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New York state election, 1914

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 1914 New York state election was held on November 3, 1914, to elect the Governor, the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, the State Treasurer, the State Engineer, a U.S. Senator and a judge[1] of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate, and delegates-at-large to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1915.

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Episode 25: Immigrant Cities Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. History and today we’re going to continue our extensive look at American capitalism. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I’m sorry are you saying that I grow up to be a tool of the bourgeoisie… Oh not just a tool of the bourgeoise, Me from the Past, but a card-carrying member of it. I mean, you have employees whose labor you can exploit because you own the means of production, which in your case includes a chalkboard, a video camera, a desk, and a xenophobic globe. Meanwhile Stan, Danica, Raoul, and Meredith toil in crushing poverty--STAN, DID YOU WRITE THIS PART? THESE ARE ALL LIES. CUE THE INTRO. intro So, last week we saw how commercial farming transformed the American west and gave us mythical cowboys and unfortunately not-so-mythical Indian reservations. Today we leave the sticks and head for the cities--as so many Americans and immigrants have done throughout this nation’s history. I mean we may like to imagine that the history of America is all “Go west young man,” but in fact from Mark Twain to pretty much every hipster in Brooklyn, it’s the opposite. So, population was growing everywhere in America after 1850. Following a major economic downturn in the 1890s, farm prices made a comeback, and that drew more and more people out west to take part in what would eventually be called agriculture’s golden age. Although to be fair agriculture’s real golden age was in like 3000 BCE when Mesopotamians were like, “Dude, if we planted these in rows, we could have MORE OF IT THAN WE CAN EAT.” So it was really more of a second golden age. But anyway, more than a million land claims were filed under the Homestead Act in the 1890s. And between 1900 and 1910 the populations of Texas and Oklahoma together increased by almost 2 million people. And another 800,000 moved into Kansas, the Dakotas, and Nebraska. That’s right. People moved to Nebraska. Sorry, I just hadn’t yet offended Nebraskans. I’m looking to get through the list before the end of the year. But one of the central reasons that so many people moved out west was that the demand for agricultural products was increasing due to … the growth of cities. In 1880, 20% of the American population lived in cities and there were 12 cities with a population over 100,000 people. This rose to 18 cities in 1900 with the percentage of urban dwellers rising to 38%. And by 1920, 68% of Americans lived in cities and 26 cities had a population over 100,000. So in the 40 years around the turn of the 20th century, America became the world’s largest industrial power and went from being predominantly rural to largely urban. This is, to use a technical historian term, a really big deal. Because it didn’t just make cities possible, but also their products. It’s no coincidence that while all this was happening, we were getting cool stuff like electric lights and moving picture cameras. Neither of which were invented by Thomas Edison. I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but suddenly there are a lot more photographs in Crash Course U.S. History b-roll. So the city leading the way in this urban growth was New York, especially after Manhattan was consolidated with Brooklyn (and the Bronx, Queens and Staten Island) in 1898. At the turn of the century, the population of the 23 square miles of Manhattan Island was over 2 million and the combined 5 boroughs had a population over 4 million. But, while New York gets most of the attention in this time period, and all time periods since, it wasn’t alone in experiencing massive growth. Like, my old hometown of Chicago, after basically burning to the ground in 1871, became the second largest city in America by the 1890s. Also, they reversed the flow of the freaking Chicago River. Probably the second most impressive feat in Chicago at the time. The first being that the Cubs won two World Series. Even though I’m sorely tempted to chalk up the growth of these metropolises to a combination of better nutrition and a rise in skoodilypooping, I’m going to have to bow to stupid historical accuracy and tell you that much of the growth had to do with the phenomenon that this period is most known for: immigration. Of course, by the end of the 19th century, immigration was not a new phenomenon in the United States. After the first wave of colonization by English people, and Spanish people, and other Europeans, there was a new wave of Scandinavians, French people, and especially the Irish. Most of you probably know about the potato famine of the 1840s that led a million Irish men and women to flee. If you don’t know about it, it was awful. And the second largest wave of immigrants was made up of German speakers, including a number of liberals who left after the abortive revolutions of 1848. Alright, let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. The Irish had primarily been farmers in the motherland, but in America, they tended to stay in cities, like New York and Boston. Most of the men began their working lives as low-wage unskilled laborers, but over time they came to have much more varied job opportunities. Irish immigrant women worked too, some in factories or as domestic servants in the homes of the growing upper class. Many women actually preferred the freedom that factory labor provided and one Irish factory woman compared her life to that of a servant by saying: “Our day is ten hours long, but when it’s done, it’s done, and we can do what we like with the evenings. That’s what I’ve heard from every nice girl that’s tried service. You’re never sure that your soul is your own except when you’re out of the house.” [1] Most German speakers had been farmers in their home countries and would remain farmers in the U.S., but a number of skilled artisans also came. They tended to stay in cities and make a go of entrepreneurship. Bismarck himself saw emigration from Germany as a good thing saying, “The better it goes for us, the higher the volume of emigration.”[2] And that’s why we named a city in North Dakota after him. Although enough German immigrants came to New York that the lower east side of Manhattan came to be known for a time as Kleindeutschland (little Germany), many moved to the growing cities of the Midwest like Cincinnati and St. Louis. Some of the most famous German immigrants became brewers, and America is much richer for the arrival of men like Frederick Pabst, Joseph Schlitz, and Adolphus Busch. And by richer, I mean more drunker. Hey. Thanks for not ending on a downer, Thought Bubble. I mean, unless you count alcoholism. So but by the 1890s, over half of the 3.5 million immigrants who came to our shores came from southern and eastern Europe, in particular Italy and the Russian and Austro Hungarian empires. They were more likely than previous immigrants to be Jewish or Catholic, and while almost all of them were looking for work, many were also escaping political or religious persecution. And by the 1890s they also had to face new “scientific” theories, which I’m putting in air quotes to be clear because there was nothing scientific about them, which consigned them to different “races” whose low level of civilization was fit only for certain kinds of work