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National personification

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I.
Iudaea Capta, "Conquered Judaea", commemorative coin issued by the Roman emperor Vespasian (left) after the Jewish War
Iudaea Capta, "Conquered Judaea", commemorative coin issued by the Roman emperor Vespasian (left) after the Jewish War
An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Emperor Otto III.
An early example of National personification in a gospel book dated 990: Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Emperor Otto III.
In this Allegory depicting the 1576 Pacification of Ghent by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne, the seated women represent a short-lived unity among the embattled provinces of what would become the present-day Belgium and Netherlands
In this Allegory depicting the 1576 Pacification of Ghent by Adriaen Pietersz van de Venne, the seated women represent a short-lived unity among the embattled provinces of what would become the present-day Belgium and Netherlands

1909 cartoon in Puck shows (clockwise) US, Germany, Britain, France and Japan engaged in naval race in a "no limit" game.
1909 cartoon in Puck shows (clockwise) US, Germany, Britain, France and Japan engaged in naval race in a "no limit" game.

A national personification is an anthropomorphic personification of a nation or its people. It may appear in political cartoons and propaganda. As a personification it cannot be a real person, of the Father of the Nation type, or one from ancient history who is believed to have been real.

Some early personifications in the Western world tended to be national manifestations of the majestic wisdom and war goddess Minerva/Athena, and often took the Latin name of the ancient Roman province. Examples of this type include Britannia, Germania, Hibernia, Helvetia and Polonia. Examples of personifications of the Goddess of Liberty include Marianne, the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), and many examples of United States coinage. Another ancient model was Roma, a female deity who personified the city of Rome and more broadly, the Roman state, and who was revived in the 20th Century as the personification of Mussolini's "New Roman Empire". Examples of representations of the everyman or citizenry in addition to the nation itself are Deutscher Michel, John Bull and Uncle Sam.[1]

Personifications by country or territory

Country Image Personification Animal used for the same purpose
Mother Albania Tirana 2.JPG
Mother Albania (Nëna Shqipëria)
Flag of the Hispanic peoples.svg
The Americas
The Four Continents (America), Johann Joachim Kaendler and assistants, Meissen Porcelain Factory, c. 1760, hard-paste porcelain - Wadsworth Atheneum - Hartford, CT - DSC05373.jpg
Personification of the Americas
La Libertad en la cima de la Piramide de Mayo.jpg
Effigy of the Republic/Liberty/Progress/Fatherland, Gaucho
Arm-3897-65 amyak end K 2.jpg
Mother Armenia (Mayr Hayastan; lit. "Mother Hayastan")
Little Boy from Manly Boxing kangaroo
Wien 01 Austriabrunnen 07.jpg
Austria (Personification)
 Bangladesh Bangamata (lit. Mother Bengal).[2] Bengal tiger.[3]
 Belgium La-Belgique-couronnant-ses-enfants-illustres-Jamar-1854.tif La Belgique or Belgica. Leo Belgicus
Efígie da República; the Bandeirante (only in São Paulo State); the Candango (in Brasília); the Gaúcho (in Rio Grande do Sul)
Mother Bulgaria
 Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak
 Canada Mountie,[4] Johnny Canuck,[5] Le Vieux de '37 (French Canada), Canada Bereft also known as Mother Canada (at the Canadian National Vimy Memorial) Canadian beaver
Roto chileno.jpg
El Roto, El Huaso, Doña Juanita (an average Chilean woman from the countryside)
 China and  Taiwan
Jade Emperor. Ming Dynasty.jpg
Jade Emperor, Mao Zedong (in China), Sun Yat-Sen (in Taiwan) Chinese dragon
 Colombia Juan Valdez
 Czech Republic
Vaclav Maly -The National Museum in Prague 048.jpg
Čechie, Czech Vašek, Svejk. double-tailed Czech lion
Holger danske.jpg
Holger Danske, Mor Danmark
 Dominican Republic
Nahdet Misr.jpg
Mother of the World (Om El Donia)
 El Salvador
Monumento al Divino Salvador del Mundo
Enlèvement d'Europe by Nöel-Nicolas Coypel (detail).jpg
Europa or Europa regina Zeus as a white bull
Finnish Maiden (Suomi-neito)
Marianne - symbol of French Republic.jpg
Marianne Gallic rooster
Mother of Georgia view.jpg
Georgia: "Mother of a Georgian" (Kartvlis Deda)
Image Germania (painting).jpg
Germany: Germania, Deutscher Michel

Bavaria: Bavaria, Berlin: Berolina, Brunswick: Brunonia, Franconia: Franconia, Hamburg: Hammonia, Prussia: Borussia, Palatinate: Palatia, Saxony: Saxonia

