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New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival
NOJazzFestLogo.png
GenreJazz
DatesApril/May
Location(s)New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
Coordinates29°57′N 90°05′W / 29.95°N 90.08°W / 29.95; -90.08
Years active1970–2019, 2021–
Founded byGeorge Wein
Websitenojazzfest.com

The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival (commonly called Jazz Fest or Jazzfest) is an annual celebration of local music and culture that is held at the Fairgrounds Race Course in New Orleans, Louisiana. Jazz Fest has attracted thousands of visitors to New Orleans each year.[1] The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, as it is officially named, was initially established in 1970 as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization (NPO). The Foundation is the original organizer of the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival presented by Shell Oil Company, a corporate financial sponsor. The Foundation was primarily established to redistribute the funds generated by Jazz Fest into the local community. As an NPO, their mission further states that the Foundation "promotes, preserves, perpetuates and encourages the music, culture and heritage of communities in Louisiana through festivals, programs and other cultural, educational, civic and economic activities."[2][3] The founders of the organization include George Wein, Quint Davis and Allison Miner.[4]

Due to concerns over the COVID-19 pandemic, Spring 2020 marks the first year in the fifty-year history of Jazz Fest that the two-week festival has been cancelled and rescheduled to take place October 8–17, 2021, which falls within the Atlantic hurricane season.[5]

Background

George Wein, a jazz mogul and founder of the Newport Jazz Festival and Newport Folk Festival in Rhode Island, was contacted in 1962 by the manager of the Royal Orleans Hotel in the French Quarter, and was asked to bring his festival model to New Orleans.[6] Wein met with Mayor Victor H. Schiro, Seymour Weiss, and a few members of the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce to discuss the proposition.[6] It was decided that New Orleans and the South were not ready for a jazz festival. It was a time in the city's history that was wrought with racism and segregationists reminiscent of the Jim Crow era. City ordinances were still in place that prohibited interaction between black and white musicians, tourists and locals on a scale large enough to prevent revitalization of the economy.[6]

Two years after the initial meeting, Lambert again contacted Wein and asked him to plan a festival for the spring of 1965. During the planning stages, racial tensions were on the rise but the proposed New Orleans International Jazz Festival moved ahead under the initiative of Dean A. Andrews. Community organizations such as the New Orleans Jazz Club were not invited, and the event failed to attract big names.[7][8]

In 1967, Durel Black, a local businessman and president of the New Orleans Jazz Club, convinced the local Chamber of Commerce that it was time to make another attempt at starting a jazz festival in New Orleans. The city would be celebrating its 250th anniversary in 1968, and Black recognized it as an opportunity to promote the festival.[6] Wein was again asked to develop the festival; however, when it was discovered that his wife Joyce was African-American, the offer to Wein was retracted, and events director Tommy Walker was hired instead.[6] A jazz festival was planned, and evening concerts were held in 1968 under the billing The International Jazzfest with headliners that included Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, and a variety of other artists.[6]

In 1969, a second International Jazzfest took place, resulting in a negative return on investment despite its big name lineup. Durel Black contacted Wein yet again and, with assurances that his interracial marriage was no longer an issue, asked him to take charge of the festival.[6] Wein agreed, was prepared and motivated to protect the culture and heritage in Louisiana but also recognized the barriers that prevented the International JazzFest of '69 to flourish. He concluded that the format of the festival had to be changed from the ground up, and that local collaboration was necessary for success. He contacted Allan Jaffe, director of Preservation Hall,[6] who arranged the necessary connections, including Allison Miner, Quint Davis, and several others.[4]

Foundation history and founding

The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival was established in 1970 under the guidance and vision of George Wein. The Festival achieved instant artistic success despite its initial attendance of only 350 people.[9] Wein's vision was straightforward: he wanted a large daytime fair with multiple stages featuring a diverse range of locally produced music styles, Louisiana cuisine food booths, and arts and crafts booths, as well as an evening concert series that would appeal to everyone. Wein also sought to develop a new perspective that would add a level of excitement to the festival presentation, and appeal to both The Crescent City culture and those who simply wanted to learn more about the city's unique way of life. In addition to local customs, he emphasized African, Caribbean, and French culture, and was able to present the music, cuisine, and crafts of various cultures to the world through Jazz Fest in a manner that was enjoyable and exciting.[9]

