towards acknowledging that not all heroes worthy of historical recognition are men. So we’re going to talk about how women transformed pre-Civil War America as they fought to improve prisons, schools, decrease public drunkenness, and end slavery. And while fighting for change and justice for others, American women discovered that the prisoners, children, and slaves they were fighting for weren’t the only people being oppressed and marginalized in the American democracy. Intro So in the colonial era, most American women of European descent lived lives much like those of their European counterparts: They were legally and socially subservient to men and trapped within a patriarchal structure. Lower and working class women were actually more equal to men of their own classes, but only because they were, like, equally poor. As usual, it all comes back to economics. In general, throughout world history, the higher the social class, the greater the restrictions on women—although high class women have traditionally had the lowest mortality rates, which is one of the benefits of you know doors and extra lifeboats and whatnot. So at least you get to enjoy that oppression for many years. As previously noted, American women did participate in the American Revolution, but they were still expected to marry and have kids rather than, like, pursue a career. Under the legal principle of “coverture” actually husbands held authority over the person, property and choices of their wives. Also since women weren’t permitted to own property and property ownership was a precondition for voting, they were totally shut out of the political process. Citizens of the new Republic were therefore definitionally male, but women did still improve their status via the ideology of “Republican Motherhood.” Women were important to the new Republic because they were raising children—ESPECIALLY MALE CHILDREN—who would become the future voters, legislators, and honorary doctors of America. So women couldn’t themselves participate in the political process, but they needed to be educated some because they were going to potty train those who would later participate in the political process. What’s that? There were no potties? Really? Apparently instead of potties they had typhoid. Actually it was a result of not having potties. So even living without rights in a pottyless nation, the Republican Mother idea allowed women access to education, so that they could teach their children. Also women—provided they weren’t slaves--were counted in determining the population of a state for representation purposes, so that was at least an acknowledgement that they were at, like, five fifths human. And then the market revolution had profound effects on American women, too, because as production shifted from homes to factories, it shifted away from women doing the producing. This led to the so-called “cult of domesticity,” which like most cults, I am opposed to. That’s right, Stan, I’m opposed to the Blue Oyster Cult, The Cult, The Cult of Personality by In Living Color, and the three remaining Shakers. Sorry, Shakers. But who are we kidding? You’re not watching. You’re too busy dancing. The cult of domesticity decreed that a woman’s place was in the home, so rather than making stuff, the job of women was to enable their husbands to make stuff, by providing food and a clean living space, but also by providing what our favorite historian Eric Foner called “non-market values like love, friendship, and mutual obligation,” which is the way we talk about puppies these days. And indeed that’s in line with actual story titles from early 19th century American women’s magazines, like “Woman, a Being to Come Home To” and “Woman: Man’s Best Friend.” Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? I hope it’s from “Woman --- Man’s Best Friend.” The rules here are simple. I either get the author of the Mystery Document right...oh, hey there, eagle...or I get shocked. Let’s see what we’ve got. “Woman is to win everything by peace and love; by making herself so much respected, esteemed and loved, that to yield to her opinions and to gratify her wishes, will be the free-will offering of the heart. … But the moment woman begins to feel the promptings of ambition, or the thirst for power, her aegis of defense is gone. All the sacred protection of religion, all the generous promptings of chivalry, all the poetry of romantic gallantry, depend upon woman’s retaining her place as dependent and defenseless, and making no claims, and maintaining no right but what are the gifts of honor, rectitude and love.” Well it was definitely a dude and I have no idea which dude, so I’m just going to guess John C. Calhoun because he’s a bad person. No? Well, what can you do? It wasn’t a dude? It was apparently Harriet Beecher Stowe’s sister Catharine who was an education reformer and yet held all of those opinions, so aaaaAAAAH. So I assume Stan brought up Harriet Beecher Stowe’s sister to point out that it wasn’t just men who bought into the Cult of Domesticity. The idea of true equality between men and women was so radical that almost no one embraced it. Like, despite the economic growth associated with the market economy, women’s opportunities for work were very limited. Only very low paying work was available to them and in most states they couldn’t control their own wages if they were married. But, still poor women did find work in factories or as domestic servants or seamstresses. Some middle class women found work in that most disreputable of fields, teaching, but the cult of domesticity held that a respectable middle class woman should stay at home. The truth is, most American women had no chance to work for profit outside their houses, so many women found work outside traditional spheres in reform movements. Okay, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Reform movements were open to women partly because if women were supposed to be the moral center of the home, they could also claim to be the moral conscience of the nation. Thus it didn’t seem out of the ordinary for women to become active in the movement to build asylums for the mentally ill, for instance, as Dorothea Dix was, or to take the lead in sobering the men of America. Many of the most famous advocates for legally prohibiting the sale of alcohol in the US were women, like Carry Nation attacked bars with a hatchet and not because she’d had a few too many. The somewhat less radical Frances Willard founded the Women’s Christian Temperance Union in 1874, which would be one of the most powerful lobbying groups in the United States by the end of the 19th century. And women gave many temperance lectures featuring horror stories of men who, rather than seeking refuge from the harsh competition of the market economy and the loving embrace of their homes, found solace at the bottom of a glass or at the end of a beer hose. And by the way, yes, there were bars that allowed you to drink as much beer as you could, from a hose, for a nickel. Today, these establishments are known as frat houses. These temperance lectures would tell of men spending all their hard earned money on drink, leaving wives and children—there were always children—starving and freezing, because in the world of the temperance lecture, it was always winter. Now don’t get me