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State Anthem of the Soviet Union

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Государственный гимн СССР[a]
English: State Anthem of the USSR
USSR Anthem Music Sheet.InstrumentalSimple.svg
Musical sheet of the anthem

National anthem of the  Soviet Union
Regional anthem of the  Russian SFSR
LyricsGabriel El-Registan and Sergey Mikhalkov (1943 and 1977)
MusicAlexander Alexandrov, c. 1938
Adopted15 March 1944
1955 (as instrumental)
1 September 1977 (with modified lyrics)
Relinquished26 December 1991
(as national anthem of the Soviet Union)
23 November 1990
(as regional anthem of the Russian SFSR)
Preceded by"The Internationale"
Succeeded by"The Patriotic Song" (by Russia)
Audio sample
"State Anthem of the Soviet Union" (instrumental)

The "State Anthem of the Soviet Union" (Russian: Государственный гимн Советского Союза, IPA: [ɡəsʊˈdarsʲtʲvʲɪnːɨj ˈɡʲimn sɐˈvʲɛtskəvə sɐˈjuzə]) was the national anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the regional anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991 and 1990 respectively, replacing "The Internationale". Its lyrics were written by Sergey Mikhalkov (1913–2009) in collaboration with Gabriel El-Registan (1899–1945), and its music composed by Alexander Alexandrov (1883–1946). Although Russia adopted a new anthem in 1990 and the Soviet Union was dissolved in December 1991, its melody is used with different lyrics since 2000 in the second version of the Russian anthem.

History

Origins

The anthem's music was originally composed by Alexander Alexandrov around 1938 for the Hymn of the Bolshevik Party. The opening bars of this song were sampled from one of Alexandrov's previous pieces, "Life Has Become Better",[1][2] which was based on a quote by former Soviet Union General Secretary Joseph Stalin at the First All-Union Meeting of the Stakhanovites on November 17, 1935.[3] The song alludes to Stalin's cult of personality.

Other than "Life Has Become Better", the music of the anthem has several possible outside influences. Alexandrov himself has described it as the combination of a march with Russian traditional music, particularly that of bylina epic songs. The anthem shares several chord progressions with Vasily Kalinnikov's overture Bylina, Epic Poem (which, as its name indicates, is also inspired by the bylina tradition).[4] There also exist similarities between Alexandrov's anthem and Robert Schuman's Frühlingsfahrt.[5]

When the Communist International (Comintern) was dissolved in 1943 in order for the Soviet Union to maintain its alliance with the other Allies of World War II, a new composition was needed to replace "The Internationale" as the national anthem. A contest was held in mid to late 1943 for a new anthem, and more than 200 entries were submitted.[6] Alexandrov's music was personally chosen by Stalin, who both praised and criticized it.[7] The anthem's lyrics then had to be written. Stalin thought the song should be short, and that it should invoke the Red Army's impending victory over the forces of Germany on the Eastern Front. The poets Sergey Mikhalkov and Gabriel El-Registan were chosen by Stalin's staffers, called to Moscow, and given the task of writing lyrics which referenced not only the Great Patriotic War, but also "a Country of Soviets". The first draft was completed overnight.

The anthem was first published on 7 November 1943. It was played for the first time on Soviet radio at midnight on 1 January 1944, and officially adopted on 15 March the same year.[8] The new lyrics had three refrains following three different stanzas. In each refrain, the second line was modified to refer to friendship, then happiness, then glory. Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union's war against Germany were originally invoked in the second and third verses, respectively. Reportedly, Stalin was opposed to including his name in the lyrics but relented after some Politburo members insisted.[9]

Post-Stalin era

With the process of de-Stalinization after Stalin's death, the lyrics referring to him were considered unacceptable, and from 1956 to 1977 the anthem was performed without lyrics.[10] A notable exception took place at the 1976 Canada Cup ice hockey tournament, where singer Roger Doucet insisted on performing the anthem with lyrics after consultations with Russian studies scholars from Université de Montréal and Soviet team officials.[11][12] In 1977, to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the October Revolution, revised lyrics, written in 1970 by original author Sergey Mikhalkov,[13] were adopted. The varying refrains were replaced by a uniform refrain after all stanzas, and the line praising Stalin was dropped, as were the lines referring to the Great Patriotic War. Another notable change was the replacement of a line referring to the Soviet national flag with one citing the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the form of "Partiya Lenina" (The party of Lenin). These lyrics were also present in the original party anthem at the same place in the melody, but followed by the lyrics "Partiya Stalina" (The party of Stalin).

