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National Trails System

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of the system with trail logos[1]
Map of the system with trail logos[1]
Signs used along the historic and scenic trails to mark the modern roads and significant points.
Signs used along the historic and scenic trails to mark the modern roads and significant points.

The National Trails System is a series of trails in the United States designated "to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation." There are four types of trails: the National Scenic Trails, National Historic Trails, National Recreation Trails, and connecting or side trails. These national trails are more than just for hiking, many are also open for horseback riding, mountain biking, camping and/or scenic driving. The National Trails System consists of 11 National Scenic Trails, 19 National Historic Trails, over 1,100 National Recreation Trails, and seven connecting and side trails, with a total length of more than 88,000 mi (140,000 km).[2] The scenic and historic trails are in every state except Indiana. Wyoming has the most running through it, with six.

In response to a call by President Lyndon B. Johnson to have a cooperative program to build public trails for "the forgotten outdoorsmen of today" in both urban and backcountry areas, the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation released a report in 1966 entitled "Trails for America."[3] The study made recommendations for a network of national scenic trails, park and forest trails, and metropolitan area trails to provide recreational opportunities, with evaluations of several possible trails, both scenic and historic.[3][4] The program for long-distance natural trails was created on October 2, 1968 by the National Trails System Act (Pub.L. 90–543, 82 Stat. 919), which also designated two national scenic trails, the Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail, and requested that an additional fourteen trail routes be studied for possible inclusion. The bill's impetus was threats of development along the Appalachian Trail, which was at risk of losing its wilderness character.[4] In 1978, as a result of the study of trails that were most significant for their historic associations, national historic trails were created as a new category with four trails designated that year. Since 1968, over forty trail routes have been studied for inclusion in the system. The Act is codified as 16 U.S.C. §§ 12411251.

The scenic and historic trails are Congressionally established long-distance trails, administered by the National Park Service (NPS), United States Forest Service (USFS), and/or Bureau of Land Management (BLM). These agencies may acquire lands to protect key paths, sites, resources and viewsheds, though the trails do not have fixed boundaries.[4] They typically work in partnership with each other, states, local governments, land trusts, and private landowners to protect lands and structures along these trails, enabling them to be accessible to the public. The NPS manages its scenic trails like its other areas, as a long, linear park.[4] National Recreation Trails and connecting and side trails do not require Congressional action, but are recognized by actions of the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture. The national trails are supported by volunteers at private non-profit organizations that work with the federal agencies under the Partnership for the National Trails System (PNTS).[4]

National Scenic Trails

National Scenic Trails were established to provide outdoor recreation opportunities and to conserve portions of the natural landscape with significant scenic, historic, natural, or cultural importance.[5] They are all non-motorized long-distance trails that can be backpacked from end-to-end or hiked for short segments. The "Trails for America" report said, "Each National Scenic Trail should stand out in its own right as a recreation resource of superlative quality and of physical challenge."[6] Most notably, the National Scenic Trail system provides access to the crest of the Appalachian Mountains in the east via the Appalachian Trail, to the Rocky Mountains of the west on the Continental Divide Trail, and to the Cascade and Sierra Nevada ranges on the Pacific Crest Trail, which make up the Triple Crown of Hiking. Other places of note include the southern wetlands and Gulf Coast on the Florida Trail, the North Woods on the North Country Trail, and the wide variety of southwestern mountain ranges and ecosystems on the Arizona National Scenic Trail.

They have a total length of approximately 17,800 mi (28,650 km). Due to route realignments, segment alternatives, and measurement methods, some sources vary in their distances reported and values are rounded.

Of the eleven national scenic trails, Appalachian, Natchez Trace, and Potomac Heritage are official units of the NPS, though their enabling legislation does not distinguish them;[7] it administers the other trails more as a coordinator than as a manager.[8]