wrong: Prohibition was a disaster, because 1. Freedom, and 2. It’s the only time we had to amend the constitution to be like, “Just kidding about that other amendment,” but it’s worth remembering that back then people drank WAY more than we do now, and also that alcohol is probably a greater public health issue than some recreational drugs that remain illegal. But regardless, the temperance movement made a huge difference in American life because eventually, male and female supporters of temperance realized that women would be a more powerful ally against alcohol if they could vote. Thanks Thought Bubble. So, in 1928, critic Gilbert Seldes wrote that if prohibition had existed in 1800, “the suffragists might have remained for another century a scattered group of intellectual cranks.” And to quote another historian, “the most urgent reasons for women to want to vote in the mid-1800s were alcohol related: They wanted the saloons closed down, or at least regulated. The wanted the right to own property, and to shield their families’ financial security from the profligacy of drunken husbands. They wanted the right to divorce those men, and to have them arrested for wife beating, and to protect children from being terrorized by them. To do all these things they needed to change the laws that consigned married women to the status of chattel. And to change those laws, they needed the vote.” Many women were also important contributors to the anti-slavery movement, although they tended to have more subordinate roles. Like, abolitionist Maria Stewart was the first African American woman to lecture to mixed male and female audiences. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the terrible but very import ant Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Sarah and Angelina Grimke, daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder, converted to Quakerism and became outspoken critics of slavery. Sarah Grimke even published the Letters on the Equality of the Sexes in 1838, which is pretty much what the title suggests. By the way, Stan, you could have made Sarah Grimke’s letters the Mystery Document. I would have gotten that. But I want to say one more thing about Harriet Beecher Stowe. There’s a reason we read Uncle Tom’s Cabin in history classes and not in literature ones, but Uncle Tom’s Cabin introduced millions of Americans to the idea that African American people were people. At least in 19th century readers, Uncle Tom’s Cabin humanized slaves to such a degree that it was banned throughout most of the south. So many women involved in the abolitionist movement, when studying slavery, noticed that there was something a little bit familiar. Now, some male abolitionists, notably Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison became supporters of women’s rights, but ultimately the male leaders of the anti-slavery movement denied women’s demands for equality, believing that any calls for women’s rights would undermine the cause of abolition. And they may have had a point because slavery only existed in parts of the country whereas women existed in all of it. In fact, one of the arguments used by pro-slavery forces was that equality under the law for male slaves might lead to a slippery slope ending with, like, equality for WOMEN. And out of this emerging consciousness of their own subordinate position, the movement for women’s rights was born. The most visible manifestation of it was the issue of woman’s suffrage, raised most eloquently at the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 where Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony and many others wrote and published the Declaration of Sentiments, modeled very closely on the Declaration of Independence. Except, in some ways this declaration was much more radical than the Declaration of Independence because it took on the entire patriarchal structure. Okay, so there are three things I want to quickly point out about the 19th century movement for women’s rights. First, like abolitionism, it was an international movement. Often American feminists travelled abroad to find allies, prefiguring the later transatlantic movement of other advocates for social justice like Florence Kelley and W.E.B DuBois. Secondly, for the most part, like other reform movements, the women’s movement was primarily a middle-class or even upper class effort. Most of the delegates at Seneca Falls, for instance, were from the middle class. There were no representatives of, like, cotton mills, but this didn’t mean that 19th century feminists didn’t acknowledge the needs of working women. Like, Sojourner Truth, probably the most famous black woman abolitionist, spoke eloquently of the plight of working class women, especially slaves, since she’d been one until 1827. And other women recognized that women needed to be able to participate in the market economy to gain some economic freedom. Now, of course all the women who wrote about the moral evils of 19th century America or spoke out or took hatchets to saloons were doing what we would now recognize as work. But they were not being paid. Amelia Bloomer got paid, though, because she recognized that it was impossible for women to easily participate in economic activities because of their crazy clothes. So she popularized a new kind of clothing featuring a loose fitting tunic, trousers, and eponymous undergarments. But then Bloomer and her pants were ridiculed in the press and in the streets, and this brings up the third important thing to remember about the 19th century women’s movement. It faced strong resistance. Patriarchy, like the force, is strong, which is why Luke and Yoda and Darth Vader and Obi-Wan and whoever Samuel Jackson played...all dudes. By the way, why did they train Luke up and not Princess Leia who was cooler and had more to fight for and was less screwed up? Patriarchy. Many women’s rights advocates were fighting to overturn not just laws, but also attitudes. Some of those goals, such as claiming greater control over the right to regulate their own sexual activity and whether or not to have children were twisted by critics to claim that women advocated “free love.” It’s interesting to note that the United States ended slavery more than 50 years before it granted women the right to vote and that although much of the march towards equality between the sexes has been slow and steady, the Equal Rights Amendment, despite being passed by Congress, was never ratified. But by taking leading roles in the reform movements in the 19th century, not just when it came to temperance and slavery, but also prisons and asylums, women were able to enter the public sphere for the first time. And these great women changed the world for better and for worse, just as great men do. And along the way, they made “the woman question” part of the movement for social reform in the United States. And in doing so, American women chipped away at the idea that a woman’s place must be in the home. That might not have been a presidential election or a war, but it is still bringing real change to our real lives on a daily basis. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. If you want to suggest captions for the libertage, please do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome...oh, lights! Everything’s fine.

