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Natural Law Party (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Natural Law Party
FoundedApril 22, 1992; 27 years ago (1992-04-22)
DissolvedApril 30, 2004 (2004-04-30) (as national party)
IdeologyCivil libertarianism
Environmentalism
International affiliationNatural Law Party
Website
natural-law.org

The Natural Law Party (NLP) was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. It was founded in 1992 and was dissolved in many areas beginning in 2004. It is still active in Michigan.

The party proposed that political problems could be solved through alignment with the unified field of all the laws of nature through the use of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. Leading members of party were associated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leader of Transcendental Meditation movement.

The American version of the Natural Law Party ran John Hagelin as its presidential candidate in 1992, 1996, and 2000. The party also ran congressional and local candidates. It attempted to merge with the Reform Party in 2000. Several state affiliates have kept their ballot positions and have allied with other small parties.

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Transcription

Thomas Aquinas was no dummy. Remember him? The Italian fella? Christian monk? Philosophical superstar of the 13th century? Aquinas thought morality was important for everyone, and that being a good person was a vital part of God’s plan for each of us. But he knew that not everyone had been exposed to the Bible, or had even heard of God. So, what bothered him was: How could people follow God’s moral rules – also known as the divine commands – if they didn’t even know about the guy who made the commandments? Aquinas just couldn’t believe that God would have expectations for us, if he didn’t also give us – all of us – a way to meet them. So, Aquinas’ theorized that God made us pre-loaded with the tools we need to know what’s Good. This idea became known as the natural law theory. And there are a lot of versions of this theory still circulating around today. But Aquinas’ original take on natural law is by far the most influential, and the longest standing. How influential? Well, if you’re Catholic or a member of any of the major Protestant denominations, or were raised in any of those traditions, then you’re probably already familiar with how Aquinas saw the moral universe and your place in it. Basically, God is awesome, and he made you, so, you are awesome. It’s just important that you don’t forget to be awesome. [Theme Music] We all want stuff, Aquinas got that. And he said that it was OK. In fact, the theory of natural law is based on the idea that God wants us to want things – specifically, good things. Aquinas argued that God created the world according to natural laws, predictable, goal-driven systems whereby life is sustained, and everything functions smoothly. And as part of this natural order, God made certain things that were good for his various creatures. Sunlight and water are good for plants. Meat is good for cats, and plants are good for bunnies. And – because God is awesome – he instilled all of his creatures with an intuitive desire for the things that he designed to be best for them. The things that we’re designed to seek are known as the basic goods, and there are seven of them. The first thing that all living things just naturally want, Aquinas said, is self-preservation – the drive to sustain life. Aquinas thought God built all creatures with a survival instinct, and this appears to be pretty much true. I mean, we naturally avoid dangerous situations like swimming with hungry sharks, and when we find ourselves in danger, we don’t have to stop and ponder the options before getting ourselves to safety. After preserving our own lives, our next most pressing basic good is to make more life – in other words, to reproduce. Some beings are able to do this on their own, but since we need to coordinate matters with a partner, God kindly instilled us with a sex drive, and made the process feel good, to make sure that we do it. Thanks, God! But once we manage to achieve our second basic good – reproduction – we need to educate those kids we just made. For humans, that’s going to mean stuff like school and lessons in morality. But even non-human animals need to teach their babies how to hunt and avoid predators. Otherwise, the offspring they worked so hard to create aren’t going to survive long enough to reproduce themselves, which, of course, is the goal of everything. And while these first goods seem to apply to a pretty wide swath of creation, some of the basic goods are just for humans, because of the particular kind of being we are. For instance, Aquinas thought we are built with an instinctual desire to know God. He believed we seek him in our lives, whether we’ve been exposed to the idea of God or not. Interestingly, the existentialist Jean-Paul Sartre agreed with Aquinas on this. He said we’re all born with a god-shaped hole inside of us. The tragedy, for Sartre, is that he was an atheist, so he believed this was an emptiness that could never be filled. Next, taking a page out of Aristotle’s book, Aquinas also said that humans are naturally social animals, so it’s part of our basic good to live in community with others. While short periods of solitude can be good, he believed that we’re basically pack animals, and our desire for love and acceptance, and our susceptibility to peer pressure, are all evidence of this. Now, since we naturally want to be part a pack, it’s a good idea not to alienate our pack-mates. So, basically, Aquinas said we recognize the basic good of not pissing everybody off. I mean, he didn’t actually say it that way. But if he did, I’m sure it sounded a lot better in Latin. The point is, Aquinas said we feel shame and guilt when we do things that cause our group to turn against us, and that was another basic good. And finally, Aquinas said we’re built to shun ignorance. We’re