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National Register of Historic Places listings in Puerto Rico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of properties and historic districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in Puerto Rico. There are 345 NRHP listings in Puerto Rico, with one or more NRHP listings in each of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities.

Puerto Rico's municipalities
Puerto Rico's municipalities

For convenience, the list has been divided into six regions:

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  • ✪ URBAN INTERMEDIA: City, Archive, Narrative
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I know there's a lot of fabulous things to get through tonight, and I'm just going to be really very brief. Eve and Bobby will make the proper introductions. But I really wanted to welcome you back. All those students who are back and all the new students to the GSD, it's really wonderful to be able to welcome you to the very first event of this academic year. As you know, tonight we're here because we are celebrating in many ways the finale of at least this stage of an incredible body of research and work that has been going on for a number of years and of course is the subject of the exhibition outside that has been curated by my Eve Blau and Bobby Pietrusko and really with Dan Borelli, the whole team wonderful exhibition design by Eric Howeler and his practice, which is which is fantastic, and involves, I think, a lot of faculty from across the university. And I'm sure Eve and Bobby will recognize those people. I just want to let you know that this is the kind of project that actually started a few years ago. It's very much part of a collaborative collective kind of initiative that involved the faculty of Arts and Sciences, dean Diana Sorensen, who used to be the dean of Arts and Humanities, wonderful collaborator with us who's actually here tonight in the audience, the Mahindra Center, Radcliffe Institute, and really bringing multiple themes from various parts of the university together under the rubric of a Mellon Foundation grant that is looking, investigate at four different cities. And Eve, I'm sure, and Bobby will touch on those. Of course, it's also great that we have a wonderful panel here. And it would be really exciting, from my perspective, just knowing a little bit about tonight, I think one of the issues that we are always struggling with is really the relationship between this subject matter that we're studying and its connection to alternative modes of representation. What are the kind of reciprocities between representation and what we are looking at, and how can representation itself enhance our understanding, our knowledge of the subject matter? And it's very exciting to know that this will be one of their main themes, because whether we are discussing architecture or urban design or planning, always, what is the way in which you really investigate the topic? And I feel sometimes we don't spend enough time talking about the question of method and modes of thought or modes of representation. So I'm happy that this will be the subject matter. As I said, the curators of the exhibition and tonight's hosts, in a way, for this event are professor Eve Blau and professor Bobby Pietrusko. Eve, as you know, teaches in the Department of Urban Planning and Design. She teaches history and theory of urban form and is the co-principal investigator of the Harvard Mellon Urban Initiative. Eve has written extensively on modern architecture and urbanism, and she has also curated many, many exhibitions. Recently, she published or she's worked on a significant book on Baku, which was also the topic of a seminar here at the GSD for a number of years, subtitle of which is Oil and Urbanism, and then Project Zagreb, Transition as Condition, Strategy, and Practice, which came out about 10 years ago. Just seems like yesterday, actually-- wow. Bobby Pietrusko is a recently minted associate professor-- we are so proud of him-- in the Department of Landscape Architecture, where his teaching and research focuses on geospatial representation, simulation, narrative and critical cartography, and spatial taxonomies. Bobby is also the co-founder of the metaLAB (at) Harvard, where he developed data-rich tools and environments for the communication of scholarly work. His design work has been exhibited at MoMA, at SFMOMO, The Foundation Cartier, the Venice Architecture Biennale, and many other places. And of course his work has also been published in multiple journals, and he's done a number of residencies in different parts of the world-- so very broad. Something that you might not know about Bobby is that he started his life as a musician and did a degree in music and in music synthesis from the Berklee College, not very far from here, and a master's in electrical engineering. So he has a very interesting background before he decided to come to the GSD and get an M.Arch with distinction and then-- that was the beginning of something very different. So without any further delay, will you please welcome Eve and Bobby, who will introduce tonight's event? Please welcome. [applause] Thank you, Mohsen. Thank you very much. That was a wonderful introduction. And it's a great pleasure to have the exhibition here. I want to first extend my thanks to Mohsen and also to Pat Roberts, both of whom have been really unstinting in their support of the project and the exhibition. And of course, I also want to thank the Mellon Foundation, in particular Mariet Westermann, who is the executive vice president for programs and research, who oversaw this project and actually encouraged us, invited us to make a proposal for the project in 2012, 2013. And of course, also great thanks to Bobby Pietrusko, co-curator and collaborator. We've been working together for quite a while. And also, all of the faculty directors who worked on the research and directed the research on the different cities-- Rahul Mehrotra, [inaudible],, [inaudible],, Stephen Gray, and Alex Krieger, and also the exhibition designer, Eric Howeler, and his HYA team, who designed the ingenious and beautiful system that was able to actually travel around the world to the three previous venues for this exhibition. Also, Dan Borelli and his team, who are amazing; and Scott Smith, who did the art production for the narratives and worked on every aspect of the installation in all four venues. There are teams more of people who collaborated on different aspects of the project who are cited on the credits walls in the exhibition and so forth. And I also want to thank my Mellon co-PI Julie Buckler for four years of collaboration in developing and directing the initiative. So the exhibition itself has been traveling, actually, since the beginning of the year, since the beginning of 2018, to the cities that we've been researching in the context of the Mellon Initiative. It opened in Berlin, as you see, in January. It went to Istanbul and then to Mumbai. And in each city, we had a public event with local interlocutors that focused on issues which were raised by each site. So the Boston and GSD presentation is both a homecoming and it's also an opportunity to raise new issues. And for the Boston venue, as you may have seen outside, we added a section on Race in Space in Boston Archives. That was coordinated by Stephen Gray. And Stephen invited curators of Boston archives to highlight materials in the collections relating to race and space in Boston. And during the exhibition, we will have a series of public events around that subject and the materials that are on display. And the curators from the archives will come and talk about the collection and the objects they selected and why they selected them. The table and the wall behind it, the Boston table, as we call it, is or are available for informal discussions as well, for pinups, for project presentations. There are plug-in possibilities there. And the wall can be used for projections as well. And we hope that you will also make use of Eric Howeler's hangout space at the end, the far end, of the Boston table. And it seems that stools will be arriving soon so you can sit at the table and also sit in front of the exhibitions and watch some of the videos. So tonight, we're going to focus, though, as Mohsen said, on methods, and media, and practices of urban research and, in particular, methods that bring together scholarship design in different forms of media practice. And we've invited a very distinguished panel of speakers whose work and whose practices actually combine scholarship, design, and media practice and theory. And we've asked them to explore a range of questions related to the use of archival materials and time-based media and also the methods that we employ in the project. But before the panel, I want to say a few words about the exhibition and about the Harvard Mellon Urban Initiative of which it's a part. So just to give you a sense of the order of events, after the introduction, we'll turn to the panel. The speakers will each give short presentations. Then there will be discussion amongst the panelists. And that discussion will open up to the audience. So first above the Mellon Initiative-- like the exhibition itself, the Mellon Initiative is a pilot project, and it's also an experiment. As Mohsen said, it's a multi-year cross-Harvard research and teaching initiative funded by the Mellon Foundation that is directed specifically towards exploring new methods for studying urban environments, societies, and cultures across the