Name Image States on route Agency Year est.[9] Length[9] Description
Appalachian Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine NPS 1968 2,189 mi (3,520 km) Spanning the Appalachian Mountains from Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine, this trail dating to the 1920s sees around a thousand thru-hikers each year, along with millions of short-term visitors. Major parks on the route include Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Shenandoah National Park, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, and White Mountain National Forest.[10]
Arizona Arizona USFS 2009 800 mi (1,290 km) Extending the entire length of the state from Coronado National Memorial near the Mexican border to Utah, this trail covers the variety of Arizona's deserts, mountains, and canyons. Four scenic regions have distinct landscapes and biotic communities: the sky islands with Saguaro National Park and Coronado National Forest, the Sonoran uplands of Tonto National Forest, the volcano field crossing the San Francisco Peaks, and the plateaus divided by the Grand Canyon.[11]
Continental Divide Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico USFS 1978 3,100 mi (4,990 km) With a route from Mexico to Canada, the Continental Divide separates the nation's rivers between those that flow into the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Mostly following the crest of the Rocky Mountains, its major sites include El Malpais National Monument; Gila Wilderness; Wind River Range; and Rocky Mountain, Yellowstone, and Glacier National Parks.[12]
Florida Florida USFS 1983 1,300 mi (2,090 km) The Florida Trail runs from the swamplands of Big Cypress National Preserve to the beaches of Gulf Islands National Seashore, going around Lake Okeechobee and through Ocala, Osceola, and Apalachicola National Forests and many state forests and parks.[13]
Ice Age Wisconsin NPS 1980 1,000 mi (1,610 km) This trail follows Wisconsin's terminal moraine of the glacier covering much of North America in the last ice age. When it receded about 10,000 years ago, it left behind kettles, potholes, eskers, kames, drumlins, and glacial erratics.[14]
Natchez Trace Tennessee, Mississippi NPS 1983 64 mi (100 km) The Natchez Trace was used for centuries by Native Americans who followed animal migration paths as trade routes. It became a major road for settlers to the South in the 1800s and 1810s before falling out of use, and it is now preserved as the Natchez Trace Parkway. The trail consists of five disconnected sections through forests and prairies next to the parkway.[15]
New England Massachusetts, Connecticut NPS 2009 215 mi (350 km) This footpath includes the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail, Metacomet Trail, and Mattabesett Trail from Long Island Sound to the New Hampshire border. It crosses the mountains of the Metacomet Ridge.[16]
North Country Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota NPS 1980 4,600 mi (7,400 km) With a planned extension into Vermont, this trail connects more than 160 state parks, national forests, and other protected areas from Moosalamoo National Recreation Area to Lake Sakakawea State Park. It includes diverse landscapes of the Adirondack Mountains, prairies, farmland, the coast of Lake Superior, and urbanized areas.[17][18]
Pacific Crest California, Oregon, Washington USFS 1968 2,650 mi (4,260 km) The PCT follows the passes and crests of the San Bernardino Mountains, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, and several other ranges from the Mexican to Canadian borders. It passes through 7 national parks, including Yosemite, Crater Lake, and North Cascades, and 25 national forests, for a route crossing deserts, glaciated mountains, pristine forests and lakes, and volcanic peaks. More than half is in federal wilderness areas.[19][20]
Pacific Northwest Montana, Idaho, Washington USFS 2009 1,200 mi (1,930 km) Connecting the Continental Divide at Glacier National Park to the Pacific Ocean at Olympic National Park, this trail showcases the Rocky Mountains, Okanogan Highlands, North Cascades, Puget Sound (including a ferry ride), and the Olympic Peninsula.[21]
Potomac Heritage Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia NPS 1983 710 mi (1,140 km) The Potomac River is a corridor connecting the country's capital with historic trade and transportation routes to the ocean and inland. This network of trails incorporates the Laurel Highlands Hiking Trail and Great Allegheny Passage in the Allegheny Mountains, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal towpath, the Mount Vernon Trail to George Washington's estate, cycling routes to the mouth of the river, and several other trails.[22]

National Historic Trails

The 19 National Historic Trails are designated to protect the courses of significant overland or water routes that reflect the history of the nation. They represent the earliest travels in the country in Chesapeake Bay and on Spanish royal roads; the nation's struggle for independence on the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail and Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route; epic westward migrations on the Oregon, California, and Mormon Trails, which traverse some of the same route; and the development of continental commerce on the Santa Fe Trail, Old Spanish Trail, and Pony Express. They also memorialize the forced displacement and hardships of the Native Americans on the Trail of Tears and Nez Perce National Historic Trail.

Their routes follow the historical journeys of notable individuals or groups and are not necessarily meant to be continuously traversed today; they are largely networks of partner sites along auto routes rather than non-motorized trails as originally used. Interpretative sites are often at other areas of the National Park System along the trails.

The National Historic Trails Interpretive Center in Wyoming is on the Oregon, California, Mormon Pioneer, and Pony Express National Historic Trails and has exhibits on Western emigration.[23] Nine are administered by the NPS National Trails Office in Santa Fe.[24]

National Historic Trails were authorized under the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-625),[25] amending the National Trails System Act of 1968. They have a total length of approximately 33,000 mi (53,110 km).

