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New South Wales Rural Fire Service

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New South Wales Rural Fire Service
NSW Rural Fire Service logo.svg
Seal
New South Wales Rural Fire Service flag.png
Flag
Prepare. Act. Survive
Operational area
CountryAustralia
State and territory
Address4 Murray Rose Avenue, Sydney Olympic Park
Agency overview
Established1896; 125 years ago (1896)
Staffing
  • 936 (paid staff)
  • 71,234 (voluntary members)
CommissionerRob Rogers AFSM
Facilities and equipment
Stations1,994
Engines62 (4x4 pumpers)
Trucks59 (4x4 bulk water carriers)
Wildland3,783 (4x4 and 4x2)
AirplanesMultiple on contract
HelicoptersMultiple on contract and owned
Fireboats30
Website
www.rfs.nsw.gov.au

The New South Wales Rural Fire Service (NSW RFS) is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales.

The NSW RFS is responsible for fire protection to approximately 95% of the land area of New South Wales and the Jervis Bay Territory, while urban areas are the responsibility of Fire and Rescue NSW. The NSW RFS is the primary agency for responding to bushfires in the state. In addition, they respond to structural fires, vehicle fires, motor vehicle accidents and wide range of other emergencies, as well as providing preventative advice to local communities.

The NSW RFS is the world's largest volunteer fire service, with 71,234 volunteer members, although this figure includes many inactive volunteer firefighters and all support volunteers. They are organised into 1,994 brigades (local units). As of 30 June 2019, the service employed 936 paid staff who fulfil senior operational management and administrative roles. The agency attends to approximately 30,000 incidents per annum.[1]

The agency is led by its Commissioner, Rob Rogers AFSM, who reports to the Minister for Police and Emergency Services, currently the Hon. David Elliott MP.

History

More than 100 years ago, the residents of the small town of Berrigan in south west New South Wales, banded together as firefighters to protect their community against the ever-present threat of bush fires. They were Australia's first official bush fire brigade.

Prior to 1997, bushfire fighting services in New South Wales were essentially a patchwork of more than 200 separate fire fighting agencies working under a loose umbrella with no single chain of command. The core of the service, then as now, was the volunteer brigades that were organised along council district lines under the command of a locally appointed Fire Control Officer. Fire fighting efforts were funded by the Bush Fire Fighting Fund, established in 1949 and financed by insurance companies, local council and the State Government. A variety of State-run committees and councils oversaw bush fire operations with members drawn from various Government fire fighting agencies and council and volunteer representatives. These groups developed legislation and techniques but in the main responsibility for bushfire management was vested in individual local councils in dedicated bush fire areas as determined under the 1909 Fire Brigades Act. This Act proclaimed the areas serviced by the Board of Fire Commissioners (now Fire and Rescue NSW) and covered the urban areas of Sydney and Newcastle together with most regional and country towns of any significance.[2]

In January 1994, extreme weather conditions resulted in over 800 bush fires breaking out along the coast of NSW. More than 800,000 hectares (2,000,000 acres) of land and 205 homes were burned. 120 people were injured and four people were killed, including a volunteer firefighter from the Wingello Bush Fire Brigade (seven were also injured). The financial cost of the disaster was estimated at $165 million. The lengthy Coronial Inquiry that followed recommended the State Government introduce a single entity responsible for the management of bush fires in NSW. The 1997 Rural Fires Act was proclaimed on 1 September, with Phil Koperberg announced as Commissioner. As Director-General of the Department of Bush Fire Services, Koperberg had been in command of the fire agencies battling the 1994 fires and was instrumental in developing the legislation that led to the Rural Fires Act.[3]

Volunteer brigades, 1896–1936

RFS memorial in Berrigan commemorating the establishment of the first bush fire brigade in New South Wales.
RFS memorial in Berrigan commemorating the establishment of the first bush fire brigade in New South Wales.