design disciplines and the humanities, as well as other disciplines that study the city. And here's an organogram that kind of shows you Mellon, Harvard, and so on-- the main parts of the university that have been involved in this project over the last five years. So the project itself, the initiative, is organized around four city-based research projects, in Berlin, Boston, Istanbul, and Mumbai. And we are listing or citing the cities in alphabetical order. That is the only reason that they are in the order they are. That these cities form the core of the project along with related coursework and field work. We had workshops and public programming and so on. And this shows the research portals, as we've called them, the city-based research portals and the affiliated centers at Harvard. And here are some of the public programming that we had in the fourth year of the initiative. These are little posters. So there are three guiding ideas or operative principles that directed the work on the initiative. And the first, I think it's worth reiterating, because they are very important for the direction that the project has taken. The first is that no discipline owns the city, that each discipline produces its own forms of knowledge, but it also has its own blind spots. And over time, interestingly, those blind spots became the focus of the research and of the exhibition itself. And we'll talk about that later too. The second guiding idea is that if we want to understand the dynamics and complexity of contemporary urban conditions and environments, our research needs to be specific and site based, but it also needs to be comparative across geographies and cultures. So that is another. I'm not going to go into any of these, just stating them. The third guiding idea is that in our research, we need to engage directly with the relationship between the tools and the objects of urban research, in particular, actually-- and this is the subject of tonight's conversation-- how media technologies are changing both the ways in which we do research and the kinds of knowledge that our research produces. And as I say, we will discuss that more. There's more information on the initiative on the Mellon website. Now to the exhibition. Urban Intermedia-- here it is-- is the capstone project, as Mohsen said, of the initial phase of the Mellon Initiative. And it presents the findings of the research that we've been doing in the four cities, but it's also an independent project. In fact, it's actually three projects rolled into one. It's a multimedia research project. It's a methodological experiment. And it's an exhibition, actually, that presents that experiment. The organizing conceptual structure of the exhibition is the four cities, these research projects. And each one has its own particular research focus, and these are explained, elaborated in the wall text in the exhibition. But the cities are also tied together by three cross-city themes. And these themes-- there they are-- the planned and the unplanned, migration and mobility, and migration and mobility. Something went wrong there. Thanks, Bobby. I didn't notice that. Nature of technology, actually, is the third one. And these themes emerged over the course of the research in the different cities and also through discussions that we were having amongst the research groups. And the idea is that they provide a kind of comparative ground between the cities and the issues they raise. And they're basically questions about processes and practices that shape urban environments across geographies and cultures-- so how informal and formal practices work together to shape the city, how infrastructures, material resources, and so on work together in creating the urban ecologies. And then also with migration and mobility, which is really important, which is why we're emphasizing it here, is how different groups make claims on space and imprint the city. And here are research groups-- so you could see that it was a lot of people who were working on the exhibition-- and the research faculty and students. So in the remaining few minutes, I want to focus on the methods and media. The methods for presenting the research evolved out of the complexity of the task that we had set ourselves, those guiding principles, but also a whole range of other things. And working for about a year, we gradually developed the discursive format, for want of a better word, of the project and the exhibition. And that discursive format is a series of animated visual narratives, three for each of the cities. And here, I'm going to show you. And this will run while I'm talking-- that explore the themes. They're composed of the research materials that we gathered and produced through archival and field work. And in the exhibition, we have attempted to bring these materials together in ways that are only possible with digital technologies that allow us to bring together physical and digital media, maps, documents, photographs, film, video, and so on and bring them into dialogue and registration with each other. And this is taken from the Berlin narrative, which is looking at one of the Berlin narratives. The theme of the Berlin research is experimental ground, and it's about the founding and origins of this experimental ground. So we're mixing media. We show the development, the growth of the city. Here we show the character of the city. And then the site emerges with a plan, and we code it so that with blue means that it's a project. And here we see the plan for it. But the marshy swamp area on which it was sited that had to be prepared, it had to be made suitable for culture. Nature had to be made suitable for culture is the way. And so it had to be dredged. And we are layering these materials, and we layer them, actually, with an intentional transparency so that you see what is underneath and that the transitions are continual. We show the dredging, the technical part of the preparation of the ground. And then here, there's a social dimension and a political dimension. There was riots of workers who were protesting against the machinery that was used in replacing their jobs. They were fired on by the police. So that there are a whole range of this sort of layering of media is a way to create diverse entryways into a range of issues and questions and lines of research, and that the site itself becomes multiply layered and has multiple meanings. So this method of hybridizing media led to another important feature of the narratives. And as you may have seen, for those of you who looked at the exhibition, the narratives include what we call an archival register-- actually, what we called a media dashboard as we were working on it, because that was sort of easier for us to conceptualize-- which runs at the bottom of each screen. And in that register, each document and piece of media that is used in the narrative is identified when it first appears in the narrative, along with its source. The idea here is that each drawing, photograph, piece of film, and so on retains its historical and material integrity as an object. And here you can see in one of the Istanbul narratives just a few seconds of how that works when new objects and new images, pieces of media, are introduced. And where is it? Bobby. This one's not me. This is not you? It's zoomed in. Well, take my word for it. Let's move on, in that case. Anyhow, so each narrative actually not only identifies the sources, because we've created this hybrid media, but also, at the end of each narrative, it generates its own archive. And so that's an interesting one. And I think that that's something is sort of like visual footnotes. The material itself is available for reuse. There's another feature of the narratives. And that is, as you'll notice too, that they tell their stories without written or verbal narration except for this kind of occasional intertidal. And this is a technique that we borrowed from silent films. And we did this because we wanted the materials and the media of the research to carry the stories through their own languages and through the spatial and temporal relationships that are generated in the animations. And this leads to the third point, which is the importance of design in telling the stories. The narratives are constructed through a process of assembly and layering. And that is a very different process of telling stories from the process of explanation, because assembly-- and this is what we were looking for here-- leaves the analytical process of explanation to the viewers. And it opens the stories to multiple readings that way and also to the generation of counter narratives. And that is something that we were looking at here with a layering of different temporalities, different spatialities. As each segment has its own story, and each one of those stories can be re-contextualized. So this open-ended-- and this is Mumbai-- aspect of the project is key to what the whole project is about. This shows infrastructure in Mumbai and layering and how it layers, connects, and divides, and the multiple ways of understanding any one particular condition. So this open-endedness is, the narratives are open-ended in two senses. First sense is that the meaning of any particular story is purposefully not fixed. The viewer is actively engaged, as I said, so that the narrative itself, the story, is constantly being reinterpreted and re-narrated. And it's also open in that it involves continuously going back and forth-- and this is implicit in the title-- between the city, the archive, and the narrative and, ideally, through that process