"This festival could only take place in New Orleans, because here and only here is America's richest musical heritage." ~George Wein[9]

The first Jazz Fest took place in 1970 outside the French Quarter in a park "that was once the site of Congo Square – the space where, during the 18th century, enslaved people gathered to trade, dance, and play music from their countries of origin."[10] In 1972, after relocating to the infield of the Fair Grounds Race Course, Jazz Fest expanded by utilizing the entire 145-acre site. By 1975, the inaugural year of the Festival's limited-edition, silkscreen poster series, attendance was expected to reach 80,000.[9] From 1976 to 1978, Jazz Fest expanded to two full weekends in conjunction with the Heritage Fair, and in 1979, the Festival expanded to three weekends in celebration of its tenth anniversary.[9]

Crowds at the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival.
Crowds at the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival.

By the early 1980s, the Festival continued to grow in popularity, earning widespread recognition as one of the world's cultural celebrations. From the 1970s to the 1980s, Jazz Fest contributed to a unprecedented boom in tourism that earned Crescent City the moniker "Creole Disneyland".[9][11] In 2017, total attendance for Jazz Fest was about 425,000 over seven days, exceeding the total population of Orleans Parish per prior census estimates.[10]

Over the years, the Festival has had its share of financial ups and downs, as well as an identity crisis on stage and in the tents.[12] Local African-American activists accused the Festival of exploiting its performers and under-representing the communities that made Jazz Fest possible.[12] Internal conflicts also arose which left the 1982 Festival temporarily without board member Quint Davis, who handled the Festival's production.[6] In 1983, Davis returned and has produced it ever since.[1]

The year 2020 marks the first year in the Festival's fifty-year history to be cancelled due to concerns over the COVID-19 pandemic. The event was rescheduled to take place in the Fall 2021, October 8–17, which is within the Atlantic hurricane season.[5]

Festival features

Food stands at the 2014 Jazz Fest
Food stands at the 2014 Jazz Fest

The Festival features a wide variety of local food and craft vendors. The official food policy of the Festival is "no carnival food".[13] There are more than seventy food booths that include local dishes such as crawfish beignets, cochon de lait sandwiches, alligator sausage po' boy (sandwich), boiled crawfish, softshell crab po'boy, Cajun jambalaya, jalapeño bread, fried green tomatoes, Oyster patties, muffulettas, red beans and rice, and crawfish Monica.[14] Vegan and vegetarian options are also available. All food vendors are small, locally owned businesses.[13][15] Jazz Fest ranks second to Mardi Gras in terms of local economic impact.[16]

Craft vendors are set-up throughout the grounds, as are craft-making demonstrations. There are three main areas which includes the Congo Square African Marketplace, which features crafts from local, national, and international artisans; the Contemporary Crafts area, which features handmade clothing, leather goods, jewelry, paintings, sculptures, and musical instruments; and the Louisiana Marketplace, which contains baskets, hand-colored photographs, jewelry, and landscape-themed art.[13]

The Festival allocates large areas dedicated to cultural and historical practices unique to Louisiana, and depict many cultures that exist in the state, such as the Cajun culture, and the Los Isleños, who are descendants of native Canary Islanders. Some of the areas include the Louisiana Folklife Village, which focuses on state art and culture, the Native American Village, and the Grandstand. Many of the folk demonstrators have been recognized by the National Endowment of the Arts for their work.[13]

Parades are also held throughout the duration of the event. They include parades by the Mardi Gras Indians, marching bands, brass bands, and social aid and pleasure clubs.[13]

Stages and tents

Gentilly Stage, 2011 Jazz Fest
Gentilly Stage, 2011 Jazz Fest
Mardi Gras Indian.
Mardi Gras Indian.