Organised control of bush fires began with the establishment of the first volunteer bush fire brigades at Berrigan in 1896.[4][5] This brigade had been established in response to a series of large fires in northern Victoria and south western New South Wales in the 1890s. These culminated in the Red Tuesday fire of 1 February 1898 in Gippsland that claimed 12 lives and destroyed 2000 buildings.[6]

In 1916 the Local Government Act provided for the prevention and mitigation of bush fires by authorising local councils to establish, manage and maintain these brigades.[7] The establishment of the Bush Fires Act in 1930 granted local councils the authority to appoint bush fire officers with powers comparable to those held by a Chief Officer of the NSW Fire Brigades.[8] These Fire Control Officers were responsible for bush fire management within their appointed local council districts.

Bush Fire Advisory Committee, 1939–1948

In September 1939 a conference of fire-fighting authorities was convened to discuss the prevention of bush fires during the summer months. The Bush Fire Advisory Committee was established to prevent and mitigate bush fires.[9] This committee had no statutory powers but publicised the need for the public to observe fire safety precautions and highlighted the role of Bush Fire Brigades. It was also largely responsible for preparing legislation that led to the Bush Fires Act of 1949.[10]

Bush Fire Committee, 1949–1970

The Bush Fires Act, 1949 came into effect on 9 December 1949.[11] This legislation consolidated and modernised the law relating to the prevention, control and suppression of bush fires, and gave councils and other authorities wider powers to protect the areas under their control. The system of bush fire brigades manned by volunteers and directed by their officers appointed by their local Councils continued but shire and district councils or Ministers could now appoint group captains to direct brigades formed by two adjoining councils.[12]

The Act also gave the Governor of NSW the authority to proclaim bush fire districts where none had previously been proclaimed. Essential to the legislation was the establishment of the Bush Fire Fighting Fund. This Fund was financed by insurance companies contributing half the funds with the remainder supplied equally by State and local government. The Act also enabled for the co-ordination of the activities of the Board of Fire Commissioners, the Forestry Commission (now State Forests) and the Bush Fire Brigades. The Minister for Local Government was empowered to appoint a person to take charge of all bush fire operations during a state of emergency.[12]

The Bush Fire Committee replaced the Bush Fire Advisory Committee and had 20 members representing NSW Government departments, local government, the insurance industry, the farming community, the Board of Fire Commissioners, and the Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau. A Standing Committee composed of a chairman and five others met at least once a month.[12] Based in Sydney, the Bush Fire Committee advised the Chief Secretary and Minister for Local Government on all matters relating to bush fires, and generally co-ordinated the work of volunteer fire fighting groups and was responsible for community education relating to bush fires.[12]

The most significant bushfire in New South Wales during this period was the Southern Highlands (1965) bushfire.

Bush Fire Council/Bush Fire Service, 1970–1997

In 1970 the Bush Fire Committee was replaced by the Bush Fire Council,[13] with members drawn from the various fire fighting authorities from around the state. A special Co-ordinating Committee was established to oversee the co-ordination of fire-fighting and related resources prior to and during the bush fire season, and particularly during bush fire emergencies. A Chief Co-ordinator of Bush Fire Fighting was also appointed.[14]

In January 1975, the Bush Fires Branch of the NSW Chief Secretary's department integrated with the State Emergency Service and renamed the Bush Fire Service.[15]

The Department of Bush Fire Services was established in 1990. Brandon Leyba was appointed Director-General of the Department on 11 May.[16] The Department's main role was in co-ordinating the fire fighting activities of other government agencies such as the National Parks and Wildlife Service, State Forests of New South Wales, Sydney Water and the New South Wales Fire Brigades in emergency circumstances.[17] It was also responsible for the management and control of the NSW Bush Fire Fighting Fund and the co-ordination of the State's 2,500 Bush Fire Brigades,[18] however the brigades still remained under the direct control of local council.

Major bushfires during this period were in Far West NSW at Moolah-Corinya,[19][20][21][22] Cobar,[19][20][21][22] Balranald,[20][21][22] and across other parts of NSW (in 1974–75),[23][24][25] Sydney (1979),[26] Waterfall (1980),[27] Grays Point (1983),[28] Western NSW grasslands (1984),[20][21][22] Cobar and across other parts of NSW (in 1984–85),[20][21][22][23][24][25] and across Australia's eastern seaboard (1994).[29]

NSW Rural Fire Service, 1997– present

The former Rural Fire Service Headquarters situated on Carter Street, Lidcombe.
The former Rural Fire Service Headquarters situated on Carter Street, Lidcombe.