Name Image States on route Agency Year est.[9] Length[9] Description
Ala Kahakai
ALKA trailsection.jpg
Hawaii NPS 2000 175 mi (280 km) Trail segments on the west and south sides of Hawaiʻi island protect the ancient ala loa (long trail) used by Native Hawaiians for generations. This natural and cultural landscape crosses lava flows of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park and sandy beaches with anchialine pools. Archaeological sites include Kaloko-Honokōhau (wetlands and fishponds) and Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Parks (place of refuge) and Puʻukoholā Heiau National Historic Site (Kamehameha I's temple).[26]
Donner Memorial State Park - Flickr - Joe Parks.jpg
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, California, Oregon NPS 1992 5,600 mi (9,010 km) The 1841 Bartleson–Bidwell Party, 1844 Stephens–Townsend–Murphy Party, and 1846 Donner Party (Donner Pass pictured) were among the few early overland emigrants to northern California, but the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in 1848 sparked the massive California Gold Rush. Some 140,000 "Forty-Niners" made the trip over the next five years via the overland emigrant trail starting in Missouri, going along the Platte River, around the Great Salt Lake, and over the Sierra Nevada (the same number came by sea). Several branching cutoffs and routes to the mines and supporting cities developed, the most popular being the Carson Trail to Sutter's Fort, Sacramento. While the population explosion led to California's statehood, it also resulted in the genocide of the state's Native Americans.[27]
Captain John Smith Chesapeake Chesapeake Bay Map 1612.tif Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania NPS 2006 3,000 mi (4,830 km) This is a water trail based on the routes John Smith, a founder of the Jamestown settlement, took to survey Chesapeake Bay in 1607–1609. On Smith's explorations he mapped (pictured) the Bay's tributaries and communities of Native Americans he met. The trail today includes a network of historical and natural partner sites, including martime museums, wildlife refuges, state and local parks, and interpretive buoys in addition to water trails for canoeing and kayaking.[28]
El Camino Real de los Tejas
Mission Espada Chapel1.JPG
Texas, Louisiana NPS 2004 2,600 mi (4,180 km) The Royal Road of Texas is the group of roads through Spanish Texas established by its first governors in the 1680s and 1690s. The Spanish initially attempted trade and proselytization at Mission Tejas in Eastern Texas and Los Adaes, Louisiana, before moving the capital to San Antonio and building a series of missions (Mission Espada pictured) in the early 18th century. Mexican and American ranchers settled along the corridor toward the Rio Grande through Texas independence and annexation in 1845.[29]
El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
Ysleta Del Sur church.jpg
New Mexico, Texas NPS, BLM 2000 404 mi (650 km) The Royal Road of the Interior was first routed by Juan de Oñate in 1598 to colonize the northern part of New Spain. It was used for hundreds of years for trade and communication between Mexico City and Santa Fe, mostly following the Rio Grande north of El Paso, including the Jornada del Muerto and Bajada Mesa sections. The Spanish developed the region with missions like the Presidio Chapel of San Elizario and Ysleta Mission (pictured), governed from the Palace of the Governors, later used by the Mexican and US administrations. Other historic sites include El Rancho de las Golondrinas, Mesilla Plaza, the Gutiérrez Hubbell House, and Fort Craig and Fort Selden used by the US Army in the 1860s.[30][31]
My Public Lands Roadtrip- Iditarod National Historic Trail in Alaska (19125108399).jpg
Alaska BLM 1978 2,350 mi (3,780 km) This route from Seward to Nome was used by prospectors to reach the Nome Gold Rush in the early 1900s, connecting trails long used by Alaska Natives. In the 1925 serum run, a relay of mushers and their sled dogs brought an antitoxin to Nome to stop a diphtheria outbreak, but the trail fell into disuse as planes replaced sleds for shipping. In commemoration of this history the 1,000 mi (1,600 km) Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race has been held annually since 1973. The only winter trail in the system, the designated trail includes the race route and 1,400 mi (2,300 km) of trails connecting nearby communities for snowmobiliing, sledding, and skiing.[32]
Juan Bautista de Anza
Carmel Mission 180.jpg
