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New York state election, 1873

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 1873 New York state election was held on November 4, 1873, to elect the Secretary of State, the State Comptroller, the Attorney General, the State Treasurer, the State Engineer, a Canal Commissioner and an Inspector of State Prisons, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly and the New York State Senate. Besides, the voters were asked if the judges of the New York Court of Appeals, the New York Supreme Court, and the county and city courts, shall be elected or appointed; the electorate decided to maintain the elective system.

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)}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\ql \li0\ri0\sb100\sa100\sbauto1\saauto1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid15336118 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid15336118 The Panic of 1873 began on September 18 with the failure of the Philadelphia investment house of Jay Cooke. Cooke had played a large role in financing the Union war effort by marketing federal bonds to farmers and workers. After the war, his firm had become the government's agent in financing railroad construction. In the years between the end of the Civil War and the demise of Cooke's firm, railroads laid 35,000 miles of new track in the United States and became the nation's largest employers. Eastern financial markets and railroads grew up together. \par Such businesses required large amounts of invested funds. Cooke raised great sums through bond sales, but individual banks, including smaller institutions, also made large investments in railroads. After the completion of the transcon tinental Union Pacific Railroad in 1869, businessmen and politicians immediately clamored for another, to be called the Northern Pacific. Cooke's firm worked to raise money for this project, but economic conditions had weakened in the years since 1869. Th e Northern Pacific proved less attractive to investors than had the Union Pacific. Many railroads had overbuilt, setting the stage for ruinous competition for freight traffic. Many investors had speculated heavily in railroad securities. \par In September of 18 73 the whole venture came crashing down. Cooke's failure drove panicked banks to demand payment of loans. Investors rushed to sell stocks in order to protect their capital. As stocks on the New York exchanges sunk lower, borrowers had no money with which to pay their debts. Businessmen, many of whom had borrowed money to expand their operations during boom times, released workers. \par In Illinois these economic reverses affected rural and city dwellers alike. Many farmers had borrowed money to expand their ope rations during the Civil War's boom times. But now they faced a deflationary cycle that obliged them to pay debts in dollars that had become much scarcer, and hence more valuable, than they had been at the time of the loan. The result was a greater practi cal debt burden. \par Just as the Panic of 1873 unfolded, Chicagoans had hosted an Inter-State Industrial Exposition to call attention to their rapid rebound from the great fire. But the depression that lasted for the rest of the decade temporarily slowed the c ity's growth. Industrialists and entrepreneurs lost fortunes. One in three workers lacked employment. Many workers had come to Chicago in order to take part in the city's reconstruction. Now many of these recently arrived, single male immigrants walked th e streets as tramps. Others gathered to protest their lot. \par In 1873 Chicagoans, some Germans outraged by Republicans' temperance legislation and some speaking for other, increasingly mobili zed groups of immigrants and workers, elected a People's Party candidate mayor of Chicago and controlled the city council. Native born, evangelical reformers saw the new party as an obstacle to their goal of reforming and uplifting the poor. \par Newly arrived Germans also began to organize a Socialist Party in Chicago and published a German-language newspaper devoted to politics and labor matters. In December of 1873 they organized a march of five thousand unemployed upon City Hall, where they demanded that t h e newly elected People's Party administration either provide public works jobs for the unemployed or force charitable organizations to disburse the remainder of the fire relief funds. As in other large American cities, weeks of demonstrations followed, wh ich the local newspapers compared to the Paris Commune. \par The city administration refused the socialists' demands, arguing that relief would deprive individuals' of their independence and self-respect. Instead, the mayor urged workers to take up self-help. T he socialists' electoral challenge to the People's Party failed, but they had established themselves as a political and intellectual force in Chicago, and would return. \par Despite the hard e conomic times, the United States' western expansion continued unabated. In 1874 the engineer James Eads completed construction of a steel bridge spanning the Mississippi River and providing southern Illinois with greater access to St. Louis markets. In th e same year Joseph Glidden of DeKalb began sale of his barbed wire, which allowed western farmers and ranchers to keep their livestock in (or out of) enclosed pastures and fields. \par As the nation pushed westward, Chicago's business leaders began to feel unea sy about their role in it. Despite eastern capital's large assistance in rebuilding their city, Chicagoans now faced an ultimatum from insurance companies, demanding that the administration significantly reorganize the city in order to address the potenti a l for future fires. The insurance companies demanded a ban on wooden buildings in the city limits, a new building code, reform of the city fire department, removal of lumberyards and other hazardous buildings from the city, and improved water facilities. Facing the grim prospect of trying to build a city without insurance, Chicago's leaders acquiesced to the demands. \par During the depression of the 1870s Chicago's business leaders increasingly came to organize themselves as a political force in opposition to the People's Party. The businessmen formed a Citizens Association of Chicago and took it upon themselves to enact many of the insurance companies' demands beyond the authority of the city government. Private funds paid for the reorganization of the fire d epartment. The Citizens Association also took up the organization of a new militia devoted to dispersing workers' demonstrations in the name of public order. In response, German groups organized their own armed militia. \par In the fall of 1876 the national electorate seemed to return the Democratic Party to the White House. The Radical Republicans' push for a comprehensive Reconstruction of the southern states had long ago fallen into disorganization as many northern whites turned their attention away from the plight of freedmen in the South. In 1872 the Congress had passed an Amnesty Act pardoning many former rebels and allowing them to re-enter politics. In 1874 the Democrats wo n control of the House of Representatives and significantly diminished Republican strength in the Senate. \par In the campaign of 1876 Democrats disputed close election returns in three southern states still controlled by Republican Reconstruction government. T hey suggested that officials in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana had awarded their states' electoral votes to the Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes, when the popular vote had actually supported the Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Hayes' campaign re lied upon these three states to secure a narrow majority in the electoral college. Without them, Tilden would be president. \par Democrats and Republicans agreed upon a special commission made up of equal members of each party and a Supreme Court Justice. When it became plain that the Justice was deciding all matters in favor of the Republicans, Democrats' protests included talk of another Civil War. In this atmosphere, the parties agreed upon a plan that awarded Hayes the presidency. In return, Republicans agr e ed to remove the remaining federal troops from the southern states, provide political patronage to white southerners, and enact legislation to facilitate southern economic development. 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Contents