The NSW Rural Fire Service was established by the Rural Fires Act 1997 which was assented to on 10 July 1997 and came into force on 1 September 1997.[30] The Rural Fires Act repealed the Bush Fires Act, 1949 thereby dissolving the Bush Fire Council and its Committees. Members of these bodies ceased to hold office but were entitled to hold office on a replacing body.

The Rural Fire Service Advisory Council of New South Wales was established. The Council was to consist of nine representatives with a direct or indirect association with bush fire prevention and control; the Commissioner in charge of bush fire fighting services was ex-officio to be the Chairperson of the Council. The task of the Council was to advise and report to the Minister and Commissioner on any matter relating to the administration of rural fire services, and to advise the Commissioner on public education programs relating to rural fire matters, training of rural fire fighters, and on the issue of Service Standards.

A statutory body – the Bush Fire Co-ordinating Committee – also was established. This was to consist of 12 members including the Commissioner who was to act as Chairperson. The Committee was to be responsible for the administration of rural fires management as well as advising the Commissioner on bush fire prevention.

The Committee was to constitute a Bush Fire Management Committee for "the whole of the area of any local authority for which a rural fire district is constituted". Each Management Committee was to prepare and present to the Council a plan of operations and bush fire risk management plan for its area within three months of establishment. The former was to be reviewed every two years; the latter every five years.

Section 102 of the new act established the New South Wales Rural Fire Fighting Fund to replace the New South Wales Bush Fire Fighting Fund. Quarterly contributions from insurance companies, local councils and the Treasury were to continue in the same proportions as under previous legislation – 14% from the State Treasury, 73.7% from the insurance industry and 12.3% from local Councils.[31]

Major bushfires during this period were at Lithgow (1997),[32] Black Christmas (2001–02), Central Coast (2006), Junee (2006),[33][34] Pulletop (2006), Australian season (2006–07),[35][36][37][38][39][40] Warrumbungles (2013),[41] New South Wales (2013),[42][43][44] Carwoola (2017),[45] Tathra (2018),[46] and Black Summer (2019-20).[47]

Structure

Current NSW Rural Fire Service Headquarters situated on Murray Rose Avenue, Sydney Olympic Park
Current NSW Rural Fire Service Headquarters situated on Murray Rose Avenue, Sydney Olympic Park
NSW Rural Fire Service Training Academy in Dubbo
NSW Rural Fire Service Training Academy in Dubbo

NSW RFS Headquarters is located at 4 Murray Rose Avenue, Sydney Olympic Park. It relocated to this location in November 2018 and was previously situated at Rosehill until October 2004. Separate directorates within NSW RFS Headquarters are responsible for Infrastructure Services, Membership and Strategic Services, Operations, and Finance and Executive Services.

Regional offices mirror these responsibilities at more centralised locations across the State. The original eight regions were consolidated into four by 2000, with the model changed to be seven Areas in 2019.[48]

These areas are as follows:

Formerly run by council-appointed officers, district Fire Control Centres became State controlled under the Rural Fires Act. District offices manage the day-to-day affairs of local brigades and maintain responsibility for local fire prevention and strategies. With the amalgamation of neighbouring districts over recent years, there are 47 NSW Rural Fire Service Districts.

Volunteer brigades are responsible for hands-on bush firefighting duties. Since the establishment of the Rural Fire Service, the role of brigades has gradually expanded to include disaster recovery, fire protection at motor vehicle accidents, search and rescue operations and increased levels of structural firefighting. There are more than 2,000 firefighting brigades[49] and more than 50 catering and communications brigades providing support.

Senior officers

Commissioner

The most senior member of the organisation is the Commissioner.