Contents

History

Cold War

Origins

In the aftermath of the Korean War in 1953, the United States Air Force began to institutionalize a quick response force to deploy personnel, aircraft and equipment to bases with minimal facilities and to develop an air refueling capacity for its fighter aircraft.[4]

From this initiatives, Tactical Air Command (TAC) developed the Composite Air Strike Force (CASF), a small tactical air force composed of a command element and of fighter, reconnaissance, tanker, troop carrier, and communications support units. While it could fight, if necessary, the principal function of the CASF was to deter Communist aggression in such areas as the Middle East or Latin America, beyond the reach of American forces already stationed overseas. Its primary characteristic was fast reaction, and it would be as self-sufficient as possible. Each of its elements would prepare and store flyaway kits of spare parts and supplies, and each of its members would have specific deployment tasks assigned. Upon arrival in-theater, the unit would be able to sustain operations for 30 days on minimum logistics support, with the addition of required food, fuel, and munitions. Air-to-air refueling not only made rapid response possible, it enabled the various elements of the CASF to maintain themselves economically on their home bases until the need to deploy arose. Once the CASF concept was fully implemented and tested by the late 1950s, the first strike elements of a CASF could arrive in the Middle East within 16 hours of notification, with the total force in place and ready for operations in 48 hours. In the Far East the lead elements would arrive within 36 hours, with the full force in operational status within 72 hours.[4]

On 8 July 1955, under the command of Brig. Gen. Henry Viccellio, TAC activated the command element of the CASF, the Nineteenth Air Force.

Organization

 Nineteenth Air Force patch from the 1960s
Nineteenth Air Force patch from the 1960s

The headquarters of the Nineteenth Air Force was one of the most unusual air units ever created at that time. It had no permanently assigned aircraft or combat units. Nor did it have, since it was an operational headquarters only, any units or bases to supervise, train, or inspect. When not deployed, the Nineteenth had a close working relationship with the Ninth Air Force, which supported its administrative functions with many of its own people. These circumstances allowed the Nineteenth to limit its staff to approximately 85 military and 6 civilian personnel.[4]

