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National Hispanic Heritage Month

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Hispanic Heritage Month is the period from September 15 to October 15 in the United States, when people recognize the contributions of Hispanic and Latino Americans to the group's heritage and culture.

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  • ✪ Hispanic Heritage Month- Hispanics Past and Present
  • ✪ National Hispanic Heritage Month, Sept. 15 to Oct. 15
  • ✪ Hispanic Heritage Month
  • ✪ Hispanic Heritage Month 2018
  • ✪ Hispanic Heritage Month

Transcription

Contents

History

Hispanic Heritage Month celebrates the long and important presence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in North America. A map of late 18th-century North America shows this presence, from the small outpost of San Francisco founded in Alta California in 1776, through the Spanish province of Texas with its gauchos (cowboys), to the fortress of St. Augustine, Florida — the first permanent colonial settlement in North America, founded in 1565, ninety-four years before English colonists first landed in Jamestown, Virginia.

The large Latino presence in America today can be explained by the results of the Mexican–American War. After conflict erupted in Texas between American and Mexican troops, war was declared and fought between 1846 and 1848. American troops eventually stormed into the capital Mexico City forcing Mexico to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the war.[1] The treaty's terms were "Mexico ceded to the United States an immense territory of nearly one million square miles, including land in what is now California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The United States, in turn, agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and assume $3.25 million in debt claims against Mexico."[2] Americans also promised Mexicans remaining in that land would be granted American citizenship and allowed to keep their property. However, through the change in American property law, many Mexicans lost their land to Americans with greater familiarity with the law. Today a large amount of the American population is Latino with a majority of that being Mexican. In 1904 President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed The Roosevelt Corollary which gave The U.S. the right to intervene in "Americas Backyard", which is the Caribbean and South America, regardless of conflicts between Europe and Americas. With this Corollary, The U.S. has stepped into many Latin American Countries "the US intervened in the Dominican Republic (1905, 1907, 1916-1924), in Nicaragua (1907, 1909, 1912-1925), in Honduras (1909, 1911-1925), in Mexico (1914, 1915, 1916, 1917) and in Cuba (1906-1909, 1912, 1917-1919)."[3] America's rise as an imperial nation can also be the cause of many Latin Americans from the Caribbean and South America migrating to the U.S.

It began as Hispanic Heritage Week, established by legislation sponsored by Rep. Edward R. Roybal (D-Los Angeles) and signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson in 1968.[4][5] The commemorative week was expanded by legislation sponsored by Rep. Esteban Edward Torres (D-Pico Rivera) and implemented by President Ronald Reagan in 1988 to cover a 30-day period (September 15 – October 15).[4] The bill died in committee, but in 1988 Senator Paul Simon of Illinois re-submitted an amended version of the bill, S. 2200. It was enacted into law on August 17, 1988, on the approval of Public Law 100-402. September 15 of every year was chosen as the starting point for the celebration because it is the anniversary of independence of five Latin American countries: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, who all declared independence in 1821. In addition, Mexico, Chile and Belize celebrate their independence days on September 16, September 18, and September 21, respectively.[6]

Since the first National Heritage Week, many presidents have given a Presidential proclamation (United States) to begin the celebration of Hispanic Heritage every year. Presidential proclamation 3869, given by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1968, was the first to recognize the start of Hispanic Heritage Week.[7] After him, Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter and Reagan did the same between 1969 and 1988. It wasn't until Presidential Proclamation 6021, Given by President George H. W. Bush on September 14th, 1989, that Hispanic Heritage would be celebrated for a month.[8] Now a Month instead of a week the annual National Hispanic celebration captures Mexico's, Chile's, and Belize's independence days and now ends October 15th. Since 1989 Presidents Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald J. Trump have given Presidential Proclamations to mark the beginning of Hispanic Heritage Month. Presidential proclamation 9783 is the most recent to honor the Hispanic citizens, given by President Donald J. Trump on September 13, 2018. President Trump's proclamation honored Latino members of the Armed forces: "During National Hispanic Heritage Month, we honor all American citizens of Hispanic descent and celebrate their rich and vibrant traditions of faith, family, hard work, and patriotism. We are grateful for the innumerable contributions they make to our society, which are vital to our thriving Nation. We are especially grateful for the 1.2 million Hispanic-American men and women who have answered the call to serve in our Armed Forces, demonstrating remarkable loyalty, bravery, and dedication to duty."- Donald J. Trump[9]

Military

During Hispanic Heritage Month, the U.S. Army commemorates the long-standing and remarkable contributions that Hispanics have made in building and defending the nation.[10] As of September 2018, 136,000 Hispanic soldiers serve in the United States Army, composing 13.8 percent of the Army. According to the official Army website, the goal during Hispanic Heritage Month is to celebrate the diverse and inclusive environment of the United States Army. Through coordinated efforts throughout the Army, this observance will be used to inform Army audiences and celebrate the contributions of Hispanic Soldiers, civilians, and their families.[11]

Oct. 14, 2016 - The representation of Hispanic-Americans on active duty has increased by 10 percent during the past 30 years. In 1985, it was three percent, and in 2016 it is 13.7 percent.[12]