The first NSW RFS Commissioner was Phil Koperberg, who was previously the Director-General of the NSW Department of Bushfire Services since its creation in 1990. In 2007 he stepped down as Commissioner after announcing his candidature for the 2007 state election in which he was elected as the Member for Blue Mountains. In September 2007 Shane Fitzsimmons was officially appointed NSW RFS Commissioner. In May 2020, Shane Fitzsimmons commenced in the role of Commissioner of Resilience NSW. Rob Rogers was appointed to the role of Acting Commissioner on 1 May 2020, before being permanently appointed on 16 July.[50]

Ordinal Name Title Term start Term end Time in office Notes
1 Phil Koperberg AO, AFSM, BEM Commissioner 1 September 1997 (1997-09-01) 12 January 2007 (2007-01-12) 9 years, 133 days [30][51][52]
2 Shane Fitzsimmons AFSM 18 September 2007 (2007-09-18) 30 April 2020 (2020-04-30) 13 years, 158 days [53]
3 Rob Rogers AFSM 16 July 2020 (2020-07-16) incumbent 222 days [50]

Deputy Commissioner

Name Title Term start Term end Time in office Notes
Rob Rogers AFSM Deputy Commissioner 18 September 2007 16 July 2020 12 years, 346 days

Senior Assistant Commissioner

Within the NSW RFS, the head of one of the functional area aligned Directorates within Headquarters is given the corporatised designation Executive Director.

Two of the current Executive Directors are uniformed personnel with a rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner. The Executive Director, Operational Services holds the rank of Deputy Commissioner and the Executive Director, Infrastructure Services holds the rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner. Non-operational Executive Directors do not currently hold operational ranks.

Name Title Term start Term end Time in office Notes
Anthony Gates Senior Assistant Commissioner 1997 1998
Bruce McDonald AFSM 2015 incumbent

Assistant Commissioners

Currently the Commissioner has determined that certain occupiers of the role of Director have been appointed to the rank of Assistant Commissioner. Previously, subject to the various executive structures in place, the rank of Assistant Commissioner was held by operational Executive Directors / Directors.

Assistant Commissioners Term start Term end
Ross Smith 1997 2002
Mark Crosweller AFSM 1997 2009
Anthony Howe AFSM 1999 2006
Shane Fitzsimmons AFSM 1999 2007
Rob Rogers AFSM 2002 2011
Keith Harrap AFSM 2004 2012
Dominic Lane AFSM 2008 2013
Bruce McDonald AFSM 2013 2015
Jason Heffernan 2015 2020
Steve Yorke AFSM 2014 incumbent
Stuart Midgley AFSM 2014 incumbent
Rebel Talbert 2015 incumbent
Kelly Browne AFSM 2018 incumbent
Ben Millington 2021 incumbent

Executive Directors

In addition to the Commissioner, there are four Executive Directors who make up the senior executive of the Service. This includes Executive Directors with responsibility for Infrastructure Services (presently Bruce McDonald), Finance and Executive Services (presently Stephen O'Malley), Membership and Strategic Services (presently Trina Schmidt), and Operations (presently vacant).[when?][citation needed]

Ranks and Sections

Operational

Joining

Members of the public who wish to join the NSW RFS will complete an expression of interest on the RFS website.[54]

Support Roles

Not all roles require being a fire fighter or having any qualifications. Support roles include but not excluded to:

  • Aviation - aerial firefighting and related activities. Air base support and related activities. See more in the Aviation section.
  • Bush Firefighter Support - supporting in a non-firefighting role under supervision.
  • Catering - preparing food for RFS activities.
  • Communication - working within a Fire Communications Centre or Fire Control Centre (FCC). Note only a Fire Control centre is an FCC which is also an RFS district headquarters.
  • Community Engagement - Providing members of the public with information, skills and resources on RFS related activities including bush fires and other emergency incidents.
  • Trainer/assessor - Assisting RFS members with completing the required competencies to gain qualifications.[55]
Operational Rank Membership Type Insignia
Commissioner NSW Government Senior Executive Service Officer
Assistant Commissioner NSW Government Senior Executive Service Officer
NSWRFS Insignia AssistCommissioner.jpg
Chief Superintendent NSW Government Public Service Officer
NSWRFS Insignia ChiefSuper.jpg
Superintendent NSW Government Public Service Officer
NSWRFS Insignia Super.jpg
Inspector NSW Government Public Service Officer
NSWRFS Insignia Inspector.jpg
Group Captain Volunteer
Deputy Group Captain Volunteer
Captain Volunteer
NSWRFS Insignia Captain.jpg
Senior Deputy Captain Volunteer
NSWRFS Insignia SeniorDeptCapt.jpg
Deputy Captain Volunteer
NSWRFS Insignia DeptCapt.jpg
Support Fire Fighter (no qualifications) Volunteer
NSWRFS Insignia Member.jpg