The mission of Nineteenth Air Force was to prepare contingency plans for and to command short-notice deployments of the CASF anywhere in the world. It required each individual member to be ready for instant departure from the United States, and its staff sections maintained 30-day flyaway kits prepared for shipment. The Nineteenth worked closely with U.S. Army contingency units, and at one point, one-third of its staff was jump-qualified, able to parachute in with U.S. Army airborne troops. In the event of a crisis, the Nineteenth (working from a prepared plan which designated specific units, travel routes, en route support, and timing) would take command of the deploying CASF and serve as part of a joint task force, as a senior air command, or as a component command. At first glance the Nineteenth had a normal headquarters organization with major sections for planning, operations, and logistics. However, these sections had an important secondary function: each served as the lead command element for various geographical contingencies.[4]

The plans section would lead Europe and Middle Eastern deployments; the operations section would lead those to the Pacific; and the logistics section would lead deployments to Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. This unique arrangement allowed for continuity of planning and expertise and helped overcome some of the disadvantages inherent in the U.S. armed forces policy of churning personnel through different assignments every three or so years. Within the service, the Nineteenth soon earned its nickname: The Suitcase Air Force.[4]

In keeping with its mission of deterrence, a CASF, in theory, consisted of three task forces, each of which could vary in size and composition, according to its assigned task.

  • The first task force had only a limited combat capability and consisted of a show-the-flag or a good-will package. It could fulfill the role of gunboat diplomacy. A force such as this went to Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan (Operation Quick Span) in February 1960.[4]
  • The second task force consisted of the basic CASF combat element and would serve as the initial force for a small war. TAC kept the units of the second task force on a progressive 24-hour alert system and planned for the first portion to move within four hours of alert and the entire force to deploy in 24 hours.[4]
  • The third task force, composed of additional fighter squadrons, would augment the second if the situation required an expanded force.[4]

1958 Lebanon Crisis

On 15 July 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower, acting at the request of the Lebanese government, ordered the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) into Beirut, Lebanon to help preserve that small country from a wave of popular discontent that was sweeping the Middle East, toppling monarchies in Syria and Iraq and replacing them with military regimes hostile to United States interests.[4]

To support the Marines, the National Command Authorities (NCA) alerted the CASF. Under the command of Maj. Gen. Henry Viccellio, within three hours, B-57 Canberra tactical bombers of the 345th Bombardment Wing, Langley AFB, left for the only friendly major operating airfield in the region, Adana Air Base, Turkey, fifteen minutes’ flight time from Beirut. In another three hours, TAC KB–50J Superfortress tankers from the 427th Air Refueling Squadron left Langley AFB to refuel F-100 Super Sabre fighters from the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing departing Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina, while RF-101 Voodoos and RB-66 Destroyers from the 363d Tactical Reconnaissance Wing left Shaw AFB, South Carolina. Sixty C–130 Hercules ferried support personnel, spare parts, and equipment. Thirteen hours and 6,700 miles after the initial alert, the F–100s were taxiing to alert ramps at Adana. All deployed aircraft came from the Ninth Air Force. Within two days an underutilized Turkish Air Force gunnery base had become an American air center, with an operations center manned by Nineteenth Air Force personnel (flown in on a single C–130) and integrated with USN, USMC, and U.S. Army forces in the Middle East.[4]

1958 Taiwan Straits Crisis

Because the entire Nineteenth Air Force headquarters had deployed to Lebanon, TAC ordered its Twelfth Air Force to form another command element similar to that of the Nineteenth, should another emergency arise. Given the upsurge in tension between the Communist Chinese government on the Asian mainland and the Nationalist Chinese regime on Taiwan, the new command element focused its planning on the Far East. The People’s Republic of China had announced its intention to reincorporate a series of small Nationalist-held islands within artillery range of the mainland, in particular the islands of Quemoy and Matsu. During the summer of 1958, the magnitude and duration of the Communists’ bombardments increased dramatically.[4]

The United States responded by supplying the Nationalists with tanks and new heavy and longer-ranged artillery as well as by beefing up its own forces in the region. TAC placed on alert a squadron of F–100s; transport aircraft loaded with supplies, parts, and equipment; and a communications and control squadron. It also began to “lean forward,” sending tankers, weathermen, maintenance crews, and control units to islands on the air route between California and Thirteenth Air Force headquarters at Clark AB in the Philippine Islands.[4]