produces new knowledge about urban environments. Final point about the Intermedia project is that it's an experimental project about method and about practice. It's not a tool. It's not an app. It's not a platform. It brings together media and materials of multiple research disciplines to tell stories and construct arguments that can speak across the disciplines through a kind of shared media language. And we see this project as part of an ongoing exploration and discussion, like tonight, of new kinds of collaborative practices and projects around the study of cities that bring together scholarship, design, and media. Thank you. Bobby will take it from [? here. ?] [applause] So I have the benefit of introducing our speakers for tonight. And I'm going to do slightly longer introductions that sort of connect some of their research to the ideas we were hoping to explore in the Urban Intermedia project. We have them, as respondents, what I would characterize as three of the most important thinkers on the various relationships between media and design-- Laura Kurgan, Lev Manovich, and Jeffrey Schnapp. Through their writing and project-based methods of research, they have been a persistent influence on the work that was developed over the last two years and that we see in the exhibition outside. I was warned by them that I'm going to introduce them in reverse order and that would be terribly confusing, so fair warning. I'm still going to introduce them in reverse order. We will hear from Lev last, but we're going to start with Lev's introduction first. Anyway. So we're very pleased to have Lev with us tonight. He's one of the leading theorists of digital culture worldwide and a pioneer in the use of data science for the analysis of contemporary culture. Lev is coming to us from the CUNY Graduate Center, where he's a professor of Computer Science and the Director of the Cultural Analytics Lab. Lev's pioneering research has covered numerous topics. Just to name a few-- film studies, artificial intelligence, data visualization, and software studies, a term that Lev himself coined in his 2001 book, The Language of New Media, thus helping to establish a novel field of inquiry for many media and design theorists. More recently, Lev has been conducting research in the field of cultural analytics, again a field that he helped establish. And with this work, Lev has employed advanced techniques of data science to visualize massive cultural datasets. His Visual Earth Project is just one example, and this is a project from 2017. With this work, Lev and his team have used over 270 million geotagged images shared on Twitter between 2011 and 2014. And with them, they are comparing multiple urban areas worldwide through these city's culture of image sharing alongside other economic and demographic indicators. In addition to Lev's project-based research, he has authored or edited 13 books, including the forthcoming AI Aesthetics, Software Takes Command from 2013, and the aforementioned Language of New Media, which has been described as, quote, "the most suggestive and broad ranging media history since Marshall McLuhan." Through Lev's work, we have come to understand the primary and mediating role played by software in contemporary culture. "Software," he writes, "has become our interface to the world, to others, to our memory, and our imagination-- a universal language through which the world speaks, and a universal engine on which the world runs." Lev's mention of both our memory and our imagination highlights the important role that software already plays in historical and speculative research, especially within the design disciplines. Software and motion graphics in particular provide us an agility in combining multiple forms of media. Or in Lev's words, quote, "linguistic, kinetic, spatial, iconic, diagrammatic, and temporal intelligence can now work together to express what we already knew but could not communicate, as well as generate new messages and experiences whose meanings we have yet to discover." And with this description, it is easy to imagine that Lev is actually describing urbanism itself, not just its representation. Also with us tonight is Laura Kurgan, a designer, an educator, a writer, and an artist who is coming to us from the Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation at Columbia University, where Laura is the director of both the Visual Studies curriculum and the Center for Spatial Research, where her projects have ranged from the satellite-based analysis of damaged cultural sites in Aleppo to the visualization of the dense connectivity inside the human brain. Laura's body of work over the last 20 years has critically engaged the political use of mapping, technologies of surveillance, and changes in contemporary visual culture. This combination of interest is distilled in her book, Close Up at a Distance: Mapping, Technology and Politics, published buy Zone Books in 2013, which has been rightly celebrated for its combination of artists' monograph and theoretical essays. The specific articulation of these two, an artistic practice on one hand usually within the gallery context and the development of a theoretical position, is a crucial contribution of her work more broadly and is certainly influential in the work that we are hoping to do with the Mellon exhibition. Laura has repeatedly highlighted the importance of research conducted through practice, on which she writes, quote, "The propositions and claims," that she makes in her book, "however theoretical they are, only emerged through the process of experimenting with the technologies themselves, working with and through them to create images." Laura's continual focus on the design or artistic project as the open-ended process to which new theoretical positions can be developed is an important precedent for those of us engaged in methods of design research. So either as an approach for understanding the various lives of digital images, as is the case in her book, or for the politics of representation in space, as we see in her work more generally, or as a method of producing further lines of exploration as yet to be determined in whatever project she is developing currently, Laura's project-based and process-based methods of research are instrumental for understanding the ambitions of the Urban Intermedia Project. And then lastly in terms of introduction, but beginning our discussion, is Jeffrey Schnapp. Jeffrey is the faculty director of metaLAB at Harvard and co-director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet Society here at Harvard University, where Jeffery also holds the Carl A. Pescosolido-- how did I do? That was good. OK. Pescosolido Chair in Romance Languages and Literatures and Comparative Literature. Jeffrey's research is difficult to summarize, to say the least, given its breadth and transdisciplinarity. He engages in an ambitious form of design research spanning exhibition design, interactive installations in websites, documentary filmmaking, and recently the development of a mobile robot prototype in collaboration with the Piaggio Group. And this list is by no means comprehensive. In addition to his work, Jeffrey has published numerous books and articles on topics ranging from Dante, Marshall McLuhan, urban mobility, and the future of the library. With these projects and writings, Jeffrey has helped shape the nascent field of the digital humanities. And in his collaboratively-written book on the topic, published by the MIT Press in 2012, Jeffrey describes how digital tools create the conditions through which we may perpetually remix archival media and circulate them within new venues and to new audiences. He writes, "The ease with which content can be repurposed in digital form extends the capacities of the medium to function as a metamedium." And elsewhere, he writes that this digital environment, quote, "allows content to be migrated from platform to platform, to be used in a variety of outputs and for a range of readers and forums." Alongside his interest in the potential of these digital tools for representation, Jeffrey has also imagined an emerging ethos of experimental humanities research. One that is iterative, projective, and collaborative, amongst people with complimentary skill sets and interests. And that is the spirit that we are trying to establish with the Urban Intermedia Project. You can see that broad list of collaborators on the team. Using the idea of the project as a new basic unit of exploration, he states, "A project is a kind of scholarship that requires design, management, negotiation, and collaboration. It is also scholarship that projects in the sense of futurity as something which is not yet." This sentiment is certainly resonant with many of us in the design disciplines, and specifically relevant to the exhibition outside. Through the idea of the project, Jeffrey asks us to privilege the how over the what of our research in a spirit of experimentation and risk taking. "It is here," he writes, "that the core values of the humanities and the generative potential of the digital come together in the poiesis of world-making." Please join me in welcoming Jeffrey, Laura, and Lev. [applause] Thank you for that extraordinarily generous introduction. And all of us, I think, are going to start with a frame-- a slide from the exhibition-- and then spin out some thinking about some of the topics that have already been so richly evoked in Eve's presentation and Bobby's presentation. And so in my case, I'd like to start with a single frame from one of the many clips that make