and predisposed them to criminality. The Immigration Restriction League was founded in Boston in 1894 and lobbied for national legislation that would limit the numbers of immigrants, and one such law even passed Congress in 1897 only to be vetoed by President Grover Cleveland. Good work, Grover! You know, his first name was Stephen, but he called himself Grover. I would have made a different choice. But before you get too excited about Grover Cleveland, Congress and the President were able to agree on one group of immigrants to discriminate against: the Chinese. Chinese immigrants, overwhelmingly male, had been coming to the United States, mostly to the West, since the 1850s to work in mines and on the railroads. They were viewed with suspicion because they looked different, spoke a different language, and they had “strange” habits, like regular bathing. By the time the Chinese Exclusion Act went into effect in 1882 there were 105,000 people of Chinese descent living in the United States, mainly in cities on the West Coast. San Francisco refused to educate Asians until the state Supreme Court ordered them to do so and even then the city responded by setting up segregated schools. The immigrants fought back through the courts. In 1886, in the case of Yick Wo v. Hopkins the United States Supreme court ordered San Francisco to grant Chinese-operated laundries licenses to operate. Then in 1898 in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Court ruled that American born children of Chinese immigrants were entitled to citizenship under the 14th Amendment, which should have been a duh but wasn’t. We’ve been hard on the Supreme Court here at Crash Course, but those were two good decisions. You go, Supreme Court! But despite these victories Asian immigrants continued to face discrimination in the form of vigilante-led riots like the one in Rock Springs, Wyoming that killed 26 people, and congressionally approved restrictions, many of which the Supreme Court did uphold, so meh. Also it’s important to remember that this large-scale immigration--and the fear of it--was part of a global phenomenon. At its peak between 1901 and the outbreak of World War 1 in 1914, 13 million immigrants came to the United States. In the entire period touched off by the industrialization from 1840 until 1914, a total of 40 million people came to the U.S. But at least 20 million people emigrated to other parts of the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil, the Caribbean, Canada (yes, Canada) and Argentina. As much as we have Italian immigrants to thank for things like pizza (and we do thank you), Argentina can be just as grateful for the immigrant ancestors of Leo Messi. Also the Pope, although he has never once won La Liga. And there was also extensive immigration from India to other parts of the British Empire like South Africa; Chinese immigration to South America and the Caribbean; I mean, the list goes on and on. In short, America is not as special as it fancies itself. Oh it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. I get it wrong and then I get shocked with the shock pen. Sorry I don’t mean to sound defeatist, but I don’t have a good feeling about this. Alright. “The figure that challenged attention to the group was the tall, straight, father, with his earnest face and fine forehead, nervous hands eloquent in gesture, and a voice full of feeling. This foreigner, who brought his children to school as if it were an act of consecration, who regarded the teacher of the primer class with reverence, who spoke of visions, like a man inspired, in a common classroom...I think Miss Nixon guessed what my father’s best English could not convey. I think she divined that by the simple act of delivering our school certificates to her he took possession of America.”[3] Uhh, I don’t know. At first I thought it might be someone who worked with immigrants, like Jane Addams, but then at the end suddenly it’s her own father. Jane Addams’s father was not an immigrant. Mary Antin? Does she even have a Wikipedia page?! She does? Did you write it, Stan? Stan wrote her Wikipedia page. AH. So, this document, while it was written by someone who should not have a Wikipedia page, points out that most immigrants to America were coming for the most obvious reason: opportunity. Industrialization, both in manufacturing and agriculture, meant that there were jobs in America. There was so much work, in fact, that companies used labor recruiters who went to Europe to advertise opportunities. Plus, the passage was relatively cheap, provided you were only going to make it once in your life, and it was fast, taking only 8 to 12 days on the new steam powered ships. The Lower East Side of Manhattan became the magnet for waves of immigrants, first Germans then Eastern European Jews and Italians, who tended to re-create towns and neighborhoods within blocks and sometimes single buildings. Tenements, these 4, 5 and 6 story buildings that were designed to be apartments, sprang up in the second half of the 19th century and the earliest ones were so unsanitary and crowded that the city passed laws requiring a minimum of light and ventilation. And often these tenement apartments doubled as workspaces because many immigrant women and children took in piecework, especially in the garment industry. Despite laws mandating the occasional window and outlawing the presence of cows on public streets, conditions in these cities were pretty bad. Things got better with the construction of elevated railroads and later subways that helped relieve traffic congestion but they created a new problem: pickpockets. “Pickpockets take advantage of the confusion to ply their vocation… The foul, close, heated air is poisonous. A healthy person cannot ride a dozen blocks without a headache.” So that’s changed! This new transportation technology also enabled a greater degree of residential segregation in cities. Manhattan’s downtown area had at one time housed the very rich as well as the very poor but improved transportation meant that people no longer had to live and work in the same place. The wealthiest, like Cornelius Vanderbilt and J.P. Morgan, constructed lavish palaces for themselves and uptown townhouses were common.[4][5] But until then, one of the most notable feature of gilded age cities like New York was that the rich and the poor lived in such close proximity to each other. And this meant that with America’s growing urbanization, the growing distance between rich and poor was visible to both rich and poor. And much as we see in today’s megacity, this inability to look away from poverty and economic inequality became a source of concern. Now one way to alleviate concern is to create suburbs so you don’t have to look at poor people, but another response to urban problems was politics, which in cities like New York, became something of a contact sport. Another response was the so-called progressive reform movement. And in all these responses and in the issues that prompted them – urbanization, mechanization, capitalism, the distribution of resources throughout the social order -- we can see modern industrial America taking shape. And that is the America we live in today. Thank you for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my history teacher, Raoul Meyer, Rosianna Halse Rojas, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week, there’s a new caption for the libertage. If you’d like to suggest one, you can do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. Immigrant Cities - ________________ [1] Quoted in H.W. Brands, American Colossus: The Triumph of Capitalism 1865-1900. p. 265. [2] Ibid p. 267 [3] Quoted in Brands, American Colossus, p. 324 [4] Ibid p. 315 [5] quoted in Brands, American Colossus p. 320