natural knowers. We’re inquisitive, and we want to be right. This is another trait we share with non-human animals, because knowledge promotes survival, and ignorance can mean starving to death or ending up as someone else’s dinner. So these are the basic goods, and from them, we can derive the natural laws. We don’t need the Bible, or religion class, or church in order to understand the natural law, Aquinas said. Instead, our instinct shows us the basic goods, and reason allows us to derive the natural law from them. Right acts, therefore, are simply those that are in accordance with the natural law. So how does this whole system work? Well, I recognize the basic good of life, because I value my own life. And that’s clear to me, because I have a survival instinct that keeps me from doing dangerous, stupid stuff. Then, reason leads me to see that others also have valuable lives. And from there I see that killing is a violation of natural law. So, for each negative law, or prohibition, there’s usually a corresponding positive one – a positive injunction. For example, ‘Do not kill’ is a prohibition, but there’s also a positive injunction that encourages us to promote life. And I can take that positive injunction of promoting life to mean anything from feeding the hungry, to caring for the sick, to making healthy choices for myself. And we could do the same thing with each of the basic goods. The basic good of reproduction leads to a prohibition, don’t prevent reproduction, which is why the Catholic Church has been opposed to birth control. And the positive injunction there is: Do procreate! Do all the procreating you want! And if you think it through – using your God-given reason – you’ll be able to see how the other natural laws are derived from the basic goods. But, of course, as with the Divine Command Theory, the theory of Natural Law raises plenty of questions. For example, if God created us to seek the good, and if we’re built with the ability to recognize and seek it, then why do people violate the natural law all the time?! Like, if this is supposed to be something so intuitively obvious that even plants and non-human animals can manage it, why is the world so full of people-killing and offending others and folks who do everything but seek God? Aquinas had two answers for this: ignorance and emotion. Sometimes, he said, we seek what we think is good, but we’re wrong, because we’re just ignorant. And yes, that happens. I mean, there once was a time when cigarettes were literally what the doctor ordered. Back then, we thought we were promoting our health, but we were actually hurting it. No matter how awesome God made you, or your desires, you have to have some understanding of how to be awesome. But ignorance can’t account for all of the stupid things we do. Aquinas, again following Aristotle here, said that, even though we’re rational, we’re also emotional creatures. And sometimes, we see what we should do, but emotion overpowers our reason, and we fail to do the things we know we should. So, in those cases, we just kinda forget to be awesome. Now, as with the Divine Command Theory, Natural law gives us a handy answer to the grounding problem. It tells us that morality is grounded in God, that he created the moral order. It also gives us a reason to be moral – following the natural law makes our lives work better. But while it seems to have a lot more going for it than divine command theory, natural law theory has its share of critics as well. First of all, it’s not going to be super appealing to anyone who doesn’t believe in God. You can tell me God set the world up according to natural laws, but if I reject that whole premise, there’s not a lot you can do to convince me. Another objection comes from 18th century Scottish philosopher David Hume, in the form of what’s known as the is-ought problem. And to investigate this, let’s pop over to the Thought Bubble for some Flash Philosophy. Hume said it’s fallacious to assume that just because something is a certain way, that means that it ought to be that way. But that’s basically what natural law theory does all day long. We look at nature and see that creatures have strong survival instincts, so from there we conclude that survival instincts are good. But, are they? I mean, to me, yeah, because it helps me stay alive. But my survival instinct could also cause me to do all sorts of things that look immoral to other people. Like killing you and crawling inside your still-steaming body, tauntaun-style, to stay alive in a blizzard. Not that I would do that, but just for example. Likewise, we can observe the existence of sex drives and conclude that reproduction is good. But, sexual drive is also used by bad people to excuse horrible immoral things, like committing sexual assault. And for that matter, is reproduction always good? Is it something all beings have to do? Am I sinning if I choose never to have children? And what about bodies that can’t reproduce? Or people who don’t want to reproduce or have partners that they can’t reproduce with? Thanks, Thought Bubble! As you can see, for all it has going for it, natural law theory can pretty quickly open some big ol’ cans of philosophical worms. Which might be why 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant thought we needed a better option. Which we’ll consider next time. Today, we learned about natural law theory, as proposed by Thomas Aquinas. We studied the basic goods and the way instinct and reason come together to point us to the natural law. We also discussed some problems with the theory, in particular, the is-ought problem advanced by David Hume. Crash Course Philosophy is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. You can head over to their channel to check out a playlist of the latest episodes of shows like Blank on Blank, Braincraft, and Coma Niddy. This episode of Crash Course was filmed in the Doctor Cheryl C. Kinney Crash Course Studio with the help of these awesome people and our equally fantastic graphics team is Thought Cafe.