up the Berlin chapter of Urban Intermedia. And if you spent any time out there in the Druker Design Gallery, you might recognize that it belongs to the section that late in chapter two of the reconstruction of the Germans' capital's history tracks how the Berlin Wall's construction in 1961 temporarily disrupted the dream of a greater Berlin-- a "Gross Berlin," as you can see documented here in one of the insets, forged in the early decades of the 20th century and later reprised after the fall of the Wall in 1989. Now, the frame shows the precise moment when the city's prior integrated approach to city landscape planning-- what was known as [speaking german] begins to undergo disruption thanks to the Wall's sundering of century-old transit, water, and sewage connections among many connections. Now of course, this frame is but a single frame within a sequence involving many other frames, each of which is composed of a dense palimpsest of materials. And more than a video, I'd describe it as an archival animation, because each of those frames is like an archaeological site composed of layer upon layer of historical documents and materials. And the elegant slippage of materials-- rotational, lateral-moving-- you saw many of the kinds of effects that are central to these sequencings. And of course, the studied use of transparencies, as Eve mentioned, create a sense of how every new layer is somehow inhabited by its predecessors. In other words, the timeline is reversible as well as forward-leading. So there's no guarantee, in a sense, this constructional method-- this method of assembly demonstrates. There's no guarantee that any wall or any interruption-- any major event of a city's history or its effective topography, no matter how devastating-- will not itself be interrupted and fall to ruin, exposing the new layers that lie dormant that are simply awaiting a moment of awakening. That lurk beneath, in other words. So what's suggestive about the design strategy developed in the Urban Intermedia exhibition is that we as viewers travel in time up and down through these stratified layers. As of course, we also travel in time, sequentially from beginning to end through the clip as well as between cities. And there are about 48 such archival animations documenting three facets of the urban design of Berlin alone. And add to those, of course, those from Mumbai, Istanbul, and Boston, plus an entire wall's worth of documents that support a suite of research endeavors. And you have an exhibition that takes the form of an animated archive, shaped into a series of story lines, but open to multiple entry points. It's not unlike going on a stroll through a physical cityscape. Perhaps you follow a straight and narrow path, and I amble about aimlessly, and others are on their way to work or study or to fulfill an obligation. But for all the differences in the chosen paths, we share a common landscape of experience and knowledge. The city as archive. The archive as city. Storytelling forms, like animated archives or the database documentary, have been of longstanding interest to me as a cultural historian, curator, and designer, because they figure, I believe, among the defining narrative forms of the present age. And I'm interested in them, not just as screen-based experiences-- and maybe a few people in the audience tonight will remember the premiere here in Piper Auditorium a few years ago of Cold Storage, a database documentary developed by metaLAB that reworks the Alain Resnais 1956 documentary homage to tribute to the National Library of France, Toute la m moire du monde, but in the form of a filmic narrative that serves as a navigational system for an archive documenting the history and the structure of a much later library, the Harvard Depository. And perhaps others of you will have had occasion to visit the Lightbox Gallery on the top floor of the Harvard Art Museum where the 1,803 objects on display on the five floors below once came alive, not as mere surrogates, but instead as digital objects entangled in a network of relations that could be explored via an air mouse operated by the visitor. When the visitor to the Lightbox surfaced an object, the entire data record floated into the foreground, as you see in this slide. And when clicking on one of the fields that's part of the architecture of the data, the projection system on the opposing wall launched a visualization showing exactly where the object being spotlighted stood with respect to date, provenance, location, medium, size, the number of times it's been clicked on, through off-site access, color balance, and the like. And it's the latter spatialized experiences, whether of digital and/or analog collections that interest me, whether in a gallery like the Druker Design Gallery here in Gund Hall, or in a landscape like that of the northern Italian city of Trento, where I had the privilege of directing a project known as Le Gallerie, or the Trento Tunnels, a 6,000-square meter pair of highway tunnels repurposed as a regional History Museum, where a series of experiments with bringing archival holdings to life and adopting distributed, even massively distributed, large-scale approaches to curation, were carried out between 2008 and 2011. This space is still open, by the way. You can visit it in Trento, and it remains an experimental History Museum. A former superhighway tunnel is no place for paper originals. As you can see, the inaugural exhibition, devoted to a bottom-up reconstruction of how World War I was lived by ordinary citizens, relied exclusively upon mediated materials, recorded versions of historical documents, and projections, all in the service of one of the defining media genres of the 19th century, the phantasmagoria. This immersive phantasmagoric march through the years of the Great War, which was the beginning of the exhibition, was supported by a scholarly apparatus where you could find out what you had been immersed in-- all the objects that made up this immersive experience built in a virtual world, which you could visit off-site, in other words-- and paired, as you can see here in the ground plan, with a more conventional white tunnel where the post-war construction of institutions of memory was documented in stations. But these stations were actually curated by the institutions themselves. In other words, this was an exhibition that staged all of these different collections-- archives and resources-- in sequence according to their year of foundation. Human beings are exceptionally talented hoarders, and in the wake of the triumph during the 19th and 20th centuries of those great collecting institutions that are archives, museums, and libraries, we've become even more brilliant, ever more brilliant amassers of vast corpora of work, record, data, documents, and remains from the past. But we aren't, as a species, always quite so skilled when it comes to knowing how to make these accumulations matter or how to transform them into objects of experience or of conversation or knowledge. This is what I like to call knowledge design, but one could easily call this endeavor by many other names-- experimental scholarship, curatorial innovation, experience design, et cetera. But I think the key word for me at least remains "design," especially in that kind of etymological Italian sense of drawing, shaping, composing. Now it's perhaps inevitable that the vast majority of the human record is in perpetual deep storage, whether buried in the soil or in chests or in attics or in the vaults of institutions of memory. Collecting, preserving, and documenting, not to mention digitizing, is a fine first step. But it can amount to little more than burial without strategies for activating the resources so preserved in the present. And this necessarily involves design-- the crafting of macro, mezzo, and micro narratives. The shaping of meanings, representational strategies, tools, and techniques. But on what scale? There lies the cognitive, as well as the design challenge, that a project like Urban Intermedia, I think as Eve just explained to us, really in a very eloquent way, that it tackles is it mobilizes a wildly heterogeneous array of source materials to explore 12 facets of four of the world's greatest urban centers. But we see these kinds of challenges being tackled in all kinds of domains. This is a visualization of the structure of the field of philosophy done by a French graduate student, drawing on basically a taxonomy provided by [? fill ?] papers, for example. And it's just one example of many. As any skilled storyteller or historian knows, one cannot tell every story at once. A few key threads have to be pulled from every tangled skein of stories, granted primacy, and developed at the expense of others. This principle applies to the expanded field of inquiry enabled by open collections data and digital archives, not to mention open science data. But here the challenges are all the greater, because representations of data aren't self-evident objects of human experience, not to mention sources of emotion. On the contrary, they're technical constructs. Abstractions that have to be worked, massaged, and crafted into a multitude of ways and by means of a multitude of tools and techniques in order to give rise to artifacts that persuade, make sense, add value to a given experience, or astonish. This is not just a technical task. It's a cultural and critical task that involves technology, design, a surefooted sense of how we reconnect this world of cultural media and data, big and small back to that middle stratum where culture resides