This was the first time that U.S. Senators from New York were elected by general ballot. Until 1911, the U.S. Senators had been elected by the New York State Legislature, but the lengthy stalemate between Tammany and a faction led by State Senator Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was decided to impede the election of William F. Sheehan or any other crony of Tammany boss Charles F. Murphy, led to a constitutional amendment. Since 1914, the U.S. Senators have been elected with the state officers on the state ticket, and selected in the party primaries.

The Socialist state convention met on July 5 at Rochester, New York. They nominated Charles Edward Russell for U.S. Senator; Gustave Adolph Strebel for governor; Stephen J. Mahoney, of Buffalo, for lieutenant governor; Mrs. Florence C. Kitchelt, of Rochester, for secretary of state; Charles W. Noonan, of Schenectady, for comptroller; James C. Sheehan, of Albany, for treasurer; Frederick O. Haller, of Buffalo, for attorney general; Prof. Vladimir Karapetoff, of Cornell University, for state engineer; and Louis B. Boudin for the Court of Appeals.[2]

The Prohibition State Committee met on August 15 at Syracuse, New York, and voted to nominate Ex-Governor William Sulzer for governor instead of the previously selected Charles E. Welch, who then ran for lieutenant governor.[3]

This was the first state election at which the parties with "party status" - at this time, the Democratic, Republican and Progressive parties - were required to hold primary elections to nominate candidates for state offices. The primaries were held on September 28.[4]