Late on August 29, 1958, the second CASF received the “go” order. F–100s from the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing, George Air Force Base carrying AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles took off on August 30 and spent that night at Hickam AFB, Hawaii. The next night they were at Andersen AFB, Guam, where Typhoon Lola delayed their movement for 24 hours. On September 2, they landed at Clark AB, after a flight of 9,500 miles and an elapsed time of 96 hours. RF–101s from the 432d Tactical Reconnaissance Wing Shaw AFB arrived soon after, and C–130s formed an airlift bridge carrying support personnel, equipment, tools, and workstands to Clark. On September 5 and 6, the CASF, with much assistance from both the Thirteenth Air Force and the Fifth Air Force in Japan, flew to Chia-ti AB, a Nationalist air base on Taiwan where they came under the control of a joint operations center established the previous day by CASF personnel. Nine days later, a squadron of F-104 Starfighters of the 83d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, Hamilton AFB, California, occupied another Nationalist air base (Taoyuan Air Base). Two more fighter squadrons at Kadena AB, and a B-57 Canberra squadron at Naha AB, Okinawa backed up this force. The mission of all units was to defend the straits between Formosa and the mainland.[4]

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

In mid-October 1962, the Nineteenth moved from its home base, Seymour Johnson AFB, North Carolina, to Homestead AFB, Florida. Once at Homestead, the Nineteenth spearheaded the deployment of TAC units at the beginning of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Nineteenth’s commander headed the main air operations center, the Air Force Atlantic Advanced Operational Nucleus (AFLANT ADVON), which activated shortly after President Kennedy’s speech declaring a quarantine of Soviet missile shipments into Cuba. Augmented by airmen and officers from other TAC air forces, AFLANT ADVON soon controlled nearly 1,000 aircraft and 7,000 men and women. The Nineteenth returned to North Carolina in December 1962 when the crisis ended.[4]

Other missions

In September 1962, when racial tension over the integration of the state university in Oxford, Mississippi, caused the federal government to send in troops, personnel of the Nineteenth coordinated airlift activities.[4]

In 1963 Nineteenth Air Force conducted two show-the-flag exercises. The first went to Saudi Arabia in early May. There, the Nineteenth helped to train Saudi pilots and supervised a tactical demonstration at Jidda International Airport for 30,000 spectators that included Crown Prince Faisal, the Prime Minister, the Saudi Foreign Minister, and other royalty and officials.[4]

The second went to India in October. There, in Exercise Shiksha (Sanskrit for training), the Nineteenth, in cooperation with the British and Australian Royal Air Forces, helped to improve Indian Air Force air defense capabilities and provide other tactical training. This effort was partially in response to the earlier division-sized Sino-Indian conflict. Throughout its existence, the Nineteenth also participated in numerous joint exercises within the United States as well as in practice alerts.[4]

For practical purposes, the Vietnam War ended the work of the Nineteenth Air Force, as that conflict absorbed a large proportion of the USAF’s assets not directly dedicated to the nuclear deterrent and consequently lessened the nation’s ability to intervene in other crisis areas. At the beginning of the Vietnam War, a CASF deployed in response to the Tonkin Gulf incidents, and in 1968 the last CASF deployment came in support of American forces in the Republic of Korea during the USS Pueblo incident.[4]

Legacy

The Nineteenth Air Force was inactivated in July 1973, as part of the economies enacted after the end of the Vietnam War. On 4 August 1998, the Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force (CSAF), General Michael E. Ryan, and the Acting Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF), F. Whitten Peters, announced their plans to implement a major change in the structure of the Air Force. They proposed to divide the USAF’s combat strength and the elements directly supporting it into ten Aerospace Expeditionary Forces (AEFs). Although the EAF concept was a major step in recasting the operations, outlook, and culture of the USAF, it sprang from the performance of missions traditionally performed by the Air Force — the timely response of land-based air power to the needs of the nation.[4]

Air Education and Training Command.

As a part of the realignment and re-organization of the Air Force after the end of the Cold War, Nineteenth Air Force was re-activated on 1 July 1993 as part of the new Air Education and Training Command (AETC). It was assigned to Randolph AFB, Texas with a mission of conducting AETC's flying training.