and where human experience finds its natural home. Thank you. [applause] So thanks everyone for coming, and thanks Bobby for the really generous introduction too. And it's funny that you-- there was one particular quote you started with, because I'm starting with it as well, because I have to go back-- for some reason, this exhibit made me go backwards in some ideas that were in my book. So you're going to see this up there for a while. And we're actually a sister Mellon project, and the Mellon that we received at Columbia was to create the Center for Spatial Research. So 10 years before that, I had the Spatial Information Design Lab, and which has now morphed into a center and there's also a research and teaching component of it. So at the Center for Spatial Research, we think about and work with constantly evolving technologies of location, visualization, remote sensing, data collection, mapping, and lately, the algorithms hidden in and among all of this. We understand this work as a form of research conducted through practice because the propositions and claims we make, however theoretical, only emerge through the process of experimenting with the technologies themselves, working with and through them to create images, sometimes new and sometimes reframe, like you've seen a lot of already today. As designers, we make spatial things, maps, visualizations, websites, permanent installations, all of which involve various forms of spatial media. I'm thrilled to respond today to a like-minded set of people and talk a little bit about what is similar in our work. In particular, in relation to our two different Mellon projects. So the enduring and constant question in our work asks what technologies of spatial representation have to do with the spaces they represent, beyond simply representing them. Maps are actually a construction of space. Physical, propositional, discursive, political, archival, and memorial spaces. For many of us, maps now are as omnipresent as the more obvious utilities such as electricity, gas, water, and the internet, and it is in their omnipresence, especially on our phones, that they blend many forms of media. Maps have become infrastructures and systems, and we are located, however insecurely, within them, suspended between physical and digital spaces. In our capacity to understand space as an information system, it should be broad and an inclusive medium for many and diverse social, political, and technological networks. However, treating space as information results in just the opposite effects, and we see this again and again today. And it was with caution therefore that we proceed with each and every project we undertake. And I'll come back to this a little bit later. So in the context of the GSD, here we are at an architecture school. So what is-- actually, a design. Sorry. Many different architecture, planning, design, landscape, et cetera, right? But what is urban research? And what does it mean for the project? What does it mean for the project that's exhibited today in the lobby over there? And what does it mean for us at the Center for Spatial Research? So architectural design education commonly addresses urban research in a few different ways. So one is the figure-ground, and we were taught this by way of [inaudible] to draw the city this way, and I was definitely trained in that mode. Drew many, many, many cities in that way. But more recently, statistical analysis stands in for research, especially as global interdisciplinary research. Cities are not just objects, but economic political fields, right? So Urban Age, Ricky Burdett, Rem Koolhaas-- they stand in for this kind of approach, and it has been very influential to many of us-- to me, to many students, et cetera. The third thing we teach in architecture school are site visits-- local and global. Part of our education process is an image of an architect as a traveler endures. At my school, every studio goes in the advanced studios on one-week trips in the middle of the semester. I have a very interesting dialogue with that program. But in my opinion, field work, where we learn from anthropology, is a better version of this. And there are many new forms of field work that are possible with new technologies. So for the exhibit outside, and I think what you've seen here on the screen already, I would say research is a much broader topic. Archives are made accessible by a digitization and linked to other archives or multiple media maps, photographs, films. I'm going to hesitate in using this word now, but I would say they're collaged to create narratives about the city. And collage in itself is a practice that has special implications and a history. And it's something I'd like to address in the conversation later. I know we've been talking a lot about layering, and perhaps we're talking more about compositing than collaging. But I would say the fact that everything stays intact, that you can still recognize each object, that there's a very strong aesthetic of collage in all the work. OK, so that-- oh, sorry. That was my image. So at the Center for Spatial Research, research in some ways starts and ends with data and its representation. We use it intentionally to show its unintentional consequences of the data at hand, and hence to produce new narratives about specific urban events. And I'll go into this in a little bit more detail when I show some projects. But this brings me to a second component, and a very big implication of the exhibit that we see outside, because what it's really doing is comparative urbanism. And we don't actually-- there's comparative literature, there's all kinds of compare, but there's no comparative urbanism. And I think that all of our Mellon projects together, I think this might come out of it. What does it mean to say comparative urbanism? So I could simply repeat the same slides and talk about comparative urbanization and its limits by some of the blunt tools used by architects alone. Countless cities have been rendered in figure-ground, and in fact, even a bad leaflet style-- I'm sure all the students know what leaflet is-- created by Stamen Design, which treats buildings and objects, but ignores the public space component of the original [? nolee ?] map. So in terms of statistics, we have tools and measures for comparing cities to one another-- population size, growth change, ground cover, and more. There are many, many websites which approach comparisons in this way, and it is not surprising, because this is easy data to find. OK, so this is Urban Observatory, which is Richard Saul Wurman. But we see as soon as we get to India, they've been using population density, but the census in India is badly counted, so there you-- and those kinds of inconsist-- this is another one-- the Atlas of Urban Expansion. Where you see 2014 versus 2009. There's not much explanation. You're just supposed to use your eyes and numbers, numbers, numbers, right? This is very, very common. So what counts? Not only numbers, for sure. And the videos that we've seen today and the exhibit outside already gives us many, many more options. The formal versus the informal city. The planned versus the unplanned city. The so-called natural versus the technical city. The difference between race and space in cities. Maybe a few more categories are revealed with media and methods that cannot and perhaps should not be counted. There are many things that perhaps ethically should not appear on maps and perhaps just for the same reasons, ethically we should add layers to what is usually hidden onto a map to advocate for its representation. The layers of the exhibit are very open-ended and ask more questions than provide answers for what counts as urbanization. So we've begun to ask some of the similar questions in our own work at CSR, especially when comparing cities from a humanities perspective. We start asking what defining moments are. For example, the plague in Mumbai, which resulted in the Bombay City Improvement Trust in 1898, which I understand persists until this day. In Johannesburg-- this is a very crude map, but in Johannesburg, gold mining defines the city we still know today, and its geographies of injustice that divide the city into the so-called suburbs and the townships, or the part of the city which has many trees and the part of the city which has none. And there are so many examples closer to home. Take New York City, for example. What drove change in the city to create the vast inequities that drive today? The speculative grid, redlining, zoning changes, post-Jacob Riis, mass incarceration? We don't have any answers to that. So again, in our Mellon initiative, Center for Spatial Research involves cities as well as other spatial concepts, which is to say methods of research with maps, data, and fieldwork. And for us, particularly digital forms of all three. Really what we do with methods is teach critical data studies. With Lev in the room, it would be critical software studies too. We teach about the inadvertent uses of data, which does things like reclaims militarisation for purposes of memory. But increasingly we are looking at the politics of data today and in recent history to show the relationships that endure between policies like redlining and mass incarceration today. So these are some of the classes that are part of our initiative. And in terms of the research that we're doing, it's not so much of particular cities, but this idea of conflict urbanism. So the focus of our Mellon initiative is an urban research project which has the concentration, conflict urbanism, examining the