Post-1991 use

Use in the Russian Federation

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian Federation adopted a new wordless anthem, the "Patriotic Song", although there were suggestions for adopting lyrics. As a result, a few different versions were produced.[14] In late 2000, the current national anthem of Russia was introduced, which uses the music of the Soviet national anthem with new lyrics by Sergey Mikhalkov.

State Union of Russia and Belarus

The same music was used for a proposed anthem for the State Union of Russia and Belarus, entitled Derzhavny Soyuz Narodov ("Sovereign Union of Nations"). Its lyrics were not tied to any specific nationality, and there were official versions in the languages of every Soviet republic and several other Soviet languages; thus it could have been adopted by a broader union. However, it was never officially adopted, and there appear to be no plans to utilize it in any official role.

Decommunization

In some post-Soviet states which adopted decommunization laws banning Communist symbolism, performing the Soviet anthem is illegal. For example, since 2015, offenders in Ukraine face up to five years in prison.[15] Similar laws were adopted in Latvia[16] and Lithuania.[17]

Other

The anthem has also been used sometimes for humour and memes related to communism and socialism on the Internet.

Official translations

The anthem has been officially translated into several languages:

Language For Date Author
Latvian  Latvian SSR 1944 Ārija Elksne [lv] and Andris Vējāns[18]
Estonian  Estonian SSR 1944 Vladimir Beekman
Lithuanian  Lithuanian SSR 1944 Antanas Venclova[19]
Tatar Tatar ASSR unknown Akhmet Abdullovich Iskhakov and Nuri Gazizovich Arslanov[20]
Bashkir Bashkir ASSR unknown A. Igebaev, G. Ramazanov, and S. Әlibaev[21]
Yakut Yakut ASSR 1944 Nikolai Egorovich Mordinov and Sergey Stepanovich Vasilyev[22]

Lyrics

This table shows the anthem's various lyrics. As there were two official lyric versions (in 1944 and 1977), both are included within their sections.

Original lyrics

1944 version
Russian (Cyrillic) Transliteration (BGN/PCGN) Transliteration (GOST) Literal translation

Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь!
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Soyuz nerushimy respublik svobodnykh
Splotila naveki velikaya Rus'!
Da zdravstvuyet sozdanny voley narodov
Yediny, moguchy Sovetsky Soyuz!

Sojuz něrušimyj respublik svobodnych
Splotila navěki Velikaja Rus!
Da zdravstvujet sozdannyj volej narodov
Jedinyj, mogučij Sovětskij Sojuz!

An unbreakable union of free republics,
The Great Russia has welded forever to stand.
Long live the creation of the will of the people,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Znamya Sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Družby narodov nadëžny oplot!
Znamja Sovetskoe, znamja narodnoe
Pust ot pobedy k pobede vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' friendship!
Banner of the Soviets, banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,
И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:
Нас вырастил Сталин — на верность народу,
На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

Skvoz' grozy siyalo nam solntse svobody,
I Lenin veliky nam put' ozaril:
Nas vyrastil Stalin – na vernost' narodu,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdokhnovil!

Skvoz grozy sijalo nam solnce svobody,
I Lenin velikj nam put ozaril:
Nas vyrastil Stalin – na vernost narodu,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdohnovil!

Through tempests the sun of freedom shone to us,
And the great Lenin illuminated our path,
We were raised by Stalin to be true to the people,
To labour and heroic deeds he inspired us!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Счастья народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Schast'ya narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Znamya Sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Sčastja narodov nadëžny oplot!
Znamja Sovetskoe, znamja narodnoe
Pust ot pobedy k pobede vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' happiness!
Banner of the Soviets, banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

Мы армию нашу растили в сраженьях.
Захватчиков подлых с дороги сметём!
Мы в битвах решаем судьбу поколений,
Мы к славе Отчизну свою поведём!