Jazz Fest grew to become the one of the best festivals to watch favorite local artists and musicians, such as the Rebirth Brass Band, Juvenile, and Fats Domino, in addition to popular musicians, such as Ray Charles, Tina Turner, and James Brown in the Treme backyard.[17] After 1972, the festival moved to the Gentilly community. By the 2010, Jazz Fest shifted to a more commercialized festival with headliners, such as the Foo Fighters and Christina Aguilera, shifting its jazz dominance.[17]

The festival has various performance stages,[18] including:

  • The Acura Stage - Main Stage
  • Gentilly Stage - Secondary Main Stage
  • The Congo Square Stage - Afro-centric and World Music
  • Blues Tent - Blues Music
  • Jazz Tent - Contemporary Jazz Music
  • Gospel Tent - Gospel Musicians and Performers
  • Kids Tent - Children's Music and Performances
  • The Sheraton New Orleans Fais Do Do Stage - Cajun & Zydeco Music
  • Jazz & Heritage Stage - Mardi Gras Indians + Brass Band Performances
  • Allison Miner Music Heritage - Panel Discussions, Fest Information + Live Interviews
  • Food Heritage Stage - Live Cooking Demonstrations
  • Cajun Cabin - Live Cajun Cooking Demonstrations
  • Economy Hall Tent - Traditional New Orleans Jazz
  • Lagniappe Stage - A potpourri of sound and style

The Congo Square stage name pays homage to a gathering place where black people who were enslaved would meet to sell goods to buy their freedom, play instruments, and dance. Under the Code Noir, Catholic slavemasters allowed their slaves to have Sundays off.[19] That day off helped preserve the tradition and spirit of African dancing and drumming. The name of the gathering area was changed to Louis Armstrong Park where drummers traditionally perform on Sundays in honor of their enslaved ancestors.[19]

In 2015, Jazz Fest honored the 40th birthday of New Orleans Center for Creative Arts (NOCCA).[20] Displays included the artwork of students, and live performances of spoken word and musical theater were featured at the Cultural Pavilion. NOCCA Alumni showcased their musical talent at the Zatarains/WWOZ Jazz Tent, where they paid homage to the legacy of Ellis Marsalis Jr. The festival has an ongoing partnership with local schools like NOCCA to give young artists an opportunity to showcase their talents to a larger audience.[20]

Performers

Dr. John performing at Jazz Fest
Dr. John performing at Jazz Fest

The festival has featured a variety of musicians and performers every year since its founding, ranging from Louisiana musicians to international pop stars. Many popular New Orleans musicians have played annually for long stretches over the history of the festival such as the Neville Brothers, Dr. John, Ellis Marsalis, and The Radiators.

Applications to perform (from the general public) are limited to bands from Louisiana to promote and preserve local culture.[13]

The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Foundation

The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Foundation is a 501(c)(3) organization that presents the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival. The foundation was formed in 1970 as the nonprofit arm of the festival. The proceeds from the festival each year are given back to the local community by way of cultural programming. Festival founders George Wein, Quint Davis and Allison Miner trusted that Jazz Fest would be a success despite a slow start in ticket sales. This foresight led to the decision to establish the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Foundation as a nonprofit, allowing the opportunity to give back when revenue increased.[21]

Over the years, festival revenue increased, but the Foundation struggled to cover costs associated with Festival programs.[2] In 2004, Don Marshall was brought on board as the Foundation's executive director.[2] Other sources of funding come from galas and special events, corporate donors, individual donations, and public and private grants.

The Foundation operates with a full-time staff and a four part board of directors that includes a voting board, advisory council, Past presidents Senate, and an Honor Council.[21] Its mission statement reads as follows: “The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. promotes, preserves, perpetuates and encourages the music, culture and heritage of communities in Louisiana through festivals, programs and other cultural, educational, civic and economic activities.”[22]

The Foundation maintains active involvement with the local community through its assets, programming and educational enrichment.[23] The local programs range from teaching Jazz to local teens to preserving recordings, artifacts and interviews.[1] The programs aid in economic growth by providing jobs for local artists and entertainers while offering entertainment to citizens.[1]

Foundation assets

The following resources were created by the Foundation as sources of funding to provide year-round programming that focuses on cultural education, economic development and cultural enrichment.[24]

  • The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival
  • WWOZ 90.7 FM - a local radio station based in the French Quarter with programs by volunteers whose mission is " to be the worldwide voice, archive, and flag-bearer of New Orleans culture and musical heritage."[25] In 2020 the station celebrated its 40th anniversary and gained national news coverage after its response to the COVID-19 pandemic. WWOZ 90.7 FM broadcasts live during Jazz Fest and provides local, cultural content year round.
  • Jazz & Heritage Foundation Archive - an educational resource that acts as a repository for items of historical and cultural importance in Louisiana. The Archive mainly consists of recordings from the Festival, but also features magazines, posters, film and photographs. The artifacts are available for scholarly research, and fellowships are granted to encourage use of the archive.[4]
  • The George & Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center - a performance and education venue that also serves as the location for the Don "Moose" Jamison Heritage School of Music and the Foundations year-round programming. The center is named after Jazz Fest founder George Wein and his wife, Joyce.[24]
  • The Jazz & Heritage Gala - a celebration that raises funds for free music education in New Orleans. The proceeds are donated to the Don "Moose" Jamison Heritage School of Music which provides music education to over 280 students in the city.[26]