Arizona, California NPS 1990 1,210 mi (1,950 km) Juan Bautista de Anza led a 240-person expedition in 1775–1776 to colonize Las Californias, going from the Tubac Presidio near Tucson to San Francisco Bay, where he sited the Presidio of San Francisco and Mission San Francisco de Asís. Anza visited Missions San Gabriel Arcángel, San Luis Obispo, San Antonio, and San Carlos Borromeo (pictured), and his route became El Camino Real, which now has 21 missions. A full-length auto trail and several recreation trails connect these Hispanic heritage sites and other places they went through including Casa Grande Ruins and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park.[33]
Lewis and Clark
Fort Clatsop replica 2007.jpg
Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington. NPS 1978 3,700 mi (5,950 km) Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the 1803–1806 Corps of Discovery Expedition to map and study the Louisiana Purchase for President Thomas Jefferson. On their round-trip up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Columbia River, they formed relationships with many Native American tribes and described dozens of species. Associated sites along their route include their starting point Camp Dubois near Gateway Arch National Park, winter camp Fort Clatsop (replica pictured) at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park, Pompeys Pillar National Monument, and an NPS visitor center in Omaha.[34]
Mormon Pioneer
Independence Rock 2017-09-27 1482.jpg
Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah NPS 1978 1,300 mi (2,090 km) Facing persecution at their settlement in Nauvoo, Illinois, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), led by Brigham Young, followed the Emigrant Trail to reach refuge in the Salt Lake Valley. Around 2,000 Mormon pioneers completed the original 1846–1847 trek, including stops at Mount Pisgah, Iowa; Winter Quarters, Nebraska; and Fort Laramie, Wyoming. In the next two decades, 70,000 more followed on the arduous route, some pulling handcarts. Among the 145 participating sites to visit today are Independence Rock (pictured), Devil's Gate, and This Is the Place Heritage Park.[35]
Nez Perce (Nee-Me-Poo)
Big-hole-national-battlefield-06022012-rogermpeterson-007 (7351656778).jpg
Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, Montana USFS 1986 1,170 mi (1,880 km) In 1877 the Nez Perce (Nimíipuu) people were forced to relocate to a reservation, but a group of 750 people led by Chief Joseph fled to reach sanctuary. A U.S. Army unit of 2,000 soldiers pursued the band for four months as the Nez Perce warriors held them off for several battles until they were cornered and captured at the Battle of Bear Paw. Their route can be traced on a auto tour, visiting Big Hole National Battlefield (pictured), Camas Meadows Battle Sites, Yellowstone National Park, and other sites of Nez Perce National Historical Park.[36][37]
Old Spanish
One Mile North of the Old Spanish Trail highway in Inyo County, California.jpg
New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, California NPS, BLM 2002 2,700 mi (4,350 km) Mexican merchant Antonio Armijo led the first trade expedition from Abiquiú, New Mexico to Los Angeles and back in 1829, crossing areas mapped on the 1776 Domínguez–Escalante expedition and by Jedediah Smith in 1826. Wolfskill and Yount traced an alternate northern route the next year, providing New Mexican trade caravans and emigants access to California on mules until a wagon route was built by the 1850s. Little evidence of the trails remain, but landmarks include Mojave National Preserve, Great Sand Dunes National Park, and Lake Mead National Recreation Area.[38][39]
Covered Wagon In Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska.jpg
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, Oregon, Washington NPS 1978 2,170 mi (3,490 km) Marcus Whitman made the first wagon trek to Oregon Country in 1836 to found the Whitman Mission, followed by the Oregon Dragoons and Bartleson–Bidwell Party. Whitman led a wagon train of around 1,000 emigrants in 1843, with tens of thousands of families making the risky journey over the next few decades to reach a new life in the West. The trail's typical endpoints were Independence, Missouri to Oregon City, Oregon, via Fort Kearny, Scotts Bluff (pictured), South Pass, Shoshone Falls, the Blue Mountains, and Barlow Road. Emigrants came in mule- or oxen-pulled covered wagons filled with months of supplies, but they also faced disease and attacks by Native Americans whose land they intruded.[40]
Overmountain Victory
Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina NPS 1980 330 mi (530 km) In September 1780 during the Revolutionary War, the Overmountain Men militia mustered in Abingdon, Virginia (pictured) and Sycamore Shoals, Tennessee, for a two-week march across the Appalachian Mountains via Roan Mountain. Pursuing British Major Patrick Ferguson, they confronted his Loyalist force at the October 7 Battle of Kings Mountain, where the Patriots won a quick, decisive victory that would be a turning point in the war. The linked highways and walking trails visit several preserved encampment sites.[41]