My armiyu nashu rastili v srazhen'yakh,
Zakhvatchikov podlykh s dorogi smetyom!
My v bitvakh reshayem sud'bu pokoleny,
My k slave Otchiznu svoyu povedyom!

My armiju našu rastili v sraženjah,
Začvatčikov podlyh s dorogi smetëm!
My v bitvah reshaem sudbu pokoleny,
My k slave Otčiznu svoju povedëom!

We grew our army in battles,
We will sweep the vile invaders out of the way!
We shall in battle decide the fate of generations,
We shall lead to glory our Fatherland!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Славы народов надёжный оплот!
Знамя Советское, знамя народное
Пусть от победы к победе ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Slavy narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Znamya Sovetskoye, znamya narodnoye
Pust' ot pobedy k pobede vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Slavy narodov nadëžny oplot!
Znamja Sovetskoe, znamja narodnoe
Pust ot pobedy k pobede vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' glory!
Banner of the Soviets, banner of the people,
May it lead from victory to victory!

New lyrics

1977 version
Russian Transliteration (BGN/PCGN) Transliteration (GOST) Literal translation

Союз нерушимый республик свободных
Сплотила навеки Великая Русь.
Да здравствует созданный волей народов
Единый, могучий Советский Союз!

Soyuz nerushimy respublik svobodnykh
Splotila naveki velikaya Rus'.
Da zdravstvuyet sozdanny voley narodov
Yediny, moguchiy Sovetsky Soyuz!

Sojuz něrušimyj respublik svobodnych
Splotila navěki Velikaja Rus!
Da zdravstvujet sozdannyj volej narodov
Jedinyj, mogučij Sovětskij Sojuz!

An unbreakable union of free republics,
The Great Russia has welded forever to stand.
Long live the creation of the will of the people,
The united, mighty Soviet Union!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Партия Ленина — сила народная
Нас к торжеству Коммунизма ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Partiya Lenina – sila narodnaya
Nas k torzhestvu Kommunizma vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Družby narodov nadëžny oplot!
Partija Lenina – sila narodnaja
Nas k toržestju Kommunizma vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' friendship!
Party of Lenin, strength of the people,
Leads us to the triumph of Communism!

Сквозь грозы сияло нам солнце свободы,
И Ленин великий нам путь озарил:
На правое дело он поднял народы,
На труд и на подвиги нас вдохновил!

Skvoz' grozy siyalo nam solntse svobody,
I Lenin velikiy nam put' ozaril,
Na pravoye delo on podnyal narody,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdokhnovil!

Skvoz grozy sijalo nam solnce svobody,
I Lenin velikj nam put ozaril:
Na pravoe delo on podnjal narody,
Na trud i na podvigi nas vdohnovil!

Through tempests the sun of freedom shone to us,
And the great Lenin illuminated our path,
To a just cause he raised up the people
To labour and heroic deeds he inspired us!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Партия Ленина — сила народная
Нас к торжеству Коммунизма ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Partiya Lenina – sila narodnaya
Nas k torzhestvu Kommunizma vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Družby narodov nadëžny oplot!
Partija Lenina – sila narodnaja
Nas k toržestju Kommunizma vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' friendship!
Party of Lenin, strength of the people,
Leads us to the triumph of Communism!

В победе бессмертных идей коммунизма
Мы видим грядущее нашей страны,
И Красному знамени славной Отчизны
Мы будем всегда беззаветно верны!

V pobede bessmertnykh idey kommunizma
My vidim gryadushcheye nashey strany,
I Krasnomu znameni slavnoy Otchizny
My budem vsegda bezzavetno verny!

V pobede bessmertnyh idey kommunizma
My vidim grjaduščee našey strany,
I Krasnomu znameni slavnoy Otčizny
My budem vsegda bezzavetno verny!

In the victory of the immortal ideas of Communism
We see the future of our country,
And to the Red Banner of our glorious Fatherland
We shall always be selflessly true!