Educational programming

  • Don "Moose" Jamison Heritage School of Music - The School of Music is the Foundation's unique cultural education program which began in 1990 as an after-school program. Initially, the school was tuition-free and taught only a few students on the campus of Southern University at New Orleans. In 2014, the George and Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center opened in Tremé. The Center is the permanent location of the School and instructs over 200 students each week. Classes now range from after-school to weekends and utilize instrumental techniques, ear training and composition to teach the art of music and performance.[27]
  • Tom Dent Congo Square Lecture Series - Tom Dent (1932-1998), born to Ernestine and Albert W. Dent.[28] Dent was an African-American cultural activist and poet from New Orleans. He was influenced by cultural writers of African-American struggles.[29] Dent served as the Executive Director of the Foundation from 1987 to 1990, and while serving on the board, founded the Congo Square Lecture Series. After his death, the name was changed to The Tom Dent Congo Square Lecture series in his honor.[30] The series was created to engage local creatives in scholarly conversations surrounding culture and African-American history. Topics range from Jazz and Creole history, Carnival around the world and the evolution of Jazz funerals in New Orleans.
  • Class Got Brass Contest - a ‘Battle of the Brass Bands’ for all middle and high schools in Louisiana that was created to encourage school band programs to participate in the musical culture of New Orleans. The winner receives music education funds for their school. Prizes range from $1,000 to $10,000 and non-winners receive a $1,000 stipend for participating. Each band is limited to 12 members, and each member must be currently enrolled in the school they are competing with. Judges consider originality, adherence to tradition, improvisation, tightness and overall presentation when deciding winners.[31]
  • Songwriting Workshops for Kids with PJ Morton - a series of songwriting workshops that are open to middle and high school students in New Orleans. The workshops and applications are free but are limited to 30 students. Students learn songwriting techniques from PJ Morton.[32]
  • Mardi Gras Indian Beading and African Drumming Workshops - a series of free workshops that take place at the George and Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center. Beading workshops are led by Howard Miller, the Chief of the Creole Wild West Mardi Gras Indian tribe. Miller teaches the workshops to students ages 10–17 in New Orleans. Drumming workshops are led by Luther Gray, head of the Congo Square Preservation Society. Gray provides drums to students who cannot provide their own.[33]

Economic development programming

  • Jazz & Heritage Music Relief Fund - a statewide relief fund to support musicians who have lost income due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic caused venue closures all around the world and left many New Orleans’ musicians without a source of income. Emergency grants have been provided to over 2500 musicians in the city and the campaign for fundraising is ongoing. Donations continue to be received from organizations like Spotify, Michael Murphy Productions, the Goldring Foundation and the Bentson Foundation.[34]
  • Community Partnership Grants - proceeds from the Festival are invested back into the community. Over $8 million has been redistributed through Community partnership grants to fund cultural projects, all of which must align with the Foundation's mission. Recent category additions include the Louisiana Cultural Equity Arts Grant which allows BIPOC creatives to focus on creating new works. Applications are accepted from all over Louisiana, and represent a wide range of diversity.
  • Jazz & Heritage Film Festival - the Foundation works with the New Orleans Video Access Center to put on a festival that showcases documentaries about south Louisiana or that are produced by New Orleans filmmakers. The festival lasts 3 days and includes screenings and networking for film industry professionals. A majority of the featured films have been awarded funding from the Foundation's Community Partnership Grants. The festival takes place in February at the George and Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center.[35]
  • The Catapult Fund - the Foundation supports the local restaurant industry by providing small business owners with funding and business training by way of the Catapult Fund. Funding partners of the Catapult Fund have included Capital One Bank, the Louisiana Small Business Development Center (LSBDC,) the Louisiana Cultural Economy Foundation (LCEF,) and the Ashé Cultural Arts Center. The Fund is open to small business owners in the Food & Beverage and Culinary arts industry. These businesses can include LLC's, sole-proprietorship's and incorporated businesses. Over a period of five months, accepted applicants attend 17 free instructional classes focused on business development. Those who participate in the course receive a food safety training certification and leave with new knowledge of key strategies for running a successful business by addressing solutions to the unique challenges the restaurant sector faces in New Orleans. Additionally, a grant pool of $50,000 is portioned and rewarded to participants who successfully complete the course.[36]