role of conflicts of all sorts in the making and remaking of cities around the world. Conflict urbanism is a term that designates not simply that conflicts take place in cities, but also conflict as a structuring principle of cities intrinsically as a way of inhabiting and creating urban space. The increasing urbanization of warfare and the policing and surveillance of everyday life are examples of the term, but conflict is not limited to war and violence. Cities are not only destroyed, but also built through conflict. They have long been arenas of friction, difference, and dissidence, and their irreducibly conflictual character manifests in everything from neighborhood borders to differences of opinion and status to ordinary encounters on the street. Our effort thus far has been divided into four sections. We spent a lot of time tracking what was going on in Aleppo until the war over there supposedly ended, but the war in Syria continues. Transitional justice, as framed through Columbia, and language in Queens as a site of conflict. And infrapolitics in multiple cities, and we're about to start a large project on spatial inequalities that constitute Puerto Rico. Inequality is often accompanied by or generates friction. Sometimes, however, it is quiet, slow-moving, structural, built-in, affecting people over many generations. This type of inequality can be normalized, often by blaming its victims, naturalized, or simply hidden behind apparently objective representations, sometimes with maps, data, and algorithms. How much time do I still have? Just five minutes? OK. So I'll just quickly run through our project. We did a lot of interactive maps as part of the way that we made public facing projects. We didn't so much focus on exhibits, but these maps. And particularly in Aleppo, it was one of the few places where you could go online and browse neighborhood by neighborhood and see what was happening over time against three different satellite images in the background. We also figured out a way of spatializing YouTube video without getting students to pore over the actual content of the video. We figured out a way of using the metadata. There were some Arabic-speaking students in the class. Because we had made a neighborhood map, you could locate the video to specific neighborhoods, and we now have three complete-- What? One more minute? OK. We have a very complete archive. Cool. OK, I wanted just one-- I'll end on one thing, OK? So because the new work that we're doing is going to be about algorithms and the histories of algorithms. As smart city discourses make louder and louder claims for calculable futures, while the problematic histories of the use of data for [? offering ?] improvements seem to fade further and further from view, 21st century segregation and exclusion happens algorithmically. The redlining maps of the past have turned into predictive policing, ubiquitive data valence, and face recognition linked to geolocated social media data. The social geography of our cities is being redrawn, often automatically, with digital spatial data. We need to focus research now on the ways in which sites of inequality are often produced by representations of the city through data in order to look at how alternative representations can enable empowered new understandings of the city. How can we learn from these examples and suggest counter cartographies that build different narratives for more equal cities? Thank you. [applause] I'm sorry. I didn't know you were not supposed to put your name. Since I'm at Harvard Design School, I want to encourage you to use inexpensive materials. So this is like a $10 plywood thing which I got in Tallinn, Estonia, and this trend for plywood bow ties was just beginning. So don't only design it for concrete, you know? OK, so I have to be very short. So why represent a city as opposed to analyze a city? So I'd like to suggest that today and the next few years, at least, constructing new representations is actually much more difficult and much more useful and much more progressive when analyzing. Why is that? Five years ago, when you count up students who knew of things like coding, big data, and neural network, you were so happy. Today you want to escape it. Like these things become a bit suffocating. Like I'm talking to Bobby, I'm talking to my friends like with architecture school, design school. I'm talking to my friend who is in utilization program. I said, what do your students do? Neural networks. Neural networks. Neural networks. So while take home message-- don't do neural networks, because everybody does, right? Try to think. So the problem is that it's computational data analysis. In a way it has become the new default way of thinking. It can be reductive. You download some data or censor some data. You clear it up, you organize it into features, and then you use traditional descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, neural networks to do [? specification, ?] in the case of supervised machine learning. Or in supervised machine learning, if you are more adventurous, such as cluster analysis or dimension reduction, maybe neural networks, and you're done. So what promised, I think, five or 10 or 15 years ago, to revolutionize humanities and the study of culture, society, and design, more often than not now looks very reductive. Because it's like these recipes you follow, and you think you're really smart. So I think what's more interesting perhaps, and it's always been the fact, is try to construct new representations of a city so the representation itself is a form of analysis. It can encourage you, help you to think of problem, a phenomena in new ways, and perhaps suggest new ways of analysis which don't depend on [? our ?] [? python ?] or Google Sheets. So in this very brief mini-talk, I will talk about a kind of free, among many [? hours, ?] perhaps a representation of city maps, Instagrams, and hybrids. So maps-- I mean, we have lots of research about maps. But when I say maps, I am not really thinking about axiomatic projection looking down. It's not about geospatial. It's about existing [inaudible] representation. Think about how the satellite scans the earth. Think about what happens when you use a [? floodlight ?] scanner. So it's about very systematic sampling of reality capturing all corners and constructing systematic grid-like representation. So think about sensor networks, think about grids, think about scanning. So we have many types of maps, but for my purposes, because I'm trying to provide a bit of archeology of contemporary data era, so this is, of course, very common type. A map of physical infrastructure-- streets, boulevards, buildings. The second type of map becomes popular in the 19th century. It's so-called topical map. So now maps marry statistics. So with [? the ?] [? effect ?] talking about comparative urbanism, that's the very first topical map produced in France in 1829. And it basically colorizes different parts of France, depending on particular and statistical measurement, such as crime rates, or education rates and so on. So the first map represents a space. The second map represents city. And then a third new type of map represents not a city, not a society aggregated for statistics, but representing individuals. It can be vehicles, it can be taxis, it can be people. It is of course, how you know it's one of maps produced in a very famous project by Eric Fischer, "Locals and Tourists," where Eric mapped positions of millions of photographs. People shared through Flickr of particular cities such as New York, and the photos of tourists and locals are colorized in different ways. So New York emerges here. It's emerging phenomena, but there's no representation of streets or a river. It's basically an interesting map. Versus [inaudible] map. Its [? similarity ?] breaks down because of course, some parts of New York have been covered by photographs much more densely, and others are much less. So that's like one paradigm. So now let's look at the second paradigm, which I'm going to call Instagram. Why not photo? Because to me, Instagram is better at capturing what I want to convey. Think about like a flashlight. So it's a kind of representation which is subjective. It doesn't let you capture a whole phenomena. It's like a flashlight. It captures phenomena in particular moment of time. It's like an arbitrary slice, and it's a single thing. So photographs are just part of it. So this is, for example, probably one of the first modern paintings of a modern metropolis. Pissarro, a French impressionist, 1880s, and here he's still looking at it from a window. He doesn't realize that you can get very close to objects. That's a premodern point of view. Then, of course, we have 1925. A revolutionary representation, first like a camera, which changes photography, because it allows people to get very close. And then in '50s, we have emergence in Europe, [inaudible] of state photography. Which this is in Europe 1951. And these photographs, we're not trying to be sharp. We've not trying to worry about focal, like now. It's about capturing the moment. It's about confrontation. It's actually seeing not the city, but seeing individual moments, like a flashlight. [inaudible] the [? first, ?] [inaudible] first step it was developed into street photography or with Instagrams, is Instagram proper, which of course, offers us huge encyclopedia of all kinds of architectural and spatial views. So this is just selections of Instagram's response to different hash tags and we have right here thousands and thousands of different type