Contents

Political stand

"Natural Law" referred to "the ultimate source of order and harmony displayed throughout creation."[1] Harmony with Natural Law could be accomplished by the practice of Transcendental Meditation and more advanced techniques.[1] Because of scientific studies of these techniques, it considered this to be a science-based approach.[2]

The NLP proposed that a government subsidized group of 7,000[3] advanced meditators known as Yogic Flyers would lower nationwide stress, reduce unemployment, raise the gross national product,[4] improve health, reduce crime,[1] and make the country invincible to foreign attack.[5] Hagelin called it a "practical, field-tested, scientifically proven" solution.[6] TM would be taught to the military, to students, in prisons, and to ordinary citizens.[1]

Hagelin predicted that implementation of the program would result in $1 trillion in savings from reduced costs for medical care, criminal prosecutions and prisons, national defense, and other government expenses.[5] It recommended adoption of The Grace Commission reforms.[7] The party supported a flat tax.[8]

Election-related proposals included replacing the Electoral College with popular vote, automatic voter registration, public funding of campaigns, reducing the campaign season, and the elimination of political action committees.[5][9]

Civil right planks included equal rights for women and homosexuals, replacing bans on abortion with prevention programs, and a national referendum on capital punishment.[5] It opposed the legalization of drugs.[10] In 1992, it suggested the appointment of former Secretary of State George Shultz as drug czar.[10]

It endorsed organic, sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and conservation.[11]

Slogans included: "Only a new seed will yield a new crop",[3] and "bring the light of science into politics".[9] Catchphrases included: "prevention-oriented solutions" and "conflict-free politics".[11]

Founding

Bevan Morris, president of Maharishi University of Management (then called "Maharishi International University"), was the founding chairman of the party, which he created on 22 April 1992 in Fairfield, Iowa.[12]

The party said it had no direct connection to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi or to TM. Hagelin said, "It's not a transcendental meditation party",[9] and denied any connection between the Maharishi University of Management and his campaign.[13] Tompkins said that more than half of its founders were connected to the TM movement.[7] One critic said that it was "just another front group for the TM movement".[13] By one report, almost all of the 92 candidates who ran on the NLP slate in California in 1996 were TM practitioners.[14]

The Natural Law Party had to qualify separately in each state to nominate a presidential candidate. It used 300 signature gatherers, both paid and volunteer, in California alone.[3] The party submitted 5,724 signatures in Iowa, as the party announced at a press conference attended by Mike Love, a member of The Beach Boys and a TM supporter.[15] Nevada required 9,392 signatures.[16] The NLP joined another small party in suing the state over their early deadline, and they succeeded in getting a court to order a second chance to qualify.[16] The NLP qualified after submitting 11,000 valid signatures.[17] The party submitted the required 250,000 signatures in California too late to qualify for the ballot there.[18] By the time of the election, Hagelin was on the ballot in 31 states plus the District of Columbia.[19]