Славься, Отечество наше свободное,
Дружбы народов надёжный оплот!
Партия Ленина — сила народная
Нас к торжеству Коммунизма ведёт!
Slav'sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye,
Druzhby narodov nadyozhny oplot!
Partiya Lenina – sila narodnaya
Nas k torzhestvu Kommunizma vedyot!
Slavsja, Otečestvo naše svobodnoe,
Družby narodov nadëžny oplot!
Partija Lenina – sila narodnaja
Nas k toržestju Kommunizma vedët!
Be glorious, our free Fatherland,
A reliable stronghold of the peoples' friendship!
Party of Lenin, strength of the people,
Leads us to the triumph of Communism!

Other translations

1944 version
Official CPSU translation[23] Paul Robeson's adaptation English Translation by Olga Paul[24]
Unbreakable Union of freeborn Republics
Great Russia has welded forever to stand!
Created in struggle by will of the Peoples,
United and Mighty our Soviet Land!
United forever in friendship and labor,
Our mighty Republics will ever endure.
The great Soviet Union will live through the ages.
The dream of a people their fortress secure!
The Soviet republics, in freedom united,
Have mustered their power, their glory, their pride,
And thus they created the great Soviet Union,
The will of the nations that spread far and wide!
Sing to our Motherland, Free and Undying,
Bulwark of Peoples in Brotherhood Strong!
Flag of the Soviets, Flag of the people,
From Victory to Victory lead us on!
Long live our Soviet motherland, built by the people's mighty hand.
Long live our people, united and free.
Strong in our friendship tried by fire. Long may our crimson flag inspire,
Shining in glory for all men to see!
Great shall your glory be,
Motherland proud and free,
Bulwark of friendship for nation and man!
Flag of the Soviet, lead us to victory,
Flag of the people since freedom began!
Through tempests the shadows of freedom have cheered us,
Along the new path where great Lenin did lead,
Be true to the people, thus Stalin has reared us,
Inspired us to labour and Valorus Deed!
Through days dark and stormy where great Lenin led us
Our eyes saw the bright Sun of freedom above
and Stalin our leader with faith in the people,
Inspired us to build up the land that we love!
The sunlight of freedom has shone through the tempest,
And Lenin has lighted our path with his flame,
While Stalin has shown us that faith in the people
Inspires us to action, to deeds and to fame.
Our army grew up in the heat of grim battle,
Barbarian invaders we'll swiftly strike down.
In combat the fate of the future we'll settle,
Our country we'll lead to eternal renown!
We fought for the future, destroyed the invader,
and brought to our homeland the laurels of fame.
Our glory will live in the memory of nations
and all generations will honour her name!
Our army in action has grown in its power,
And soon it will wipe out the enemy horde;
The fate of the future is sealed by our bravery,
And honour and glory shall be our reward!

International Phonetic Alphabet transcriptions

International Phonetic Alphabet transcriptions for Russian
1944 1977

sɐˈjʉs nʲɪrʊˈʂɨmᵻj rʲɪsˈpublʲɪk svɐˈbodnᵻx
splɐˈtʲilə nɐˈvʲekʲɪ vʲɪˈlʲikəjə ˈrusʲ.
ˈda ˈzdrastvʊjɪt ˈsozdənːᵻj ˈvolʲɪj nɐˈrodəf
jɪˈdʲinᵻj, mɐˈgut͡ɕɪj sɐˈvʲet͡skʲɪj sɐˈjʉs!