Equipment

The RFS operates a broad range of firefighting equipment including:[56]

Firefighting vehicles

A NSW RFS Category 1 Grassland single cab heavy tanker
A NSW RFS Category 1 Grassland single cab heavy tanker

Firefighting appliances used within the RFS all sport an orange and white livery, with either red and white or red and yellow reflective chevrons. Appliances are also equipped with red and blue flashing emergency lights and sirens. [57]

The most common of appliances are tankers, of which the most common of tankers are Category 1 Tankers, which is mainly used in a combination of rural and urban/interface roles ('interface' meaning where built-up areas meet bushland). The next most common fire appliances are Category 7 tankers which are used to support heavier appliances in fire fighting operations as well as being a primary appliance themselves. Category 9 appliances are most often used as rapid intervention vehicles (thus the name 'Striker') to attack small and spot fires quickly before they are able to spread.

Category 2, 3 and 4 tankers are less common, due to the flexibility of Category 1 tankers. Category 10 and 11 urban pumpers can be found in many brigades with dedicated urban responsibilities. Appliances are categorised as follows:

Category Sample image(s) Description Capacity
Sub-category Cab size Drive wheels
1 Heavy Tanker
Village, Grasslands,

Multi-Purpose

Single, Crew 4x2, 4x4 3,000–4,000 litres (660–880 imp gal)
5 Multi-Purpose Single 4x4 9000 litres (1980 imp gal)
6 Heavy Bush Tanker Single 6x4, 6x6
2 Medium Tanker
Three NSW RFS tankers help to pump as much water from the closed storm water system into the Murrumbidgee River (1) (cropped).jpg
Multi-Purpose Crew 4x4, 4x2 1,600–3,000 litres (350–660 imp gal)
Grasslands Single 4x4, 6x6
7 Light Tanker
State of emergency - cropped (2).jpg
Light tanker Crew 4x2, 4x4 800–1,600 litres (180–350 imp gal)
Single 4x2,4x4, 6x6
9 Striker Striker Single, Crew 4x4 Less than 800 litres (180 imp gal)
10 Pumper
Forest Hill Pumper (cropped).jpg
Light Pumper Crew 4x2 Less than 1,600 litres (350 imp gal)
11 Medium Pumper 4x4 More than 1,600 litres (350 imp gal)
13 Bulk Water Carrier
Round Corner 13.jpg
Bulk Water Carrier Single, Crew 4x2, 6x4, 8x4 Approximately 11,000 litres (about 2500 imp gal)
Bulk Water Trailer
15 Fire Boat
Fire Boat None
16 Operational
Command Vehicle
NSWRFS Hyundai i45 - Flickr - Highway Patrol Images.jpg
Light vehicles, 4WD's, buses None
14 Tanker Trailer Tanker trailer, small N/A N/A Less than 800 litres (180 imp gal)
Tanker trailer, large More than 800 litres (180 imp gal)
Pump trailer N/A
12 Personnel Carrier
NSW RFS Toyota Hilux (cropped).jpg
4WD's Crew 4x4 None
Bus Various Various

Support vehicles

The NSW RFS uses various support vehicles. These are categorised as follows:

  • Personnel Carriers. Generally a 4WD in the style of the Toyota Landcruiser or Land Rover Defender. In recent times this has been expanded to include the Toyota Hilux, Nissan Navara, Volkswagen Amarok, Mitsubishi Triton and Ford Ranger.
  • Operational Command Vehicles. These mobile communications centres can range in size from small 4WD-type vehicles to bus-type vehicles.
  • Bulk Water Tankers to resupply appliances engaged in fire fighting activities.
  • Catering Units. Catering units vary in size from small trailers, to large, fully equipped mobile kitchen trucks. Catering Units are usually operated by specialist Catering Brigades, however, zones or brigades may operate their own catering units.
  • Lighting Towers. Towed behind a personnel carrier, or other service vehicle. Used to light areas for night time operations such as Motor Vehicle Accidents.
  • Boats. Either moored in the water or towed behind a personnel carrier, or other service vehicle. Used in firefighting operations on the water