It was certified as a national party by the Federal Election Commission (FEC) in September 1992, making it eligible for federal campaign funds.[20]

Elections campaigns

1992

John Hagelin, three-time NLP candidate for U.S. President
John Hagelin, three-time NLP candidate for U.S. President

John Hagelin, a 37-year-old physics professor at Maharishi University of Management (MUM), was the NLP candidate for president of the United States in 1992. He said that he had been uninterested in politics and a Republican "by default" before the campaign.[21] Mike Tompkins, also on the MUM staff, was his running mate.[3][22] They were formally chosen at the party's 400-person convention in Washington D.C. on 5 October 1992, although they had been campaigning already.[18][23] Both of them took six-month leaves of absence from the university to campaign.[13]

Hagelin proposed that all candidates should have their brain waves recorded by EEG and the resulting "mental profiles" should be publicly disclosed, so that the voters could see which candidates had the best "brain-wave stability".[4] He said that the test would "allow us to avoid the possibility of a brain-dead candidate".[24] The proposal was dropped because of a poor reception.[9]

Hagelin was excluded from the presidential debates and he asked the FEC to take over the process.[25] He did participate in the Alternative Candidates' National Debate along with the candidates or representatives of three other parties.[25] Hagelin's campaign cost several million dollars.[26]

The NLP had nine candidates for U.S. Congress in California.[24] The sole congressional candidate in Massachusetts was a movement employee.[27] Two people tried to get on the ballot for congress in Missouri, but only one succeeded in getting enough petition signatures.[28] The party said it had 100 candidates running in state and local offices.[9] The NLP ran a candidate in Illinois for Senate.[29] There were reported to be between 80 and 175 candidates on the NLP slate.[23][30]

The Beach Boys raised funds for the NLP during a summer concert tour.[9] Mike Love said he was switching his support from George H. W. Bush to Hagelin.[31]

In addition to its own slate, the NLP also endorsed candidates in other races, including Republicans and New Alliance Party members.[7]

1994

The NLP ran slates of candidates in the 1994 mid-term election. Four candidates ran in Nevada.[32] It hired professional petition gatherers to support 12 candidates for the ballot in Missouri.[33]

1995

The party started collecting petitions in 1995 for the 1996 election. It submitted 110,000 signatures in California with 35,000 coming from the county of San Diego.[34][35] It spent up to $250,000 on signature gatherers, in addition to its volunteer efforts.[36] Party officials said that 70% of the signatures came from students[13] and the party qualified for the ballot in 1995.[37] It submitted 55,000 signatures to qualify in Ohio, half of which were collected by volunteers.[38] It made a serious effort to get on the ballot in all 50 states.[21]

Hagelin came in third in a non-binding straw poll held in Fayette, Missouri, after visiting there twice. He received 20% of the 352 votes cast, ahead of Bob Dole and Ross Perot.[39] The party published a 172-page platform booklet, the longest of any party.[40]

Hagelin said that the party had been treated as a political curiosity in 1992, but had become a political force by 1995.[35] The party was the subject of jokes on late-night TV shows,[41] and its leaders admitted that some voters rejected the party because of the Maharishi's teachings.[35]

1996–1998

In 1996, the NLP called itself the "fastest-growing grassroots party with 700 candidates on the ballot in 48 states".[8] It ran 92 candidates for local, state, and federal offices in California alone.[42] There were about 50 on the ballot in Ohio.[2]

By January 1996, the party had collected $400,000 in donations, while Hagelin's campaign had received about $300,000 plus $100,000 in matching funds.[21]

Hagelin threatened to sue the organizers of the National Issues Convention, a forum on social issues held in January 1996, if he was not allowed to participate along with the Republican and Democratic candidates.[43] He continued to have trouble attracting attention from the media. At the Utah press conference announcing that the NLP had qualified for the ballot, only a single reporter attended.[11] NLP candidates, including Hagelin, said they did not expect to win but were using the campaigns to spread their message.[2]

During the 1996 election, the party ran hundreds of candidates for seats in the United States House of Representatives, against both Democratic and Republican incumbents. The successful candidates were mostly in California, where many of them received about 3% of the vote, and Ohio, where some candidates received 4% or 5% of the vote. The candidate running against Democrat James Traficant, a conservative Democrat with no Republican opposition that year, received 9%. In South Carolina, the party received 10% of the vote against Republican Floyd Spence who had no other opposition.