Pony Express
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, California NPS 1992 2,000 mi (3,220 km) Lasting just 18 months in 1860 and 1861, the Pony Express delivered mail via horseback between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. Riders relayed communications 1,800 mi (2,900 km) across the country in just ten days until the transcontinental telegraph put the service operated by Central Overland California and Pikes Peak Express Company out of business. While little of the trail itself remains, 50 stations or their ruins can still be visited, including Hollenberg Pony Express Station (pictured), Fort Caspar, Stagecoach Inn, the Pike's Peak Stables and Patee House at the eastern terminus, and B.F. Hastings Building at the western terminus.[42]
Santa Fe
Foun wagon.jpg
Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico NPS 1987 1,203 mi (1,940 km) William Becknell made the first trade trip from Missouri to Santa Fe in 1821, when newly independent Mexico welcomed commerce. It was a major exchange route between the two countries for the next 25 years when the Army of the West used it in the Mexican–American War. After the war ended in 1848, emigration and freight to the new southwest flourished. The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway reached Santa Fe via Raton Pass in 1880, replacing the trade caravans. Significant sites include Fort Larned, Bent's Old Fort, and Fort Union (pictured), where wagon ruts can still be seen. [43]
Selma to Montgomery
P030715PS-1619 (20894933462).jpg
Alabama NPS 1996 54 mi (90 km) The 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches were nonviolent demonstrations of the civil rights movement pushing for the Voting Rights Act. Led by John Lewis and Hosea Williams, 600 marchers were brutally attacked by state police at Selma's Edmund Pettus Bridge (pictured), rousing national support for the bill. Another march a month later saw the protestors complete the four-day walk to the Alabama State Capitol, where Martin Luther King Jr. spoke before a crowd of 25,000. The trail has historical markers and three interpretive centers.[44]
Star-Spangled Banner
Fort McHenry 2016 4.JPG
Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia NPS 2008 290 mi (470 km) This water and land trail highlights the history of the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake Bay Region. Major sites of this three-year war between the United States and United Kingdom include raided towns Havre de Grace and Saint Michaels; grounds of the Battle of Bladensburg and Battle of North Point; and Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine (pictured), where the flying of the American flag in the Battle of Baltimore inspired "The Star-Spangled Banner".[45]
Trail of Tears
Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma NPS 1987 5,045 mi (8,120 km) The 1830 Indian Removal Act forced tens of thousands of Cherokee, Muscogee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw people to leave their ancestral homelands in the Southeast and relocate to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). Around ten thousand Indians died of disease or the elements on their journeys. This trail commemorates the routes taken by the Cherokee after they were evicted and detained in camps by the Army in 1838, making the four-month trek over the winter. Historic sites include the Cherokee capital New Echota in Georgia (pictured), Chief John Ross's log cabin, Red Clay State Park, Rattlesnake Springs, and several museums.[46]
Revolutionary Route
Yorktown VA NPS 18-pdr cannon.jpg
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, District of Columbia, Massachusetts NPS 2009 1,000 mi (1,610 km) Six year into the Revolutionary War, the French Expédition Particulière commanded by the comte de Rochambeau departed Newport, Rhode Island, to meet George Washington's Continental Army at Dobbs Ferry, New York, in June 1781. They marched to Williamsburg, Virginia, over the next few months, stopping at the Old Barracks in Trenton and Mount Vernon. In the three-week siege of Yorktown (now part of Colonial National Historical Park, reenactment pictured) they defeated General Cornwallis's army, soon clinching independence for the 13 colonies. Several campsites and homes on their route are preserved, including the and Joseph Webb House where Washington and Rochambeau made plans for the campaign.[47]