Cultural enrichment programming

  • Jazz & Heritage Concerts - the Jazz & Heritage Concert Series consists of concerts presented by the Foundation throughout the year, in the off-season of Jazz Fest. The concerts are admission free, and held at the George and Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center. The Foundation also presents two free concerts during Jazz Fest each year. The concerts not only highlight local favorites but artists from different parts of the country. The concert series has followed themes that highlight underrepresented populations. The most recent series, titled "Chanteuse: Celebrating New Orleans Women in Music", was scheduled for the weekend of March 13, 2020 but was postponed because of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.[37] The series focuses on women and/or femme-identifying persons in an effort to bring attention to the lack of female representation in the music industry. Reports show that  females accounted for 21.7% of all artists in 2019, and the ratio of male to female producers was 37 to 1.[38] Cyrille Aimée, Germaine Bazzle and Maggie Koerner were among the artists initially scheduled to perform. A visual arts exhibit called "Femme Fest," sponsored by the Women's Caucus for Art of Louisiana (WCALA,) was set to be featured at the Jazz & Heritage Art Gallery as a part of the series as well.[39]
  • Crescent City Blues & BBQ Festival - the Crescent City Blues & BBQ Festival is a celebration of music, food and art presented by the Foundation, and it's admission free. The festivities typically take place in Lafayette Square and showcase artists such as Little Freddie King.[40]
  • Treme' Creole Gumbo Festival and Congo Square Rhythms Festival - the Treme’ Creole Gumbo Festival and the Congo Square Rhythms Festival are admission free festivals presented by the Foundation, and are typically located in Armstrong Park. In 2019 the Congo Square Rhythms Festival took place simultaneously; therefore, the two could work together to increase their impact on the city.  African Drumming, Jazz, Funk and Gospel are among the various performances that represent the African diaspora's cultural impact on New Orleans.[41]
  • Louisiana Cajun-Zydeco Festival - an admission free festival presented by the Foundation that focuses on Cajun and Zydeco music and takes place in the Spring at Armstrong Park. Much like other Foundation festivals, local art, food and entertainment are showcased at this annual 2-day event. Seafood, especially crawfish, is sold by vendors while art markets and youth activities are available.[42]
  • Johnny Jackson Jr. Gospel Is Alive Celebration - an outreach program for senior citizens in New Orleans. The concert is admission free and held at the Franklin Avenue Baptist Church. Foundation board member, Johnny Jackson Jr. supported this specific concert from its onset in 1990. It was eventually named after him in honor of his support. Past performers have included the Gospel Soul Children and Rance Allen. Each year Gospel Is Alive! recognizes those who have contributed to the gospel community in a significant way.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Fensterstock, Alison; Clifford, Jan (April 29, 2019). "New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival". 64 Parishes.
  2. ^ a b c Morris, Rebecca (2010). The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival and Foundation (MA thesis). Arts Administration Master's Reports. University of New Orleans.
  3. ^ "About Us". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c Miller, Shani (2019). "New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Foundation Archive". Music Reference Services Quarterly. 22 (1–2): 80–85. doi:10.1080/10588167.2019.1606181.
  5. ^ a b Price, Todd (January 19, 2021). "New Orleans Jazz Fest postponed to fall 2021". The Tennessean. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Place, Jeff; Lyons, Rachel; Ankers, Dave; Murphy, Michael; Eberle, Cilista (2019). Jazz fest: The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival (PDF). Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, Smithsonian Institution.
  7. ^ "New Orleans Jazz Festival to Open with Some Muted Notes in Score". Racine Sunday Bulletin. Associated Press. June 27, 1965. p. 2B. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  8. ^ Graves, Neil (January 27, 2017). "When racism drove the AFL All-Star game out of New Orleans". The Undefeated.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival: Still Movin' and Groovin'". History Engine 3.0. 1970. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  10. ^ a b Fensterstock, Alison (August 21, 2017). "As Jazz Fest Looks at 50, What Keeps It Alive?". Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  11. ^ Souther, Jonathan (2006). New Orleans on parade : tourism and the transformation of the crescent city. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-3193-0. OCLC 64230008.