In California, psychiatrist Harold H. Bloomfield ran as candidate for Governor in 1998.[44]

2000

In 2000, Hagelin created an independent coalition between the Natural Law and the Reform Party, The coalition failed when Patrick Buchanan took control of the Reform Party.[45]

On March 31, 2000 the FEC certified primary season matching funds for John Hagelin, who was seeking the nomination of the Natural Law and Reform Parties. Hagelin was the second minor party presidential candidate to qualify; the first was Pat Buchanan. Ralph Nader eventually qualified as well. According to the Federal Election Commission (FEC), the NLP spent $2.3 million on its presidential campaign in the 1999–2000 election cycle.[46]

Following Hagelin's and the Natural Law Party's failed attempt at a coalition with the Reform Party in 2000, the Natural Law Party ran its own ticket of Hagelin and Nat Goldhaber. The pair appeared on 38 ballots and received 83,702 votes or 0.1% of the total. This poor finish led Maharishi Mahesh Yogi to stop endorsing the Party and very few members renewed their membership in 2001.

Between 2000 and 2004, the Natural Law Party sought to create an independent coalition of voters interested in election law reform. In 2002, the party endorsed Independence Party of Minnesota candidate for Minnesota Governor, Tim Penny.

2004

By 2003, the Natural Law Party had so weakened that it endorsed Dennis Kucinich, a Democrat, for President, rather than trying to achieve ballot status for a candidate of its own, having lost all but 10 ballot lines.[47] The Socialist Party presidential ticket of Walt Brown and Mary Alice Herbert secured the NLP ballot lines in Delaware and Michigan.[citation needed] Hagelin went on to create an organization called the US Peace Government.[48]

According to the Natural Law Party official web site, the national headquarters of the Natural Law Party closed effective on April 30, 2004 and the US Peace Government is now carrying forward the programs, policies, and ideals of the Natural Law Party.[49]

Entities using the name are still active in some states. The South Carolina branch of the party was taken over by the South Carolina Green Party. However, several candidates were on the ballot in 2004 under the Natural Law Party banner, including Socialist Party Presidential Candidate Walt Brown. In 2006 the Idaho Natural Law Party merged with the new United Party, with the United Party taking over the ballot line via a name change. Only the Michigan and Mississippi Natural Law parties remained as ballot-qualified parties.[50]

2006

The party lost its ballot status in California.[37] The Idaho Natural Law Party remained active, and was prepared to have three candidates on the ballot for state and federal office in 2006 by entering into a coalition with the new United Party, and thus remained the only Natural Law Party still active in the United States of America. However, on June 16 the Idaho Natural Law Party changed its name to the United Party.[citation needed]

2008

On July 30, 2008, the Michigan Natural Law Party nominated Ralph Nader for president, ensuring the appearance of the Nader/Gonzalez campaign on the Michigan ballot.[51] Nader received 33,085 votes in Michigan,[52] helping the Natural Law Party maintain ballot status in Michigan.

The Mississippi Natural Law Party nominated the Socialist Party presidential ticket of Brian Moore and Stewart Alexander, though they were ultimately barred from appearing on the Mississippi ballot because of a legal controversy surrounding the deadline hour for filing their presidential electors.[53]

2012

The Natural Law Party was still active in Michigan, led by attorney, Doug Dern. According to Dern, who ran twice as a Natural Law candidate for U.S. Senate and once for the Hartland Township Board of Trustees, the party appeared on the 2012 presidential ballot ticket [54] In August 2012, the party nominated former Salt Lake City Mayor Rocky Anderson for president.[55]

2016

On July 28, the Michigan chapter of the Natural Law Party, which maintained ballot access despite the defunct national party, nominated Mimi Soltysik of California and Angela Nicole Walker of Wisconsin and gave the ticket its first presidential ballot line in 2016. Soltysik and Walker were also the nominees of the Socialist Party USA.[56]

Michigan also ran two Congressional candidates: Keith Butkovich and Jeremy Burgess.