Air Force pilot candidates began with introductory flight training (IFT). In IFT, civilian instructors provided 50 hours of flight instruction to pilot candidates who completed requirements for a private pilot license. Upon graduation, pilot candidates then attended either Euro-NATO joint jet pilot training (ENJJPT) or joint specialized undergraduate pilot training (JSUPT).[5]

  • ENJJPT is located at Sheppard AFB, Texas. The entire course lasts about 54 weeks. Students learn with, and are taught by, USAF officers and officers from various air forces of our European allies. Student pilots first fly the T-6 Texan II mastering contact, instrument, low-level and formation flying. Next, they train on the supersonic T-38 Talon and continue building the skills necessary to become a fighter pilot.[5]
  • JSUPT students accomplish primary training in the T-6 Texan II at one of three Air Force bases - Columbus AFB, Mississippi, Laughlin AFB, Texas, or Vance AFB, Oklahoma; or in the T-34C Turbomentor at Naval Air Station Whiting Field, Florida. Joint training is conducted at Vance AFB, and NAS Whiting Field for students from the Air Force and Navy. During the primary phase of JSUPT, students learn basic flight skills common to all military pilots.[5]
  • Prospective airlift and tanker pilots are assigned to the airlift/tanker track and train in the T-1 Jayhawk at Columbus AFB, Laughlin AFB, or Vance AFB. Student pilots headed for bomber or fighter assignments are assigned to the bomber/fighter track and train in the T-38 Talon at Columbus, Laughlin or Vance. Students assigned to the multi-engine turboprop track fly the T-44 Pegasus turboprop trainers at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, and will eventually fly the C-130 Hercules.[5]
  • Those students selected to fly helicopters are assigned to the helicopter track and fly the UH-1 Huey at Fort Rucker, Alabama.[5]

Nineteenth Air Force also provided follow-on training for most Air Force pilots in their assigned aircraft. Pilots assigned to fighter aircraft complete the introduction to fighter fundamentals course at Randolph AFB or Sheppard AFB, Texas, or Columbus AFB, Mississippi, flying the AT-38B Talon, and then move on to train in either the F-15 Eagle at Kingsley Field ANGB, Oregon, or the F-16 Fighting Falcon at Luke AFB, Arizona.[5]

Altus AFB, Oklahoma, hosts training for pilots assigned to C-5 Galaxy, KC-135 Stratotanker or C-17 Globemaster III aircraft.[5]

Aircrews assigned to fly the C-130 train at Little Rock AFB, AR[5]

Pilots assigned to fly MC-130 Combat Talon, HC-130 Hercules, CV-22 Osprey, UH-1N, MH-53 Pave Low or HH-60 Pave Hawk helicopters receive their training at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.[5]

Keesler AFB, Mississippi, provides training for pilots assigned to the C-21 Learjet[5]

The Army at Fort Rucker, provides training in the C-12 Huron.[5]

In addition to pilot training, Nineteenth Air Force provides joint specialized undergraduate navigator training. JSUNT is conducted at Randolph AFB and NAS Pensacola, Florida, and provides training for Air Force, Navy and Marine student navigators. Students at Randolph complete training in the T-43 Bobcat and move to follow-on assignments in transport and tanker aircraft such as the C-130 and KC-135.[5]

Students at NAS Pensacola, complete primary and intermediate training in the T-34C and T-1 aircraft, and then enter the one of two tracks in the next phase. Students in the strike track will serve as navigators in the B-52 Stratofortress or as weapon systems officers in the B-1B Lancer. Navigators assigned to the B-1B attend a special training program at Randolph. Students in the strike/fighter track will receive follow-on assignments in the F-15E Strike Eagle as weapon systems officers and attend special training in the IFF course.[5]

Nineteenth Air Force also provided enlisted aircrew training for a wide variety of aircrew specialties including flight engineers, air-to-air refueling boom operators, loadmasters, aerial gunners, airborne communications specialists and weapons directors. Flight engineers and boom operators train at Altus AFB, loadmasters train at Sheppard AFB, helicopter flight engineers and aerial gunners train at Kirtland AFB, airborne communications specialists train at Keesler AFB, and weapons directors train at Tyndall AFB.[5]

As a cost-cutting measure, Nineteenth Air Force was inactivated on 9 July 2012. An inactivation ceremony was held for the 19th Air Force at Joint Base San Antonio, Texas.[6]

Lineage

  • Established as Nineteenth Air Force on 1 July 1955
Activated on 8 July 1955
Inactivated on 2 July 1973
  • Re-activated on 1 July 1993
Inactivated on 13 July 2012
  • Re-activated on 1 October 2014

Assignments

Attached to: Ninth Air Force, 8 July 1955-30 June 1957

Note: In its first two years, Nineteenth Air Force was directly attached to Ninth Air Force. On 1 July 1957 it moved to the direct control of TAC headquarters but it maintained its working relationship with the Ninth Air Force, whose support enabled the Nineteenth to retain its small footprint

Stations

AETC Components

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 January 2018, at 10:16.
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.