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Kihansi Spray Toad1.jpg
Kihansi spray toad, Nectophrynoides asperginis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Nectophrynoides
Noble, 1926
Type species
Nectophryne tornieri
Roux, 1906

Tornierobates Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926

Nectophrynoides is a genus of true toads, family Bufonidae. They are endemic to Eastern Arc forests and wetlands in Tanzania,[1][2] and all except N. tornieri are threatened. Species of the genus are ovoviviparous: fertilization is internal, and the females give birth to fully developed, small toadlets.[2] Together with the West Africa Nimbaphrynoides (which was included in Nectophrynoides in the past) and Limnonectes larvaepartus, they are the only frogs/toads in the world that do not lay eggs.[3][4] The Ethiopian Altiphrynoides (includes Spinophrynoides), which lay eggs, were also part of Nectophrynoides in the past.[3]


The genus Nectophrynoides contains 13 accepted species.[1]

Binomial name and authority Common name
Nectophrynoides asperginis Poynton, Howell, Clarke & Lovett, 1999 Kihansi spray toad
Nectophrynoides cryptus Perret, 1971 secret tree toad
Nectophrynoides frontierei Menegon, Salvidio & Loader,sex 2004 frontier forest toad
Nectophrynoides laevis Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004 smooth forest toad
Nectophrynoides laticeps Channing, Menegon, Salvidio & Akker, 2005
Nectophrynoides minutus Perret, 1972 minute tree toad
Nectophrynoides paulae Menegon, Salvavidio, Ngalason & Loader, 2007
Nectophrynoides poyntoni Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004 Poynton's forest toad
Nectophrynoides pseudotornieri Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004 pseudo forest toad
Nectophrynoides tornieri (Roux, 1906) Tornier's Tree Toad
Nectophrynoides vestergaardi Menegon, Salvidio & Loader, 2004 Vestergaard's forest toad
Nectophrynoides viviparus (Tornier, 1905) Morogoro tree toad
Nectophrynoides wendyae Clarke, 1988 Uzungwe Scarp tree toad


  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Nectophrynoides Noble, 1926". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b Channing and Howell. (2006). Amphibians of East Africa. Pp. 104–117. ISBN 3-930612-53-4
  3. ^ a b Wells (2007). The Ecology and Behavior of Amphibians. Pp. 486–487. ISBN 978-0-226-89334-1
  4. ^ Iskandar, D. T.; Evans, B. J.; McGuire, J. A. (2014). "A novel reproductive mode in frogs: a new species of fanged frog with internal fertilization and birth of tadpoles". PLoS ONE. 9 (12): e115884. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115884. PMC 4281041. PMID 25551466.

External links

This page was last edited on 27 January 2020, at 05:56
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