2018

On August 1, the Michigan chapter of the Natural Law Party nominated Keith Butkovich for Governor, Raymond Warner for Lt. Governor, and John Wilhelm for US Senate. Butkovich is the first gubernatorial candidate in the state party’s history.

Presidential tickets

References

  1. ^ a b c d Thomas, Jeff (February 6, 1996). "Natural Law Party advocates meditation as way to peace". Colorado Springs Gazette - Telegraph. p. B.2.
  2. ^ a b c Rowland, Darrel (March 3, 1996). "NATURAL LAW PARTY MEETS FOR STRATEGY OHIO PRIMARY WILL BE ITS FIRST TEST". Columbus Dispatch. Columbus, Ohio. p. 03.E.
  3. ^ a b c d WALLACE, AMY (July 18, 1992). "A Mantra of the People Presidency: Candidate from Natural Law Party says that mellowing out with meditation will help lower taxes, nationalize health care and balance the budget". Los Angeles Times. p. 3.
  4. ^ a b Copelin, Laylan (May 13, 1992). "At one with the presidency // Natural Law Party nominee suggests candidates submit EEGs Series: CAMPAIGN '92". Austin American Statesman. Austin, Tex. p. A.1.
  5. ^ a b c d Herubin, Danielle; Warner, Gary A. (October 9, 1992). "Serious about Natural Law New group doesn't want to be just the party of meditation". Orange County Register. Santa Ana, Calif. p. a.09.
  6. ^ "hopefuls stage alternative four-way debate". San Antonio Express-News. San Antonio, Tex. October 16, 1992. p. 04.A.
  7. ^ a b c Thompson, David (October 8, 1992). "Natural Law Candidate Sees $1 Trillion Yearly Savings". Omaha World - Herald. p. 5.
  8. ^ a b Mercer, Marsha (October 6, 1996). "PATH TO WIN LIES IN MIDDLE OF THE ROAD IN CLINTON-DOLE CONTEST, PEROT NOT DEEMED A FACTOR". Richmond Times - Dispatch. Richmond, Va. p. C.1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Maier, Scott (September 22, 1992). "DON'T TAKE IT PERSONAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE ADVOCATES BRING YOU NATURAL LAW PARTY". Seattle Post - Intelligencer. p. b.1.
  10. ^ a b "Minor Candidates' Polite Debate / Small parties' presidential contenders agree almost as much as not". San Francisco Chronicle. October 16, 1992. p. A.4.
  11. ^ a b c Maddox, Laurie Sullivan (March 1, 1996). "Natural Law Party Has Unnatural Knack For Savvy Politicking Natural Law Party Has Political Knack". The Salt Lake Tribune. p. A.1.
  12. ^ "Iowa Group Stumps for Transcendentalist". Omaha World - Herald. Omaha, Neb.:. June 1, 1992. p. 14.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  13. ^ a b c d e Gorman, Steven J. (November 24, 1995). "NATURAL LAW PARTY OFFERS ALTERNATIVE". Daily News. Los Angeles, Calif. p. N.3.
  14. ^ Epstein, Edward (December 29, 1995). "`NO SECRET THIS IS THE TM PARTY' / Politics and Transcendental Meditation". San Francisco Chronicle. p. A.1.
  15. ^ "Ballot Entry Bases Effort On Meditation". Omaha World - Herald. August 14, 1992. p. 13.
  16. ^ a b Whaley, Sean (October 3, 1992). "Members of minor parties turn in signatures for November ballot bid". Las Vegas Review - Journal. p. 3.b.
  17. ^ "Nevada adds another splinter party to ballot". Las Vegas Review - Journal. Associated Press. October 7, 1992. p. 3.b.