Theodoros Vryzakis, Grateful Hellas (1858).jpg
Ezili Dantor, Katrin (based on the real life Haitian hero, Catherine Flon)
Hungária nőalak Aradon.jpg
The Lady of Hungaria
The Lady of the Mountains (Fjallkonan)
Bharat Mata ("Mother India"), Rama Indian tiger, Indian elephant
Statue of Goddess or Queen at Monas.JPG
Ibu Pertiwi Garuda Pancasila
Edmund Dwyer Gray Hibernia.png
Ériu, Banba, Fódla, Kathleen Ni Houlihan, Hibernia, The Old Woman of Beare[6]
 Israel Srulik
Reggio calabria monumento all'italia.jpg
Italia Turrita, Roma (under Mussolini)
Amaterasu cave crop.jpg
Amaterasu, Emperor Jimmu, Emperor Meiji Green Pheasant, Koi
 Kenya Wanjiku
Korea ( North Korea and  South Korea)
Portrait of Dangun.jpg
Dangun, Ungnyeo, Yangban Korean Tiger, Chollima
Manas Monument in Bishkek.jpg
Hang Tuah[7][8] Malayan tiger[9]
Malta 1922 One Pound.jpg
Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana 1.jpg
Alegoría de la Patria Mexicana (es), La China Poblana Golden eagle
Barbary Lion
Vlah Church 2.jpg
Fairy of Lovćen, Mother Montenegro
Element uit de vlag van de marine van de Bataafse Republiek.svg
Dutch Maiden Dutch Republic Lion
 New Zealand
1901 Universal Postage 1 penny red.JPG
Zealandia[10] Kiwi
 North Macedonia Mother Macedonia[11][12]
Norges Grundlov 1814 Frihed Lighed Broderskab, 1914.jpg
Mother Norway [no], stereotyp. Ola Nordmann & Kari Nordmann, hist. Nór
 Palestine Handala
 Peru The chalán, La Madre Patria
 Philippines Ináng Bayan, Filipinas, Juan dela Cruz
Quincunx Polonia.jpg
Polonia, Polandball (online political cartoons) White eagle
Zé Povinho, Eu nacional (National Self), Republic effigy, Guardian Angel of Portugal
Gheorghe Tattarescu - 11 februarie 1866 Romania Moderna.jpg
Mother Russia/Mother Motherland Russian bear
Kosovo Maiden, Uroš Predić, 1919.jpg
Mother Serbia, Kosovo Maiden
Singapore Mini Merlion.JPG
Wladyslaw Skoczylas - Janosik.jpg
 Slovenia Kranjski Janez ("John from Carniola", an average man from Slovenia's central region), Peter Klepec
Biblioteca Nacional de España (Madrid) 03b.jpg
 Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Matha
Mama Sranan Sculpture.JPG
Mama Sranan (Mother Suriname), a 1965 sculpture by Jozeph Klas in the center of Paramaribo, of a mother figure holding five children representing Suriname's ethnic groups in her arms.[13]
Moder svea berga.JPG
Mother Svea, Svenne Svensson
Zweifranken (cropped).jpg
Pra Siamdevadhiraj.png
Siam Devadhiraj (พระสยามเทวาธิราช "The guardian angel of Siam"), Thailand White elephant
Fedir Stovbynenko - Kozak-bandyryst (1890).jpg
Cossack Mamay
 United Kingdom
Britannia (United Kingdom), John Bull (England), Dame Wales (Wales) The Lion and the Unicorn (England and Scotland), Bulldog (United Kingdom), Welsh dragon (Wales)
 United States
Uncle Sam (government personification), Lady Liberty, Columbia, Johnny Rebel (The South, obsolete), Billy Yank (The North, obsolete), Brother Jonathan (New England, obsolete) Bald Eagle, Timber rattlesnake (American Revolution, obsolete)
Altar de la Partoa.png
Personification of Uruguay
 Vietnam The Four Immortals

See also


  1. ^ Eric Hobsbawm, "Mass-Producing Traditions: Europe, 1870-1914," in Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, 1983), 263-307.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Salahuddin (2004). Bangladesh: Past and Present. APH Publishing. p. 310. ISBN 8176484695. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  3. ^ "NATIONAL SYMBOLS". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism.
  4. ^ McGill, Robert (2017). War Is Here: The Vietnam War and Canadian Literature. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 37. ISBN 9780773551589. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  5. ^ Barber, Katherine (2007). Only in Canada You Say: A Treasury of Canadian Language. Oxford University Press Canada. p. 70. ISBN 9780195427073.
  6. ^ O'Rourke Murphy, M. & MacKillop, J. (2006). An Irish Literature Reader: Poetry, Prose, Drama.
  7. ^ Liok Ee Tan (1988). The Rhetoric of Bangsa and Minzu. Monash Asia Institute. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-86746-909-7.
  8. ^ Melanie Chew (1999). The Presidential Notes: A biography of President Yusof bin Ishak. Singapore: SNP Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-981-4032-48-3.
  9. ^ Minahan, James B. (2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems. Greenwood. p. 101. ISBN 978-0313344961.
  10. ^
  11. ^ "A Manifesto from the Provisional Government of Macedonia". 1881. Our mother Macedonia became now as a widow, lonely and deserted by her sons. She does not fly the banner of the victorious Macedonian army Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. ^ Bulgarian graphic representation of Bulgaria, East Rumelia and North Macedonia
  13. ^

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 10 February 2020, at 08:46
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