sɐˈjus nʲɪ.ruˈʂɨ.mɨj rʲɪsˈpub.lʲɪk svɐˈbod.nɨx
splɐˈtʲi.lə nɐˈvʲe.kʲɪ vʲɪˈlʲi.kə.jɪ ˈrusʲ
də‿ˈzdra.stvu.jɪt ˈsoz.də.nɨj ˈvo.lʲɪj nɐˈro.dəf
jɪˈdʲi.nɨj mɐˈɡu.t͡ɕɪj sɐˈvʲɛt͡s.kʲɪj sɐˈjus

prʲɪˈpʲef

ˈslafʲsʲə, ɐˈtʲet͡ɕɪstvə ˈnaʂᵻ svɐˈbodnəjə,
ˈdruʐbᵻ nɐˈrodəf nɐˈdʲɵʐnᵻj ɐpˈlot!
ˈznamʲə sɐˈvʲet͡skəjə, ˈznamʲə nɐˈrodnəjə
ˈpusʲtʲ ɐt‿pɐˈbʲedᵻ k‿pɐˈbʲedʲɪ vʲɪˈdʲɵt!<

ˈslafʲ.sʲə ɐˈtʲe.t͡ɕɪs.tvə ˈna.ʂɨ svɐˈbod.nə.jɪ
ˈdruʐ.bɨ nɐˈro.dəf nɐˈdʲoʐ.nɨj ɐˈplot
ˈpar.tʲɪ.jə ˈlʲe.nʲɪ.nə sʲi.lə nɐˈrod.nə.jə
nɐs k‿tər.ʐɨstˈvu kə.muˈnʲiz.mə vʲɪˈdʲot

ˈskvosʲ ˈgrozᵻ sʲɪjæˈlə ˈnam ˈsont͡sᵻ svɐˈbodᵻ,
ˈi ˈlʲenʲɪn vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj ˈnam ˈputʲ ɐzɐˈrʲil:
ˈnas ˈvɨrəsʲtʲɪl ˈstalʲɪn —— nə ˈvʲernəsʲtʲ ˈnɐrodʊ,
nə ˈtrut ˈi nə ˈpodvʲɪɡʲɪ ˈnas vdəxnɐˈvʲil!

skvəzʲ‿ˈɡro.zɨ sʲɪˈja.lɐ nam ˈson.t͡sɪ svɐˈbo.dɨ
i‿ˈlʲe.nʲɪn vʲɪˈlʲi.kʲɪj nɐm‿ˈputʲ ə.zɐˈrʲil
nɐ‿ˈpra.və.jɪ ˈdʲɛ.lə on ˈpod.nʲɪl naˈro.dɨ
nɐ‿ˈtrud i‿nɐ‿ˈpod.vʲɪ.ɡʲɪ ˈnas vdəx.nɐ.vʲɪl

ˈmɨ ˈarmʲɪjʉ ˈnaʂʊ rɐsʲˈtʲilʲɪ f‿srɐˈʐɛnʲjəx.
zɐxˈvat͡ɕːɪkəf ˈpodlᵻx z‿ˈdɐˈroɡʲɪ smʲɪˈtʲɵm!
ˈmɨ v‿ˈbʲitvəx rʲɪˈʂajɪm sʊdʲˈbu pəkɐˈlʲenʲɪj,
ˈmɨ k‿ˈslavʲɪ ɐˈt͡ɕːiznʊ svɐˈju pəvʲɪˈdʲɵm!

f‿pɐˈbʲe.dʲɪ bʲɪˈsmʲɛrt.nɨx ɪˈdʲej kə.muˈnʲiz.mə
mɨ‿ˈvʲi.dʲɪm ɡrʲɪˈdu.ɕːiə ˈna.ʂɨj stra.nɨ
i ˈkras.nə.mu ˈzna.mʲɪ.nʲɪ ˈslav.nəj ɐˈt͡ɕiz.nɨ
mɨ ˈbu.dʲɪm fsʲɪɡˈda bɪ.zːɐˈvʲɛt.nə vʲɪrˈnɨ