  18. ^ a b Herubin, Danielle (October 6, 1992). "Natural Law Party picks candidates". Orange County Register. p. 13.
  19. ^ Pertman, Adam (October 31, 1992). "Fringe candidates put frustration on the ballot Choices include populists, prisoner". Boston Globe. p. 8.
  20. ^ "Election Panel Recognizes 'Natural Law Party'". St. Louis Post - Dispatch. St. Louis, Mo. Associated Press. September 20, 1992. p. 5.B.
  21. ^ a b c Marcus, Ruth (January 30, 1996). "Less Stress, More Access: Natural Law Party's 50-State Focus". The Washington Post. p. A.04.
  22. ^ O'Connell, Brian (October 8, 1992). "Alternative parties are long on faith, short in numbers". USA TODAY. McLean, Va. p. 10.A.
  23. ^ a b Connolly, Timothy J. (October 7, 1992). "3RD DISTRICT NOTEBOOK". Telegram & Gazette. Worcester, Mass. p. A.2.
  24. ^ a b Workman, Bill (July 10, 1992). "Candidates Challenged to Mental Test". San Francisco Chronicle. p. A.2.
  25. ^ a b Phillips, Leslie (October 16, 1992). "Alternative debate: Four on the fringe". USA TODAY. p. 05.A.
  26. ^ Bock, Alan W. (November 15, 1992). "The `possible dream' of the Libertarians". Orange County Register. p. J.01.
  27. ^ McHugh, Edward T. (August 29, 1992). "Natural Law Party joins race;". Telegram & Gazette. Worcester, Mass. p. A.3.
  28. ^ Mannies, Jo (September 5, 1992). "Blunt Calls State's Ballot 'Crowded'". St. Louis Post - Dispatch. p. 1.A.
  29. ^ Sutin, Phil (November 3, 1992). "Voters Get Their Turn In Booths". St. Louis Post - Dispatch. St. Louis, Mo. p. 1.A.
  30. ^ Connolly, Timothy J. (October 10, 1994). "Friedgen sees TM as cure-all ; Natural Law Party joins race in 3rd". Telegram & Gazette. Worcester, Mass. p. A.1.
  31. ^ "Bush to lose Beach Boy vote". Las Vegas Review - Journal. Associated Press. September 27, 1992. p. 5.a.
  32. ^ Vogel, Ed (June 25, 1994). "Two ex-Democrats on slate for minor party". Las Vegas Review - Journal. p. 5.b.
  33. ^ Mannies, Jo (July 20, 1994). "`NATURAL LAW' CALLS OUT THE PETITION PROS". St. Louis Post - Dispatch. p. 05.B.
  34. ^ "'4 more years! 4 more years! Omm ...' 'Meditation' party may get on the ballot". Cincinnati Post. Associated Press. October 21, 1995. p. 2.A.
  35. ^ a b c WARREN, JENIFER (October 27, 1995). "Party Asks Voters to Put Their Faith in Meditation; Politics: Skeptics scoff at Natural Law Party's answer to nation's ills, but backers say they have more to offer". Los Angeles Times. p. 1.
  36. ^ FREEMANTLE, TONY (November 2, 1995). "Perot party to be on Calif. ballot/108,000 petitions demand spot in '96". Houston Chronicle. p. 15.
  37. ^ a b (December 20, 2011) AMERICANS ELECT PARTY QUALIFIES FOR CALIFORNIA BALLOT, US Fed News Service, Including US State News
  38. ^ Moloney, Sharon (November 14, 1995). "Another 3rd party on ballot Group meets Ohio deadline". Cincinnati Post. p. 9.A.
  39. ^ "CLINTON IS FAYETTE'S FAVORITE IN CITYVOTE POPULARITY CONTEST". AP. St. Louis Post - Dispatch (pre-1997 Fulltext). St. Louis, Mo.:. Nov 8, 1995. p. 09.A.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
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Further reading

External links

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