History

The Republican state convention met on September 24 at the Opera House in Utica, New York. David J. Mitchell was Temporary Chairman until the choice of Stewart L. Woodford as President. Francis S. Thayer was nominated for Secretary of State by acclamation. The incumbent Comptroller Nelson K. Hopkins was re-nominated by acclamation. Daniel G. Fort was nominated for Treasurer after a "rising vote, when the whole convention, except a score, stood up in favor of Mr. Fort." Benjamin D. Silliman was nominated for Attorney General on the first ballot (vote: Silliman 262, B. Platt Carpenter 162). The incumbent State Engineer William B. Taylor was re-nominated. Sidney Mead was nominated for Canal Commissioner on the first ballot (vote: Mead 185, Charles K. Monell 118, John Napier 41, Hiram P. Wilbur 33). Moss K. Platt was nominated for Prison Inspector on the first ballot with 238 votes.[1]

The Democratic state convention met on October 2 at Utica, New York. Diedrich Willers, Jr., for Secretary of State, and Asher P. Nichols for Comptroller, were nominated by acclamation. Daniel Pratt was nominated for Attorney General on the first ballot (vote: Pratt 82, James B. Olney 26, Rufus W. Peckham, Jr. 13). The incumbent Treasurer Thomas Raines[2] was re-nominated by acclamation. Sylvanus H. Sweet was nominated for State Engineer after several ballots. James Jackson, Jr. was nominated for Canal Commissioner, and George W. Millspaugh for Prison Inspector.[3]

Results

Five Democrats and two Republicans were elected to state offices.

The incumbents Hopkins and Raines were re-elected. The incumbent Taylor was defeated.

1873 state election results
Office Democratic ticket Republican ticket
Secretary of State Diedrich Willers, Jr. Francis S. Thayer
Comptroller Asher P. Nichols Nelson K. Hopkins
Attorney General Daniel Pratt Benjamin D. Silliman[4]
Treasurer Thomas Raines

Daniel G. Fort[5]

State Engineer Sylvanus H. Sweet William B. Taylor
Canal Commissioner James Jackson, Jr. Sidney Mead[6]
Inspector of State Prisons George W. Millspaugh[7] Moss K. Platt

Notes

  1. ^ THE STATE CONVENTION in NYT on September 25, 1873
  2. ^ Raines had been elected on the Republican ticket in 1871, had joined the Liberal Republicans in 1872, and ran now on the Democratic ticket.
  3. ^ THE DEMOCRATS.; CLOSE OF THE UTICA CONVENTION in NYT on October 3, 1873
  4. ^ Benjamin Douglas Silliman (1805-1901), of Kings County, assemblyman 1838, United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York 1865-66
  5. ^ Daniel G. Fort, banker, mayor of Oswego 1862, assemblyman 1872-73
  6. ^ Col. Sidney Mead, of Cayuga County, a Civil War veteran
  7. ^ George W. Millspaugh, of Orange County

Sources

See also

This page was last edited on 13 June 2018, at 19:21
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