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Державний гімн СРСР / Derzhavny himn SRSR (Ukrainian)
    Дзяржаўны гімн СССР / Dziaržaǔny himn SSSR (Belarusian)
    СССР мадҳияси (Uzbek)
    КСРО Мемлекеттік Әнұраны (Kazakh)
    СССР гимны (Bashkir)
    ССРБ дәүләт гимны (Tatar)
    ეროვნული ჰიმნი სსრკ / Erovnuli himni SSRK (Georgian)
    ССРИ Дөвләт һимни (Azerbaijani)
    SSRS valstybinis himnas (Lithuanian)
    Имнул де стат ал УРСС / Imnul de stat al URSS (Moldavian)
    PSRS valsts himna (Latvian)
    СССР Мамлекеттик Гимн (Kirghiz)
    ИҶШС Суруди Милли (Tajik)
    ԽՍՀՄ պետական օրհներգը / KHSHM petakan orhnergi (Armenian)
    Дабаралы өвги ССРС (Turkmen)
    NSVL riigihümn (Estonian)
    SNTL:n valtiohymni (Finnish)
    UdSSR-Hymne (German)
    Hymne de l'URSS (French)
    Szovjetunió Himnusz (Hungarian)

References

  1. ^ Russian: Жить Стало Лучше, tr. Zhit' Stalo Luchshe, IPA: [ʐɨtʲ ˈstalə ˈlut͡ʂʂɨ]
  2. ^ "A. V. Aleksandrov, "Zhit' Stalo Luchshe"". www.cyberussr.com. Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  3. ^ "Zhit' stalo luchshe, zhit' stalo veseleye - slova Stalina" Жить стало лучше, жить стало веселее - слова Сталина [Life has become better, life has become more cheerful - the words of Stalin]. bibliotekar.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-12-18.
  4. ^ А. Компаниец. Сталин и Александров: предыстория российского гимна. // Родина. № 3 за 2002 г.
  5. ^ Вахит Каркыраев. Дельфин и рейнская русалка. Заплыв #1. Русский журнал. 2000-12-07. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  6. ^ Shostakovich, Dmitriĭ Dmitrievich (2004). Testimony : the memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. Volkov, Solomon. (25th anniversary ed.). New York: Limelight Editions. pp. 261–262. ISBN 9780879109981. OCLC 53183394.
  7. ^ E., Fay, Laurel (2000). Shostakovich : a life. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780195182514. OCLC 40954268.
  8. ^ "Gimn Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (Stalinsky)" Гимн Союза Советских Социалистических Республик («Сталинский») [Anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Stalin's)]. Museum of Russian Anthems. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
  9. ^ "ru:В соавторстве со Сталиным". ng.ru. 2003-10-02. Archived from the original on 2003-10-02. Retrieved 2019-10-03.
  10. ^ Sputnik. "Russia Marks Soviet Poet Mikhalkov's 100th Anniversary".
  11. ^ Morse, Eric (9 September 2009). "The Cold War on ice". canada.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  12. ^ "How Roger Doucet Wrote the Soviet National Anthem".
  13. ^ Голованова, М. П.; В. С. Шергин (2003). Государственные символы России. Москва: Росмэн-Пресс. p. 150. ISBN 5-353-01286-0.
  14. ^ II. Связанные с гимном Глинки Archived August 1, 2012, at Archive.today
  15. ^ "За гимн СССР - 5 лет тюрьмы: декоммунизация в цифрах и фактах".
  16. ^ Sputnik. "Latvia Bans Soviet, Nazi Symbols". en.ria.ru.
  17. ^ "BBC NEWS - Europe - Lithuanian ban on Soviet symbols". 2008-06-17.
  18. ^ "Data for item "43210"". dom.lndb.lv. LNB Digitala Biblioteka. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  19. ^ Marcinkevičius, Juozas. "Tautiškos giesmės likimasprijungus Lietuvą prie Sovietų Sąjungos(1940-1950)" (PDF). Retrieved July 29, 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ "Совет Социалистик Республикалар Союзы гимны". erlar.ru. Retrieved August 17, 2018.
  21. ^ "Союз нерушимый - Башкирский язык". bashkort-tele.livejournal.com. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  22. ^ Krio (September 20, 2014). "О гимне СССР. Перевод сахалы. Блиц-сообщение" [About the USSR anthem. Yakut translation. Blitz message.]. forum.ykt.ru (in Russian).
  23. ^ "Lyrics: The Soviet National Anthem". www.marxists.org. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
  24. ^ "Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza" Гимн Советского Союза [Hymn of the Soviet Union] (PDF). Russian Anthems Museum. 2005-05-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2018-01-01.

External links

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