  12. ^ a b Jordan, Erin Colleen (2016). Turning the Table Over: Collaboration and Critique at the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival (MA thesis). Louisiana State University.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation Inc". March 24, 2012.
  14. ^ The Incomplete, Year-by-Year, Selectively Quirky, Prime Facts Edition of the History of the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival (ePrime Publications)
  15. ^ Spera, Keith (May 31, 2007). "New Orleans Rises". Rolling Stone. No. 1027. p. 28.
  16. ^ Spera, Keith (April 11, 2019). "50 Years of Jazz Fest: Golden Age". Relix.
  17. ^ a b MacCash, Doug (April 16, 2019). "New Orleans Jazz Fest's 50 top headliners from 1970 to 2019". Nola.com | Times-Picayune.
  18. ^ "THE ULTIMATE JAZZ FEST GUIDE". Visit New Orleans. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  19. ^ a b Branley, Edward (July 2, 2012). "NOLA History: Congo Square and the Roots of New Orleans Music". GoNola. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  20. ^ a b Stroup, Sheila (April 23, 2015). "New Orleans Jazz Fest puts NOCCA musicians, students and teachers in the spotlight at Cultural Pavilion". Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  21. ^ a b Bowie, Elizabeth (2009). The New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival and Foundation: the Jazz and Heritage Gallery (MA thesis). Arts Administration Master's Reports. University of New Orleans.
  22. ^ "What We Do". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc.
  23. ^ Pareles, Jon (April 24, 2019). "Jazz Fest at 50: The Stubbornness and Joy of New Orleans". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
  24. ^ a b "The George and Joyce Wein Jazz & Heritage Center". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  25. ^ "About WWOZ". WWOZ New Orleans 90.7 FM. January 14, 2021. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  26. ^ "The Jazz & Heritage Gala". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  27. ^ "Heritage School". Heritage School of Music. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  28. ^ Pace, Eric (June 11, 1998). "Tom Dent, 66, Civil Rights Campaigner and poet". The New York Times.
  29. ^ "Black History Month: Tom Dent". LibGuides. Southeastern Louisiana University Sims Memorial Library.
  30. ^ "Tom Dent Congo Square Lecture Series". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  31. ^ "Class Got Brass? A 'Battle of the Brass Bands' for Schools". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  32. ^ "Songwriting For Kids With PJ Morton". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 20, 2021.
  33. ^ "Mardi Gras Indian Beading and African Drumming Workshops". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  34. ^ OFFBEAT STAFF (March 24, 2021). "Jazz & Heritage Foundation Reopens Relief Fund For Musicians". Offbeat. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  35. ^ "RETROSPECTIVE: The Jazz & Heritage Film Festival". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  36. ^ "Catapult Fund: A Cultural Entrepreneur Training and Investment Program" (PDF). The Jazz & Heritage Foundation. March 14, 2018.
  37. ^ AJMC Staff (March 13, 2020). "COVID-19 Roundup: Coronavirus Now a National Emergency, With Plans to Increase Testing". AJMC. Retrieved April 16, 2021.
  38. ^ Smith, Stacy L.; Pieper, Katherine; Clark, Hannah; Case, Ariana; Choueiti, Marc (January 17, 2021). Inclusion in the Recording Studio? Gender and Race/Ethnicity of Artists, Songwriters & Producers across 800 Popular Songs from 2012-2019 (PDF) (Report). USC Annenberg Inclusion Initiative.
  39. ^ "Chanteuse: Celebrating New Orleans Women in Music". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  40. ^ "2019 Crescent City Blues & BBQ Festival". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation.
  41. ^ "2019 TREMÉ CREOLE GUMBO FESTIVAL". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival & Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  42. ^ "2020 LOUISIANA CAJUN-ZYDECO FESTIVAL". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  43. ^ "Rance Allen to Perform at the 30th Annual Johnny Jackson, Jr., Gospel Is Alive! Celebration". The New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival and Foundation, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2021.

External links

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