of representation. So now my next field is hybrids. So hybrids is what I think of as invention. In this case, of new representations, and it's easier to develop new presentations if you don't start from scratch, but within existing paradigms and you combine them. So I'll show you a few examples. And I'm sorry, I think I put my project a bit arrogantly in the same category, but maybe I will run out of time, which stick with two paradigms. So a regular grid-like mapping and a subjective Instagramming flashlight, and combine them. So this is 1966. Just forgot the name of the artist. [inaudible] Huh? Ed Ruscha. Ruscha. Yeah, Ed Ruscha. Where he basically put, in anticipation of Google Maps and Instagram, he put his camera on the car and he drove along Sunset Boulevard for a few miles, and then he glued these photographs together and he made a book which is 25 feet long. And what's interesting-- you have a similarity of mapping, but it doesn't map the whole city. He just maps part of a street, and he maps it not from above, but he maps it through a more human-like perspective. So here Instagrams meet a map. The second thing is a very original art form. In this case, invented by a company-- Google. So this is of course Google Street View, which was introduced in 2007. And today, maybe not all [? biz, ?] but when it first introduced, I couldn't believe it, because it looked totally like a Vanguard art. It was named of [inaudible] photography nor [inaudible] It was really new type of representation where you have again, [? systematized ?] to a map, plus [inaudible] and first point perspective of what I call Instagrams. And when you click this arrow at it kind of blurs into the next photograph, and sometimes like some actually disappear, it's a complete 20th century avante-gardes, right? So big companies can also do avant-garde art, you know? Yeah, I don't discriminate. [laughter] And then a couple of our projects, just to finish. Where we try to, as I understand the track of it, to maybe you use the same tactics. So this is from our first Instagram project called "Phototrails." 2013 we assembled 2.6 million Instagram images shared in 13 global cities, and tried to think about how we could represent something about the cities through these collective Instagrams. So in this case, we just took 50,000 photographs shared consecutively over a few days in two cities. Top is New York and Tokyo is below, and they're simply laid out in the order in which they were taken. And again, I think you get something which combines systematicity of mapping. But what we mapped here is a time. It's mapping time in cities, and the time turns out to be not even, because every day and every night, whenever Instagram has been shared, it's different. So you can see this kind of-- maybe you can see right here, it was light and dark, dark, dark parts which correspond to the night. Of course, at night, Instagram is not completely black, right? You can also think about comparing nights on Instagram. And for whatever reason, so each day and each night, happen at different duration. So this is example again of a subjectivity of flashlight plus [? ability ?] of map combined. And then the last thing is this project on Broadway, which I did in collaboration of fantastic designers such as Moritz Stefaner. So we basically took our inspiration Ed Ruscha-- shows every building on Sunset Strip. We took Broadway in New York and we collected about 30 million data points from different layers. And then we create it with interactive representation, which you'll see video in a second. And the idea was, again, to follow what Ed Ruscha did, but now we have a data [? feature. ?] So as opposed to simply using photograph, we made a sandwich from maybe 13 or 12 different types of data. So with statistical data such as income, which we took from census, were names of neighborhoods, was Instagram photos, was a facade colors, was Google Street View-- so lots of different things. And this is just a little video which shows you how you interact with interface that was installed in your public library. Showed how architecture [inaudible] in many other places. So basically, when you zoom in you start seeing more detail. You see more details from Google Street View, which is photographs. And you also also start seeing the statistics in the middle, so it's average number of tweets, average number of taxi taking in a particular block. Even you can zoom out and then see all of 30 miles of Broadway-- all of New York in a single view. So the ideas were if you zoom in and zoom out, this kind of statistics represented as these dots, update to represent what part of the city you see. And our step is 30 meters, because it turned out when we downloaded Google Street View photos, in this iteration of Google Street View photos, we would capture photo every 30 minutes. So the idea is to create a presentation which combines data, but really just photography and maybe something like this, these strategies in general, in a way, to me, becoming more interesting with data analysis. Thank you so much for your time. [applause] So take home message, whatever you do, stop doing classification neural networks. Start thinking. [audience laughing] OK, so with the last 10 minutes, we're not going to foolishly try to squeeze in a conversation amongst ourselves and open it up to questions. We are just going to do the latter. So why don't we pass it on to you? Are there any questions from the audience regarding any of the presentations today? [audio out] Hi everyone. Thank you for a wonderful lecture. Please stop looking at me. [laughter] Just to tie something that Professor Blau said in the beginning, and something that Lev said at the end. It would be-- first you said this is not a tool, not an app, not software. My question would be why it's not that. So if it's a political decision or a scope-- simply a matter of [inaudible] scope. And with this distinction between saying don't do analysis, do-- what's the word you used? New representations to create analysis. I feel like there's two possible futures, one in which science beats art into submission. Let's call that dystopia. And one in which art puts science in its place. Let's call that Utopia. And I feel like creating that dichotomy of representation and analysis conceits part of the argument. Can you ever do analysis that is not creating a new form of representation? Sort of like the idea of the neutral analysis is in itself one of the foundational tools of science beating art into submission. So I think what I meant-- I mean, you're right, but what I meant by representation is something bigger when it's a statistical summary or linear regression, right? We made a presentation and that indicates that this talk was like photography, or like perspective type of drawing. You know, three-dimensional models. So something much larger. So can you or the people next to you invent something as fundamentally new on that level? And that's, I think, different from analysis where you produce new presentations. But in fact, the kind of presentations you produce with statistical or machine learning analysis with a limited genre of them. Clusters, network, categories, statistics. So we can also say what would be the completely new forms of-- what would be completely new type of outputs from a data analysis? That can be also an interesting question, because most of outputs we do is basically 19th century. It's descriptive statistics or it's categories. [laughter] And maybe I could use that to pass a question on to our three guests here. I noticed across all of the presentations at the end, we got to data visualization, regardless of where we started. And to continue on this line of thinking of a completely new mode of representation, what's after data? What's after data visualization when dealing with the cities? We've reached this end game of abstraction where even the space that we show our representations of cities within is no longer tied at all to the space of the city itself. And this is not set in any sort of accusational tone. I contribute to this in terms of pure pixels probably more than anyone if we're counting them. But I am curious. Just based on all the presentations, I'm not sure I would have ended up anywhere different myself. And I was trying to think that when we engage in this topic, we end up in a space that's very far from the city talking about it through terms that are quite different from how the city operates. Is there a way that we come back in a new form? Or do we come back to the city? Is it always nostalgic or reactionary? Well, I'm not sure I have a direct answer, but to the way that you started off the question-- I don't know when it was. Like I don't know, five, 10 years ago, Eric Schmidt always used to talk about how many terrabytes of data there were in the world and how they got bigger and bigger and bigger and bigger. And when I was giving lectures at the time, I always used to say, well, so it's all just full of pictures of our children. Is that really data? Is that important data? And so often when I look at Lev's work, I do appreciate the fact that you're not trying to make an analysis. You're trying to just present this mounds and mounds of data in a way that we can look at it in a different way, just to see it. And then on the other hand, you say, well, OK. Did you learn? Did you learn anything from it? And could you learn anything from it that isn't just the usual hotspots? I mean Flickr, the Eric Schmidt one that you showed of-- Eric Fischer. Yeah, Eric Fischer. Yeah, I mean, so what? So he finds