Aviation

The NSW Rural Fire Service also operates an Aviation Unit. The NSW RFS owns and contracts a number of aircraft for firefighting waterbombing, reconnaissance, intelligence gathering and transportation. The NSW RFS aircraft continue to be upgraded with additional camera technology and night vision capability.

Personal Protective Clothing/Equipment (PPC/E)

Each NSW Rural Fire Service member is issued and equipped with the latest safety equipment including RFS uniform and bush firefighting. Extra equipment is provided when a member achieves additional qualifications including Breathing Apparatus Operator (BAO), Crew/Group Leader (C/GL), aviation operations and most specialist qualifications.[58]

Brigades of the NSW RFS

Recognition

Since its formation, the NSW Rural Fire Service and its personnel have been recognized in a variety of ways.

Internal Honours and Awards

Commissioner's Award for Valour

Since 2000, the following three firefighters have been awarded the Commissioner's Medal of Valour - the highest internal award - for "acts of conspicuous courage involving exceptional bravery under circumstances of great peril where there has been a clear and significant risk to life."[59]

  • 2000: Deputy Captain David Quinlivan (posthumously), for sacrificing his life to save his crew during the 1998 Wingello Fires.
  • 2000: Michael Young for valour during the same incident.
  • 2012: Deputy Captain Kendall Thompson, for the helirescue of 45 civilians during the 2010-2011 Queensland Floods.

In addition to the Commissioner's Medal of Valor, Thompson was further awarded the Benjamin Franklin Fire Service Award for Valor, and awards from the Royal Life Saving Society Australia and the Royal Humane Society of Australasia.

Commissioner's Commendation for Bravery

Further to the Medal of Valor, the Commissioner's Commendation for Bravery recognises "an act of courage under hazardous circumstances where the risk to life has not been as significant as to warrant the Commissioner's Award for Valour but is worthy of recognition."[59]

Commissioner's Commendation for Service

Similarly, the Commissioner's Commendation for Service recognises "service of a meritorious nature, or outstanding actions in relation to fire service duties, administrative leadership, or exemplary performance of a specific difficult project or task, not involving bravery."[59]

External Honours and Awards

National Honours System

In addition to internal honours and awards, personnel are additionally eligible for the Australian Fire Service Medal under the Australian honours and awards system.