Republican primary

1914 Republican primary results
Governor Charles S. Whitman 120,073 Harvey D. Hinman 61,952 Job E. Hedges 43,012
Lieutenant Governor Edward Schoeneck 78,563 Seth G. Heacock 68,303 Frank A. Sidway 57,348
Secretary of State Francis M. Hugo 71,037 William D. Cunningham[5] 67,050 Eugene H. Porter[6] 58,845
Comptroller Eugene M. Travis 88,765 James Hooker 62,414 Samuel Strasburger 48,519
Attorney General Egburt E. Woodbury 124,009 Edward R. O'Malley 72,467
Treasurer James L. Wells 184,043
State Engineer Frank M. Williams 159,243 Arthur O'Brien 36,892
Judge of the Court of Appeals Emory A. Chase 180,394
U.S. Senator James W. Wadsworth, Jr. 89,960 William M. Calder 82,895 David Jayne Hill 37,102

Democratic primary

1914 Democratic primary results
Governor Martin H. Glynn 175,772 John A. Hennessy 68,387
Lieutenant Governor Thomas B. Lockwood 158,159 William Gorham Rice 57,305
Secretary of State Mitchell May 167,198 Sidney Newborg 43,251
Comptroller William Sohmer 158,309 George G. Davidson, Jr. 58,077
Attorney General James A. Parsons 151,122 John Larkin 57,096
Treasurer Albert C. Carp 147,443 Charles E. Sunderlin 55,055
State Engineer John A. Bensel 146,533 Raleigh Bennett 58,485
Judge of the Court of Appeals Samuel Seabury 139,694 John N. Carlisle 65,820
U.S. Senator James W. Gerard 138,815 Franklin D. Roosevelt 63,879 James F. McDonough 17,862

Progressive primary

1914 Progressive primary results
Governor Frederick M. Davenport 18,643 William Sulzer 14,366

The other Progressive candidates were nominated unopposed.

The Socialist Labor ticket was filed with the Secretary of State on October 9, 1914.[7] They nominated a full ticket.[8]

Ex-Governor Sulzer's aim was to defeat Glynn whom he considered a back-stabber. For this purpose he organized the American Party, and accepted the nomination by the Prohibition Party. He also sought the nomination of the Progressive Party, but was defeated in their primary. The American Party Executive Committee also endorsed a full slate (Prohibitionists Welch and Clements; Progressives Call and Colby; Democrat Seabury; Charles Horowitz for comptroller; Charles Podsenick for attorney general; and Robert Butler for State Engineer) for the other offices, but did not file a petition to nominate them, so they did not appear on the ballot in the American column.[9]


Almost the whole Republican ticket was elected, only Justice Seabury managed to defeat the Republican candidate Emory A. Chase.

The incumbents Glynn, May, Sohmer, Parsons, Call and Bensel were defeated.

The Republican, Democratic, Independence League, Progressive, Socialist and Prohibition parties maintained automatic ballot access (necessary 10,000 votes for governor), the American Party attained it, and the Socialist Labor Party dit not re-attain it.

34 Republicans and 17 Democrats were elected to a two-year term (1915–16) in the New York State Senate.

100 Republicans, 49 Democrats and one Progressive[10] were elected for the session of 1915 to the New York State Assembly.

1914 state election results
Office Republican ticket Democratic ticket Independence League ticket American ticket Prohibition ticket Progressive ticket Socialist ticket Social Labor[11] ticket
Governor Charles S. Whitman 686,701 Martin H. Glynn 412,253 Martin H. Glynn 125,252 William Sulzer 70,655 William Sulzer 54,189 Frederick M. Davenport 45,686 Gustave Adolph Strebel 37,793 James T. Hunter[12] 2,350
Lieutenant Governor Edward Schoeneck 622,493 Thomas B. Lockwood[13] 534,660 Edward Schoeneck (none) Charles E. Welch[14] 44,484 Chauncey J. Hamlin 113,385 Stephen J. Mahoney[15] 51,304 Jeremiah D. Crowley[16] 3,566
Secretary of State Francis M. Hugo 601,857 Mitchell May 561,429 Mitchell May (none) John R. Clements 68,049 Sydney W. Stern 72,371 Florence Cross Kitchelt 52,970 Edmund Moonelis[17] 3,490
Comptroller Eugene M. Travis 657,373 William Sohmer 553,254 William Sohmer (none) Neil D. Cranmer[18] 29,373 John B. Burnham 68,111 Charles W. Noonan[19] 51,845 Charles E. Berns 3,579
Attorney General Egburt E. Woodbury 651,869 James A. Parsons 529,045 Edward R. O'Malley 12,132 (none) Walter T. Bliss[20] 27,949 Robert H. Elder[21] 77,945 Frederick O. Haller 52,808 John Hall[22] 3,711
Treasurer James L. Wells 622,811 Albert C. Carp 526,025 Homer D. Call (none) Edward A. Packer 29,071 Homer D. Call 117,628 James C. Sheehan 54,202 Anthony Houtenbrink[23] 3,561
State Engineer Frank M. Williams 677,393 John A. Bensel 509,944 John Martin 9,686 (none) James Adamson 27,723 Lloyd Collis 68,110 Vladimir Karapetoff 51,980 August Gillhaus 3,676
Judge of the Court of Appeals Emory A. Chase 594,414 Samuel Seabury 650,468 Samuel Seabury (none) Coleridge A. Hart[24] 28,337 Samuel Seabury Louis B. Boudin 52,225 Edmund Seidel 5,054
U.S. Senator James W. Wadsworth, Jr. 639,112 James W. Gerard 571,419 James W. Gerard (none) Francis E. Baldwin[25] 27,813 Bainbridge Colby 61,977 Charles Edward Russell 55,266 Erwin A. Archer 3064