Oct. 15, 2016 - Commemorations such as Hispanic Heritage Month are a great opportunity to pause and reflect on our shared history as Americans and to celebrate the rich mosaic of people and cultures who, together, built and strengthened our Army and our nation. This year, the 1st Mission Support Command celebrated “Embracing, Enriching and Enabling America” during a Hispanic Heritage event held at Ramos Hall on Fort Buchanan, October 15.[13]

The United States Navy celebrates Hispanic Heritage Month by honoring sailors of Hispanic heritage. In 2018, the theme for Hispanic Heritage Month was “Hispanics: One Endless Voice to Enhance our Traditions.” Furthermore, the Navy recognized the countless Hispanic Americans' who contributed to the legacies of freedom and diversity. As of June 2018, approximately 59,000 active and Reserve Sailors of Hispanic heritage serve in the U.S. Navy contributing to the strength of the nation’s force. Hispanic Americans’ military service dates back to the Civil War.[14]

National Hispanic Heritage Month is a time for the United States Military to honor both fallen and active duty Hispanic Americans' who served in the armed forces. Sixty one people of Hispanic heritage have been awarded the Medal of Honor, two were presented to members of the Navy, 13 to members of the U.S. Marine Corps and 46 to members of the U.S. Army.[15]

Annual events

The annual Northwest Arkansas Hispanic Heritage Festival is held in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It was established in 2013 by the Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce.

The El Barrio Latin Jazz festival in The Bronx, New York City is held annually in September to coincide with Hispanic Heritage Month.[16]

The Smithsonian Institution hosts Hispanic Heritage Month events in Washington, D.C. One event is the Zoo Fiesta.

The Hispanic Family Festival is held annually at Springdale Park in Springdale, Holyoke, Massachusetts.[17]

The Smithsonian Natural Museum of the American Indian hosted the “Realm of the Jaguar” in Washington D.C. September 22, 2018. A Family Event<re where you can "Enjoy a series of dance performances honoring the magnificent cat whose imagery is often found in Native artistic traditions from Mexico to the Amazon. Appreciate the jaguar dances of Bolivia, Mexico, and Guatemala. You can also explore the mask making as well as traditional and contemporary ceramics."[18]

The 5th annual official Latino Short Film Festivial will occur in Coachella, California. The dates are October 11-15th, 2019[19]

The Carnaval's will host their 12th "Carnaval De La Cultura Latina" during the first week of the Hispanic Heritage month and located on Junction Boulevard in Corana, Queens.[20]

The 54th annual hispanic day parade in New York was located from 44th to 55st and on fifth avenue. It occur on October 14, 2018. [21]

References

  1. ^ "Establishing Borders". Smithsonian Education. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  2. ^ "Establishing Borders". Smithsonian Education. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  3. ^ "U.S. Intervention in the Caribbean". International Encyclopedia Of the First World War. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  4. ^ a b "The Creation and Evolution of the National Hispanic Heritage Celebration | House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
  5. ^ Encyclopedia of Bilingual Education. SAGE Publications. 2008-06-05. ISBN 9781452265964.
  6. ^ "National Hispanic Heritage Month 2016 - Home". Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  7. ^ "National Hispanic Heritage Month". Library Of Congress. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  8. ^ "National Hispanic Heritage Month". Library Of Congress. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  9. ^ "Presidential Proclamation on National Hispanic Heritage Month, 2018". White House.Gov. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
  10. ^ "National Hispanic Heritage Month". www.army.mil. Deputy Chief of Staff, Army G-1. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  11. ^ "National Hispanic Heritage Month". www.army.mil. Deputy Chief of Staff, Army G-1. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  12. ^ "Hispanic Heritage Month". www.usar.army.mil. U.S. Army Reserve. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  13. ^ "Hispanic Heritage Month". www.usar.army.mil. U.S. Army Reserve. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  14. ^ Poyraz-Dogan, Yonca. "U.S. Navy Observes Hispanic Heritage Month". www.navy.mil. Navy Office of Information Public Affairs. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  15. ^ Poyraz-Dogan, Yonca. "U.S. Navy Observes Hispanic Heritage Month". www.navy.mil. Navy Office of Information Public Affairs. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  16. ^ El Barrio Latin Jazz Festival
  17. ^ Hispanic Family Festival Website
  18. ^ "Heritage and History Month Events". Hispanicheritagemonth.gov.
  19. ^ http://officiallatino.com/
  20. ^ http://www.carnavalculturalatina.com/
  21. ^ https://www.cuandopasa.com/

Bibliography

  • Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05198-0.
  • Fernández-Shaw, Carlos M. (1987). La Presencia Española en Los Estados Unidos. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana. ISBN 0-8160-2314-X.
  • McDermott, John Francis (1974). The Spanish in the Mississippi Valley 1762-1804. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-00269-5.
  • Diaz Soto, Lourdes (2011). Latina/o Hope. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media B.V. ISBN 978-94-007-0503-6.
  • Cortes, Carlos (2013). Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. United States, California: SAGE Publications, Inc. ISBN 9781452216836.
  • Arredondo, Patricia (2018). Latinx Immigrants: Transcending Acculturation and Xenophobia. Springer International Publishing, Cham. ISBN 978-3-319-95737-1.

External links

This page was last edited on 9 September 2019, at 14:52
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