NSW Premier's Bushfire Emergency Citation

Parallel to the Australian honours system, the Premier of New South Wales instituted the NSW Premier's Bushfire Emergency Citation for frontline service during the 2019–20 Australian bushfire season.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fast Facts" (PDF). NSW Rural Fire Service. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  2. ^ for an extensive list of regional and country locations covered by the early NSWFB, see Board of Fire Commissioners 1914 Annual Report, Appendix VIII p.13.
  3. ^ "History: 1980–1997: Proclamation of the Rural Fires Act 1997". NSW Rural Fire Service. Government of New South Wales. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  4. ^ The Australian Encyclopaedia. 2 (4th ed.). Sydney: The Grolier Society of Australia. 1983. p. 137. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "About Us". NSW Rural Fire Service.
  6. ^ Department of Sustainability and Environment – Major Bushfires in Victoria Archived 23 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ NSW Local Government Act. (No. 41, 1919) Section 494
  8. ^ NSW Bush Fires Act (No. 14, 1930) Section 4
  9. ^ Board of Fire Commissioners of New South Wales Report for y/e 31 March 1937 p. 3 in NSW PP 1938-39-40 vol. 17 pp. 1063–1101
  10. ^ Concise Guide 2nd edition 1992 A-Cl "Bush Fire Council" p. 68
  11. ^ NSWGG 1949 vol. 2 p. 3660
  12. ^ a b c d "Agency: Bush Fire Committee". State Archives & Records. Government of New South Wales. 1970. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  13. ^ NSWGG 1970 vol. 2 p. 2110
  14. ^ Bush Fires Act (No.25, 1970) s. 398
  15. ^ "Report of the Bush Fire Council of NSW". 1975 in NSWPP 1976-77-78. 1 (7): 953–987.
  16. ^ NSWGG 1990 vol. 2 part 1 p. 3775
  17. ^ Department of Bush Fire Services Annual Report for y/e 30 June 1996 p.8
  18. ^ NSW Government Directory June 1996 18th edition p. 162
  19. ^ a b "The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales". Newspapers.com. 21 December 1974. p. 1. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e Mac Dougall, I D (2003). "A National User-Driven approach towards a coordinated Fire Research Program" (PDF). The Australian Bushfire Cooperative Research Centre Program. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Bush Fires / Wild Fires – Australian Bushfire History". australiasevereweather.com. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Our Service's story" (PDF). NSW RFS Bush Fire Bulletin Souvenir Liftout 2010 Part Two. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  23. ^ a b Ellis, Kanowski & Whelan (2004). COAG National Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management (PDF). Commonwealth of Australia. p. 341.
  24. ^ a b 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission Final Report (PDF). Parliament of Victoria. 2010. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-9807408-1-3.
  25. ^ a b "Bushfires in NSW: timelines and key sources" (PDF). NSW Parliament Issues Backgrounder Number 6. NSW Parliamentary Research Service. June 2014.
  26. ^ "Bushfire – Sydney and Region:1 December 1979". Attorney-General's Department (Australia). Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  27. ^ "1979 – 1980, Sydney and Region bushfire". Ministry for Police and Emergency Services. 18 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  28. ^ Mutton, Sheree (9 January 2014). "Shire fire horror still lingers 20 years on". St George & Sutherland Shire Leader. Fairfax Regional Media. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  29. ^ "Bushfires – Get the Facts Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine". Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved 9 January 2013
  30. ^ a b NSWGG 1997 No. 95 29 August 1997 p. 6644
  31. ^ Rural Fires Act (No. 65, 1997) Sections 100, 105, 109 & 111
  32. ^ "Some past bushfires in Australia". Northern Daily Leader. 10 February 2009. p. 3.
  33. ^ "Bushfire threat eases in NSW". The Sydney Morning Herald. 4 January 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  34. ^ "Generous support coming in for farmers affected by bushfires". NSW Department of Primary Industries. New South Wales Government. 6 January 2006. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  35. ^ Kennedy, Les; David Braithwaite; Edmund Tadros (22 November 2006). "Man dies as early bushfire season grips NSW". The Age. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  36. ^ "Authorities investigate forestry worker's death". ABC News. 14 January 2007. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  37. ^ Morton, Adam; Orietta Guerrera; Bridie Smith (15 December 2006). "Bushfires claim first life". The Age. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  38. ^ Switzer, Renee (18 January 2007). "One dead in SA bushfire". The Age. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  39. ^ "Body found in fire wreckage". ABC News. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  40. ^ "Woman fleeing bushfire burnt to death". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  41. ^ Van de Wetering, Jodie (11 March 2013). "A timeline of the Coonabarabran bushfires". ABC (Western Plains). Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  42. ^ "Update – Damage assessment and fire investigation" (PDF) (Press release). New South Wales Rural Fire Service. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.[permanent dead link]
  43. ^ "Watch and Act – Linksview Road Fire, Springwood (Blue Mountains) 19/10/13 11:40". NSW Rural Fire Service. 19 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
  44. ^ Madden, James. "Firestorm destroys NSW communities as hundreds of homes could be lost". The Australian. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  45. ^ Le Lievre, Kimberley; Groch, Sherryn; Brown, Andrew (18 February 2017). "Police investigate blaze near Queanbeyan as fire crews battle on". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  46. ^ "Bushfire in Tathra wipes out 69 homes, residents still unable to return to NSW south coast town". ABC News. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  47. ^ "How extreme conditions drove Australia's record bushfire disaster - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". mobile.abc.net.au. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
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Other references

External links

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