  • The vote for governor defines the ballot access.
  • Numbers are total votes on all tickets for candidates who ran on more than one ticket, except for governor.
  • Glynn also polled 3,764 votes; and Sulzer 1,426; in the "no-party column," a blank space provided for write-in candidates.


  1. ^ to fill the vacancy caused by the election of Willard Bartlett as Chief Judge
  2. ^ C. E. RUSSELL FOR SENATOR in NYT on July 6, 1914
  3. ^ SULZER HEADS DRY TICKET in NYT on August 16, 1914
  4. ^ RESULTS OF PRIMARIES in NYT on September 29, 1914
  5. ^ William D. Cunningham, of Ulster County, ran for comptroller in 1912
  6. ^ Dr. Eugene H. Porter, State Commissioner of Health
  7. ^ SOCIALIST LABOR TICKET in NYT on October 10, 1914
  8. ^ SILVERSMITH FOR GOVERNOR in NYT on October 25, 1914
  10. ^ The Progressive member was Hamilton Fish III who had run also on the Democratic ticket in his district.
  11. ^ The election law limited the name of any party on the ballot to eleven letters, so that the "Socialist Labor" had to be shortened to "Social Labor"
  12. ^ James T. Hunter (1870-1952), silversmith, ran also for Mayor of New York City in 1903, and for lieutenant governor in 1910 Obit in NYT on January 7, 1952 (subscription required)
  13. ^ Thomas B. Lockwood, son of Daniel N. Lockwood
  14. ^ Charles E. Welch, grape juice manufacturer, of Westfield, ran also for governor in 1916
  15. ^ Stephen J. Mahoney, ran also in 1916
  16. ^ Jeremiah D. Crowley, of Marcellus, ran also for state engineer in 1910, and for lieutenant governor in 1912
  17. ^ Edmund Moonelis, ran also in 1912
  18. ^ Neil Dow Cranmer, of Elmira, ran also for comptroller in 1914 and 1926; for secretary of state in 1916; and for Congress at-large in 1940
  19. ^ Charles W. Noonan, of Schenectady, Alderman from Schenectady's 7th Ward, ran also for comptroller in 1914, 1916 and 1926; for treasurer in 1918; for secretary of state in 1920; for lieutenant governor in 1932; and for Congress at-large in 1934
  20. ^ Walter T. Bliss, ran also for the Court of Appeals in 1917
  21. ^ Robert H. Elder, ran also in 1916
  22. ^ John Hall, ran also for attorney general in 1908, and Governor in 1912
  23. ^ Anthony Houtenbrink, ran also for comptroller in 1916
  24. ^ Coleridge Allen Hart (b. July 11, 1852 Peekskill), lawyer, of Brooklyn, ran also for attorney general in 1889; for the Court of Appeals in 1907, 1908, 1914, 1916, 1917 and 1920; and for the U.S. Senate in 1922
  25. ^ Francis E. Baldwin (1859-1930), of Elmira, financier, ran also for governor in 1894; for chief judge in 1897; for attorney general in 1910 and 1922; and for the Court of Appeals in 1920, F.E. BALDWIN IS DEAD; ELMIRA (N.Y.) FINANCIER in NYT on December 23, 1930 (subscription required)


Vote totals from New York Red Book 1915

See also

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