out that the most common photos are taken in the middle of midtown, New York. We already knew that. Well, I do quite disagree a little bit, because he did 140 cities, where for each city you see how distributions of photos of foreigners and locals overlap but different. And it's like actually you learn a lot about-- you know, like so-- but it's maybe me. I showed the students-- I know. Yeah. --140 times, right? Right, right. No, there's something-- No, but you're right. You're right. --about that where you actually you don't learn anything surprising. You learn what you already knew. Exactly, exactly. Whereas the Broadway thing, I'm sure if I looked and looked and looked, I would find things. But it demands an attention, and it demands a zoom, and then the abstraction doesn't tell you more. It takes you to a different-- it doesn't take you back to the city. It doesn't refer back to that particular place. It puts it into a different category. And that's, I think, the potential of the creation of new forms of data that we can look at in a new way. But I think was actually derived with your generation-- like for us, discovery of computational methods, neural networks, machine learning, it was a big thing. For you, it's like alphabet, right? But for this 20th century field, it was ethnography. It was all kind of methods. Your generation has to figure out how to integrate them. Invent your own. Invent your own methods of representation and analysis. How's that? Just one sort of meta comment. I mean, I think to go back to Bobby's provocation, because it is a provocation-- self-provocation, I guess. I think there's a kind of romance associated with data that builds on the romance of statistics, and that's connected to this kind of modernist excitement with scale. Scaling up bigger and bigger and bigger. And in the early history of all these phenomena, they express. That enthusiasm expresses itself in forms that emphasize, especially that scaled-out, maximum representation. And our culture is saturated with it. That's become a kind of norm, right? But what I think is exciting to me in some of the projects that were just presented and that are part of this discussion is in a sense what comes after is finding out ways of storytelling and designing experiences that leverage the other thing that data does, which is this aspect of zoomability, which is very different than any medium that we've ever experienced before. And I think the really exciting emerging storytelling genres leverage that power in ways that are new to the history of culture. That's where I'm excited about those places. And that zoomability can go into the analog world and into the physical world. So in the case of the "On Broadway" project, it's maybe designing those connections between physical places and this world of expanded realms of experience that becomes a interesting design question or space of experimentation. And the micro level is just as data-rich as the macro level in a sense. So what does that look like? That investigation? And how do we translate that into meaningful or persuasive forms? I think is an interesting question to me. So in the [inaudible] [? assuming, ?] when we reach digital hoarderism? When we have gotten to a point there's so much data that we are [audio out] Yeah, [? that's ?] [? your ?] question. [laughter] [inaudible] What's the question? What's the question? So when we look at hoarders who are in the physical realm, we acknowledge that once a space has so much objects that we cannot search, then we recognize this as hoarderism instead of archiving. But when we get into the digital realm and we're able to zoom in forever, and it's infinite, when do we recognize we have gotten to a point that it's digital hoarderism? Hoarding. Oh, hoarding. Hoarding. Hoarderism. Hoarderism, oh. Oh. [laughter] Definitely digital hoarders. One thing I want to say-- so [inaudible] interactive visualization, so it's seductively beautiful. But our language is not different from people down in 1850s. We haven't done anything yet. Have you seen an interactive 3D model of human brain which will show you every neuron? Of course not. Again, this is very, very primitive stuff, guys, still. You know? But getting better by getting better at-- Yeah, but you know, you have billions of neuroscientists who can't even map one human brain. Now imagine a city which has 10 million human brains. So this maps abstractions. Abstractions, right? I mean, it's all seductive, but it's like nothing yet, you know? I would like to have a map which will show me in real time every heart beat, every neuron of every person in the city, not just Google cars, you know? I mean, there is no-- we just-- there's a long way to go. And also, if I could just add-- the genres shape cartography. It required centuries of codification of genres, practices, conventions. We're in the-- early days is an understatement in terms of experimentation with alternative forms of representation and mapping. And so when it comes to microscopic world, for example, or aspects of the human body, or-- I think it's a little bit too much to immediately ask that the genres be fully codified and not fluid and emergent. Right, but I think to the credit of the project that's on display, it's actually-- I don't know if you consider that a kind of digital hoarderism, too, that you're trying to unpack the closet and turn it into something digital as well. But I think that the way in which it folded history into a new kind of narrative of the city, I think is really a fresh way of doing it. And the new way in which you've incorporated collage into that work is very different than the real-time notation, or whatever it is. Notation or preservation of the city. So I don't know. I think they're such different projects that have been discussed here. I just don't want to-- since that's the subject of the exhibition, I don't want to lose track of that. Well, also actually, I would, just sort of in response to that question about why is it what it is. It's about the city, and it's about producing knowledge about the city, and about how various forms of media tell us things about the city, and how we can construct stories about it. So it's not about data, actually. It's not about data and what different kinds of data that we can collect. We do collect masses of data, but it's actually about what do you do with that? What kind of questions are you asking of the data? What are the things that are important in this particular project? And the fact that it is a project. That it's a project that's asking certain questions. And I think that in research altogether, it's not really about the materials themselves-- the quantity of them or whatever. It's about the questions that you're asking them, and what you're trying to find out. And I think that those questions-- so you work through the material and your questions change as you learn more. But that's basically what this is about. It's about the city and it's about research. How do we do research? So we're a bit after 8:00 at this point. Shall we end on Eve's focus on questions, or is that a tease to people who had a question? [laughter] People can talk to us, right? in the reception and-- Yeah. Yes. Supported by the liquids and may even-- [laughter] You will get more out of us, actually, so it's better. Thank you guys. [applause]

Current listings by municipality

Streamline Moderne Hotel Normandie, in San Juan
Streamline Moderne Hotel Normandie, in San Juan
Historic Caparra, in Guaynabo
Historic Caparra, in Guaynabo
Municipality Regional list # of Listings
1 Adjuntas Central 3
2 Aguada Western 1
3 Aguadilla Western 9
4 Aguas Buenas Central 1
5 Aibonito Central 2
6 Añasco Western 2
7 Arecibo Northern 13
8 Arroyo Eastern 1
9 Barceloneta Northern 1
10 Barranquitas Central 3
11 Bayamón Northern 7
12 Cabo Rojo Western 3
13 Caguas Central 6
14 Camuy Northern 3
15 Canóvanas Eastern 1
16 Carolina Eastern 3
17 Cataño Northern 2
18 Cayey Central 5
19 Ceiba Eastern 1
20 Ciales Central 1
21 Cidra Central 3
22 Coamo Central 7
23 Comerío Central 2
24 Corozal Central 1
25 Culebra Eastern 1
26 Dorado Northern 6
27 Fajardo Eastern 3
28 Florida Northern 1
29 Guánica Western 4
30 Guayama Southern 5
31 Guayanilla Southern 1
32 Guaynabo Northern 3
33 Gurabo Central 1
34 Hatillo Northern 1
35 Hormigueros Western 4
36 Humacao Eastern 7
37 Isabela Northern 1
38 Jayuya Central 1
39 Juana Díaz Southern 2
40 Juncos Central 1
41 Lajas Western 2
42 Lares Central 2
43 Las Marías Central 1
44 Las Piedras Eastern 1
45 Loíza Eastern 2
46 Luquillo Eastern 1
47 Manatí Northern 5
48 Maricao Central 3
49 Maunabo Eastern 1
50 Mayagüez Western 19
51 Moca Western 1
52 Morovis Central 1
53 Naguabo Eastern 4
54 Naranjito Central 2
55 Orocovis Central 1
56 Patillas Eastern 1
57 Peñuelas Southern 1
58 Ponce Southern 39
59 Quebradillas Northern 2
60 Rincón Western 2
61 Río Grande Eastern 2
62 Sabana Grande Western 6
63 Salinas Southern 1
64 San Germán Western 8
65 San Juan San Juan 63
66 San Lorenzo Central 2
67 San Sebastián Northern 1
68 Santa Isabel Southern 2
69 Toa Alta Northern 1
70 Toa Baja Northern 4
71 Trujillo Alto Central 1
72 Utuado Central 4
73 Vega Alta Northern 1
74 Vega Baja Northern 4
75 Vieques Eastern 31
76 Villalba Central 1
77 Yabucoa Eastern 1
78 Yauco Southern 8
(duplicates) (6)[a]
Total 349


  1. ^ Several historic resources in Puerto Rico span the boundaries between multiple municipalities and are included in each municipality's list:

See also


External links

This page was last edited on 17 March 2019, at 03:24
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