Connecting or side trails

The act also established a category of trails known as connecting or side trails. Seven side trails have been designated.[9]

National Recreation Trails

NRT Logo.gif

National Recreation Trail (NRT) is a designation given to existing trails that contribute to health, conservation, and recreation goals in the United States. Over 1,148 trails in all 50 states, available for public use and ranging from less than a mile to 485 miles (781 km) in length, have been designated as NRTs on federal, state, municipal, and privately owned lands. Trails may be nominated for designation as NRTs each year. The NRT online database includes information on most designated trails.

Most NRTs are hiking trails, but a significant number are multi-use trails or bike paths. A few are water trails.[48]

The National Park Service and the United States Forest Service jointly administer the National Recreation Trails Program with help from a number of other federal and nonprofit partners, notably American Trails, the lead nonprofit for developing and promoting NRTs. National Recreation Trails may be designated by the Secretary of Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture to recognize exemplary trails of local and regional significance in response to an application from the trail's managing agency or organization. Through designation, these trails are recognized as part of America's national system of trails.

The National Recreation Trail Program, an independent advocacy organization, supports designated NRTs with an array of benefits, including promotion, technical assistance, a newsletter, email alerts, and networking. Its goal is to promote the use and care of existing trails and stimulate the development of new trails to create a national network of trails and realize the vision of "Trails for All Americans." A state-by-state index provide photos and details on featured trails. The first-ever NRT Photo Contest was sponsored in 2003 by American Trails and is continuing each year. A Request for Proposals for art projects on National Recreation Trails was also undertaken.

National Geologic Trail

The first National Geologic Trail was established by the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009. It is not officially part of the National Trails System, but its designation is annotated to 16 USC 1244 and it is also administered by the National Park Service.[49]

Name Image States on route Agency Year est. Description
Ice Age Floods
Dry Falls (Washington).jpg
Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana NPS 2009 From around 18,000 to 15,000 years ago, the glacial Lake Missoula was repeatedly dammed by ice, and when it ruptured at least 40 times, the massive Missoula floods carved coulees, lakes, cliffs, and waterfalls along their path, including the Columbia River Gorge. The Channeled Scablands form much of Eastern Washington's landscape of irregular buttes and basins, with major landmarks including Dry Falls (pictured), Palouse Falls, and the Grand Coulee. There is no continuous tour route yet developed, but rather a network of state parks and other featured sites formed in these erosive floods.[50]

See also


  1. ^ "The National Historic Trail Logos - National Trails Office - Regions 6, 7, 8 (U.S. National Park Service)". National Park Service. Retrieved April 23, 2021.
  2. ^ "America's National Trails System". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Trails for America" (PDF). Department of the Interior – Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. December 1966.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "The National Trails System". June 6, 1999. Archived from the original on November 10, 2000. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  5. ^ "History of the National Trails System". American Trails. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  6. ^ "Continental Divide National Scenic Trail | US Forest Service". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  7. ^ "National Park System". National Park Service. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  8. ^ Mackintosh, Barry (2005). The National Parks: Shaping the System. U.S. Department of the Interior. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-912627-73-1.
  9. ^ a b c d e The National Parks: Index 2012–2016 (PDF). Washington, D.C.: National Park Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 19, 2018.
  10. ^ "Appalachian National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  11. ^ "Arizona National Scenic Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  12. ^ "Continental Divide National Scenic Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  13. ^ "Florida National Scenic Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  14. ^ "Ice Age National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  15. ^ "Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  16. ^ "New England National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  17. ^ "North Country National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  18. ^ "Explore the Trail". North Country Trail Association. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  19. ^ "Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  20. ^ "Discover the Pacific Crest Trail". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  21. ^ "Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail – About the Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  22. ^ "Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  23. ^ "National Historic Trails Center". National Historic Trails Center. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  24. ^ "National Trails Office - Regions 6, 7, 8". National Park Service. Retrieved May 1, 2021.
  25. ^ Notes on 16 U.S.C. §1244
  26. ^ "Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  27. ^ "California Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  28. ^ "Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  29. ^ "El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  30. ^ "El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  31. ^ "El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail". Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved April 28, 2021.
  32. ^ "Iditarod National Historic Trail". Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  33. ^ "Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  34. ^ "Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  35. ^ "Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  36. ^ "Nez Perce National Historic Trail". U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  37. ^ "Nez Perce National Historical Park". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  38. ^ "Old Spanish National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  39. ^ "Old Spanish Trail National Historic Trail". Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
  40. ^ "Oregon National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  41. ^ "Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  42. ^ "Pony Express National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  43. ^ "Santa Fe National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  44. ^ "Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  45. ^ "Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  46. ^ "Trail of Tears National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  47. ^ "Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  48. ^ "Water Trails". American Trails. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  49. ^ "[USC02] 16 USC 1244: National scenic and national historic trails". US House of Representatives. Retrieved May 6, 2021.
  50. ^ "Ice Age Floods National Geologic Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved April 11, 2021.

Further reading

  • Karen Berger, Bill McKibben (foreword) & Bart Smith (photography): America's Great Hiking Trails: Appalachian, Pacific Crest, Continental Divide, North Country, Ice Age, Potomac Heritage, Florida, Natchez Trace, Arizona, Pacific Northwest, New England. Rizzoli, 2014, ISBN 978-0789327413

External links

This page was last edited on 7 May 2021, at 23:30
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